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Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2000

Publication Date
Feb 29, 2000

Prepared by Staff of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Acknowledgements

Contributors to this report include Gil Crouse, Susan Hauan, Julia Isaacs, and Matthew Lyon of the Office of Human Services Policy under the direction of Patricia Ruggles, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Services Policy, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Obtaining a Printed Copy of Report

Send the report title and your name and address by mail or fax to (and we will mail a copy):

Office of Human Services Policy
Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
Hubert H. Humphrey Bldg., Room 404E
200 Independence Ave., S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20201
Fax:  202-690-6562

The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Secretary of Health and Human Services to prepare an annual report to Congress on indicators welfare dependence. The Indicators of Welfare Dependence report is prepared within the Office of Human Services Policy and delivered to Congress each spring. As mandated under the Congressional act, the report addresses the rate of welfare dependency, the degree and duration of welfare recipiency and dependence, and predictors of welfare dependence. Further, analyses of means-tested assistance in the report include benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program; the Food Stamp Program, and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. The report also includes risk factors related to economic security, employment, and non-marital births, as well an appendix with data related to the above programs.

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Executive Summary

The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. This Annual Report on Welfare Indicators, March 2000 is the third of these annual reports. As directed by the Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, now Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); the Food Stamp Program; and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

Welfare dependence, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less dependent if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which families depend on welfare might also be considered in assessing their degree of dependency. Although recognizing the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring dependence, the bipartisan Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators proposed the following definition, as one measure to examine in concert with other key indicators of dependence and deprivation

A family is dependent on welfare if more than 50 percent of its total income in a one-year period comes from AFDC/TANF, food stamps and/or SSI, and this welfare income is not associated with work activities. Welfare dependence is the proportion of all families who are dependent on welfare.

The proposed definition is difficult to measure because of limitations with existing data collection efforts. Most importantly, the available data do not distinguish between cash benefits where work is required and non-work-related cash benefits. In addition, there are time lags in the availability of national survey data that provide sufficiently detailed information to measure dependence. The majority of data in this year's annual report, for example, are from 1995 and do not capture the changes that have taken place since enactment of the welfare reform act in August 1996. Nevertheless, this report provides a number of key indicators of welfare recipiency, dependence, and labor force attachment. Selected highlights from the many findings in the report include the following:

  • In 1995, the most recent year for which data are available from the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 5.1 percent of the total population was dependent in the sense of receiving more than half of total income from AFDC, food stamps, and/or SSI (see Indicator 1, Figure IND 1a). This rate is lower than the rates experienced in 1993 and 1994, but not as low as in 1987 and 1990. This dependency rate would be lower if adjusted to exclude welfare income associated with work required to obtain benefits.
  • The percentage of the population that received AFDC/TANF in 1998 was lower than in any year since 1970, according to administrative data. Food Stamp Program administrative data indicate that recipiency rates for food stamps also were at 20-year lows (see Indicators 9a and 9b). The dependency rate, as defined above, can not yet be measured for 1996-1998, because of the aforementioned lags in availability of national survey data. Still, the decline in recipiency rates strongly suggests that dependency is lower now than it was in 1995.
  • Long-term dependency is relatively rare. Only 4 percent of those who were recipients in 1982 received more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC and food stamps in nine or more years over a ten-year period. This represents less than 0.5 percent of the total population. Half of the 1982 recipients never received more than 50 percent of their annual income from AFDC and food stamps over the 1982-1991 time period (see Indicator 1, Figure IND 1b).
  • Recipients of AFDC, food stamps, and SSI are less apt to have a family member participating in the labor force than are individuals in the general population. In 1995, 46 percent of AFDC recipients, 54 percent of food stamp recipients, and 37 percent of SSI recipients were in families with at least one member in the labor force (see Indicator 4, Figure IND 1a). The comparable figure for the overall population was 83 percent. Full-time participation in the labor force has increased among AFDC families between 1993 and 1995, according to the SIPP data (see Indicator 4, Figure IND 1b). Other data sources indicate that this trend of increased labor force participation has continued through 1998.

Since the causes of welfare receipt and dependence are not clearly known, the report also includes a larger set of risk factors associated with welfare receipt. The risk factors are loosely organized into three categories: economic security measures, measures related to employment and barriers to employment, and measures of nonmarital childbearing. The economic security risk factors include measures of poverty and deprivation that are important not only as predictors of dependence, but also as a supplement to the dependence indicators, ensuring that dependence measures are not assessed in isolation. It is important to examine whether decreases in dependency are accompanied by improvements in family economic status (as, for example, if work activities increase) or by reductions in family material circumstances. The report includes data on the official poverty rate, one of the most common measures of deprivation:

  • As the dependency rate fell between 1993 and 1995, the poverty rate for all individuals fell also, from 15.1 percent in 1993 to 13.8 percent in 1995. The poverty rate has continued to fall since then, declining to a ten-year low of 12.7 percent in 1998 (see Economic Security Risk Factor 1, Figure ECON 1a).

Finally, the report has two appendices that provide additional program data on major welfare programs, as well as additional data on non-marital births.

Chapter I: Introduction

The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 (Pub. L. 103-432) directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to publish an annual report on welfare dependency. The purpose of this report is to address questions concerning the extent to which American families depend on income from welfare programs. HHS has been specifically directed to address the rate of welfare dependency, the degree and duration of welfare recipiency and dependence, and predictors of welfare dependence. The Act further specified that analyses of means-tested assistance should include benefits under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, now Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); the Food Stamp Program; and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

An Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators was established under the 1994 Act to assist the Secretary in defining welfare dependence, developing indicators of welfare dependence, and choosing appropriate data for inclusion in the first annual report. The Board consisted of a bipartisan group of experts appointed by the Senate, the House of Representatives and the President. Before its termination in October 1997, the Board developed a statistical definition of welfare dependence and oversaw the production of the first of these annual reports.

This March 2000 report, the third annual report, gives updated data on the measures of welfare recipiency, dependency, and predictors of welfare dependence developed for previous reports. It differs in two respects from earlier volumes. First, this report focuses on a smaller set of indicators and predictors of dependency, in keeping with Congressional intent. The reduction in length of the report also reflects the decision to move some of the more detailed data on poverty and deprivation to other Departmental publications.1 A second change is that the date of publication has been moved from October to March, in conformance with the report's authorizing legislation, which requires the report to be released within sixty days of the start of the legislative session. A March release also allows the Department to present more timely data, as many important administrative and national survey figures are released at the end of the year.


1Further data on poverty and income, as well as current and past annual reports on Indicators of Welfare Dependence, are available online at http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/index.htm. This same web page provides access to the annual Trends in the Well-Being of America's Children and Youth, another important data source for indicators of economic, health, and social well-being.

Organization of Report

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the specific summary measures of welfare dependence proposed by the Advisory Board. It also discusses summary measures of poverty, following the Board's recommendation that dependence measures not be assessed in isolation from measures of deprivation. Analysis of both measures is important because changes in dependence measures could result either from increases in work activity and other factors that would raise family incomes, or from sanctions or other changes in welfare programs that would reduce welfare program participation but might not improve the material circumstances of these families. The introduction concludes with a brief discussion of data sources used for the report.

Chapter II of the report, Indicators of Dependence, presents a broader group of indicators of welfare recipiency and dependence. These indicators include measures of the extent of recipiency for each of the three programs considered separately, as well as information on income from all three programs in combination. Interactions of AFDC/TANF, SSI and food stamp benefits with periods of employment and with benefits from other programs are also shown. The second chapter also includes data on movements on and off welfare programs.

Chapter III, Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt, focuses on predictors of welfare dependence — risk factors believed to be associated with welfare receipt in some way. These predictors are shown in three different groups:

  1. Economic security — including measures of poverty, receipt of child support, health insurance coverage, and food insecurity — is important in predicting dependence in the sense that families with fewer economic resources are more likely to rely on welfare programs for their support.
  2. Measures of the work status and barriers to employment of adult family members also are critical, because families must generally receive an adequate income from employment in order to avoid dependence without severe deprivation.
  3. Finally, data on non-marital births are important since history has shown that a high proportion of long-term welfare recipients became parents outside of marriage, frequently as teen parents.

Additional data are presented in two appendices. Appendix A provides basic program data on each of the main welfare programs and their recipients, while Appendix B includes additional data on non-marital childbearing. The main welfare programs included in Appendix A are:

  • The Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, the largest cash assistance program, provided monthly cash benefits to families with children, until its replacement by the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, which is run directly by the states. Data on the AFDC and TANF programs are provided in Appendix A, with AFDC data provided from 1977 through June 1997, and TANF data from July 1997 through 1998, or when available, 1999.
  • The Food Stamp Program provides monthly food stamp coupons to all individuals, whether they are living in families or alone, provided their income and assets are below thresholds set in Federal law. It reaches more poor people over the course of a year than any other means-tested public assistance program. Appendix A provides historical data from 1970 to 1998, or when available, 1999.
  • The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program provides monthly cash payments to elderly, blind, or disabled individuals or couples whose income and assets are below levels set in Federal law. Though the majority of recipients are adults, disabled children also are eligible. Historical data from 1974 through 1998 are provided in Appendix A.

Measuring Welfare Dependence

Welfare dependence, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less dependent if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which a family depends on welfare might also be considered in assessing its degree of dependency. Nevertheless, a summary measure of dependence to be used as an indicator for policy purposes must have some fixed parameters that allow one to determine which families should be counted as dependent, just as the poverty line defines who is poor under the official standard. The definition of dependence proposed by the Advisory Board for this purpose is as follows:

A family is dependent on welfare if more than 50 percent of its total income in a one-year period comes from AFDC, food stamps and/or SSI, and this welfare income is not associated with work activities. Welfare dependence is the proportion of all families who are dependent on welfare.

This measure is not without its limitations. The Advisory Board recognized that no single measure could fully capture all aspects of dependence and that the proposed measure should be examined in concert with other key indicators of dependence and deprivation. In addition, while the proposed definition would count unsubsidized and subsidized employment and work required to obtain benefits as work activities, existing data sources do not permit distinguishing between welfare income associated with work activities and non-work-related welfare benefits. As a result, the data shown in this report overstate the incidence of dependence (as defined above) because welfare income associated with work required to obtain benefits is classified as welfare and not as income from work. This issue may be growing in importance under the increased work requirements of the TANF program. In 1998, the percentage of welfare recipients who were working (including employment, work experience, and community service) reached an all-time high of 27 percent, compared to the 7 percent recorded in 1992.2

This proposed definition also represents an essentially arbitrary choice of a percentage (50 percent) of income from welfare beyond which families will be considered dependent. However, it is relatively easy to measure and to track over time, and is likely to be associated with any very large changes in total dependence, however defined. For example, as the recent changes in welfare law move more recipients into employment or work-related activities, dependence under this definition is expected to decline.

In 1995, the most recent year for which complete population data are available on monthly income and benefit recipiency, 17 percent of the population received means-tested assistance, as shown in Figure SUM 1. Less than one-third of this group, or about 5 percent of the total population, would be considered "dependent" on welfare under the above definition. Recipiency and dependency rates in 1995 were lower than in 1993 and 1994, but were still higher than they had been in 1987 and 1990. These numbers are consistent with administrative data showing a peak in AFDC caseloads in 1993 and in food stamp caseloads in 1994 and a decrease in both programs since that time. What is not apparent from administrative records, but is shown in these national survey data, is that the dependency rate peaked in 1993, declining over the next two years until it reached 5.1 percent in 1995, close to the same level as in 1992.

Figure SUM 1. Recipiency and Dependency Rates: 1987-95

Figure SUM 1. Recipiency and Dependency Rates:  1987-95

Note: Recipiency is defined as receipt of any amount of AFDC, SSI, or food stamps during year. Dependency is defined as having more than 50 percent of annual income from AFDC, SSI and/or food stamps. While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included within AFDC income. Dependency rates would be lower if adjusted to exclude welfare assistance associated with working. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.

Recipiency and dependency rates are higher for non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites, as shown in Table SUM 1, which shows these rates for various racial and age categories. Recipiency and dependency also are higher for young children than for adults.

Table SUM 1. Recipiency and Dependency Rates: 1987-95

 198719901992199319941995
Recipiency Rates
(Receipt of Any Amount of AFDC, Food Stamps, or SSI
)
All Persons14.914.116.917.018.017.0
Racial Categories 
Non-Hispanic White9.38.911.010.911.110.4
Non-Hispanic Black40.936.641.041.843.240.9
Hispanic28.329.533.333.937.134.6
Age Categories 
Children Ages 0 - 524.524.028.929.032.427.6
Children Ages 6 - 1023.220.223.824.028.628.7
Children Ages 11 - 1519.818.823.222.624.923.6
 
Women Ages 16 - 6414.414.117.017.317.516.8
Men Ages 16 - 6410.19.511.812.012.311.5
Adults Age 65 and over13.612.112.612.212.312.2
Dependency Rates
(More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance)
All Persons4.74.24.95.95.65.1
Racial Categories 
Non-Hispanic White2.22.12.42.82.62.3
Non-Hispanic Black15.714.615.916.716.815.2
Hispanic10.98.310.514.212.912.2
Age Categories 
Children Ages 0 - 510.010.312.213.312.510.6
Children Ages 6 - 1010.18.59.512.312.011.6
Children Ages 11 - 158.06.47.510.59.39.1
 
Women Ages 16 - 644.64.65.05.85.55.2
Men Ages 16 - 642.01.51.92.72.52.3
Adults Age 65 and over2.61.92.02.02.21.8

Note: Means-tested assistance includes AFDC, SSI and food stamps. While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included within AFDC income. Dependency rates would be lower if adjusted to exclude welfare assistance associated with working. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.

Dependency on assistance also varies depending upon which programs are counted as "welfare programs," as shown in Table SUM 2. Dependency is highest — 5.1 percent — when income from all three programs (AFDC, food stamps, and SSI) is counted, as in the first column of Table SUM 1 (and most of the report). Dependency is lower — 3.7 percent — when counting AFDC/TANF and food stamp benefits only, as in the second column of Table SUM 2. In general, 70 to 75 percent of individuals who are dependent under the standard definition also are dependent under the alternative definition that considers AFDC and food stamps alone (as is done in some measures in this report). Note, however, that the elderly depend more on SSI than on AFDC and food stamps; whereas 1.8 percent of elderly persons are dependent when counting the three major types of means-tested assistance, very few, 0.3 percent, are dependent when the definition is limited to AFDC and food stamps.

In general, non-whites and the very young were more likely to be dependent than other racial and age categories, and they are primarily dependent on AFDC and food stamps. Even in these populations, however, the vast majority of families do not meet the criteria for dependence.

Table SUM 2. Percentage of the Total Population with More than 50 Percent of Income from Various Means-Tested Assistance Programs, by Race and Age: 1995

 AFDC, SSI, &
Food Stamps
AFDC &
Food Stamps
SSI only
All Persons5.13.70.9
Racial Categories 
Non-Hispanic2.31.60.5
Non-Hispanic15.210.52.4
Hispanic12.29.81.6
Age Categories 
Children Ages 0 - 510.610.40.5
Children Ages 6 - 1011.68.90.5
Children Ages 11 - 159.16.90.8
 
Women Ages 16 - 645.23.51.1
Men Ages 16 - 642.31.10.7
Adults Age 65 and over1.80.31.3

Note: While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included within AFDC income. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

The summary measure of dependence shown in Table SUM 1 focuses on the percentage of income received from means-tested assistance over a one-year time period. It also is important to look at dependency over a longer term perspective, as is done in Table SUM 3, which examines long-term recipiency and long-term dependency among AFDC recipients.

Half (50 percent) of all those who received welfare in 1982 did not receive more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC and food stamp benefits in any of the ten years between 1982 and 1991. About one-quarter (23 percent) were dependent for one to two years, 15 percent for three to five years, and 13 percent for six or more years.

Long-term dependence is rarer than long-term recipiency. Only 4 percent of those who were recipients in 1982, for example, received more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC and food stamps for nine to ten years. This is a smaller percentage than the proportion of recipients that received welfare of any amount for nine to ten years (11 percent). Child recipients have longer spells of welfare receipt and welfare dependence than do recipients in general, as shown in the table.

Table SUM 3. Percentage of AFDC Recipients with Multiple Years of Receipt and Dependency, by Years and Age: 1982–91

 All Recipients
(in 1982)
All Child Recipients
(0-5 in 1982)
Years of Recipiency, 1982–1991
(Any AFDC Receipt)
1 - 2 Years4734
3 - 5 Years2829
6 - 8 Years1517
9 - 10 Years1120
Years of Dependency, 1982–1991
(AFDC & Food Stamps, >50% of Income)
0 Years5034
1 - 2 Years2328
3 - 5 Years1516
6 - 8 Years913
9 - 10 Years48

Note: "Any AFDC Receipt" is defined as whether an individual has received any amount of AFDC at any time during the year. "AFDC & Food Stamps, >50% of Income" is defined as whether the sum of an individual's AFDC and food stamp benefits was more than 50% of their yearly income. "0 Years" means that while an individual received means-tested assistance, his or her benefits were not greater than 50 percent of his or her income for any years during the time period. Note that this table shows years of receipt and dependency between 1982 and 1991 and does not take into account years of receipt or dependency that may have occurred before 1982.

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1983 – 1992.


2The earnings of those in unsubsidized employment would be correctly captured as income from work in national surveys. Any welfare benefits associated with work experience, community service programs or other work activities, however, would be counted as income from welfare in most national surveys, an incorrect classification according to the proposed definition.

Measuring Deprivation

Changes in dependence may or may not be associated with changes in the level of deprivation, depending on the alternative sources of support found by families who might otherwise be dependent on welfare. To assess the social impacts of any change in dependence, changes in the level of poverty or deprivation also must be considered. One way of measuring deprivation is to look at changes in the level of need over time. Elsewhere in this report, for example, measures of food insecurity and lack of health insurance are presented.

The deprivation measure presented in this chapter, however, focuses directly on changes in the poverty rate, both under the official poverty rate and under expanded measures that take into account taxes and non-cash benefits. These measures also show the degree to which welfare and related programs are effective in moving people out of poverty. The data, shown in Table SUM 4 and its related figure, illustrate two primary points. First, cash welfare and non-cash welfare benefits such as food and housing reduce the number of poor families. Second, under any of the four alternate income measures presented in Table SUM 4, poverty rates have been decreasing since 1993, as economic conditions have improved and policies have promoted and rewarded work. Each of these points is discussed below.

Four different concepts of income are used in Table SUM 4, which shows alternative measures of poverty rates for all persons between 1979 and 1998. (A graph of these data is presented in Figure SUM 4, and a similar analysis is presented for the subset of the population that lives in families with related children under age 18 in Table SUM 5.) The four measures are as follows:

  1. "Cash Income plus All Social Insurance" is earnings and other private cash income, plus social security, workers' compensation, and other social insurance programs. This income measure, which excludes welfare, would result in a poverty rate of 13.5 percent in 1998.
  2. "Plus Means-Tested Assistance" shows the official poverty rate, which takes into account means-tested assistance, primarily AFDC and SSI. Poverty rates under this official measure are almost one percentage point lower, 12.7 percent in 1998. This indicates that many more families would be poor if they did not receive welfare benefits.
  3. "Plus Food and Housing Benefits" shows how poverty would be lower if the cash value of food and housing benefits were counted as income. Under this definition, poverty rates would fall by more than one additional percentage point, to 11.3 percent in 1998.
  4. "Plus EITC and Federal Taxes" is the most comprehensive poverty rate shown in Table SUM 4. It takes into account the effect of taxes, and is thus a more complete measure of deprivation than is the official poverty rate or other measures that exclude some types of support. Since 1993, taxes, including the refunds through the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), have caused additional reductions in poverty. By 1998, this measure of poverty was 10.5 percent.

Figure SUM 4. Percentage of Total Population in Poverty with Various Means-Tested Benefits Added to Total Cash Income: 1979-98

Figure SUM 4. Percentage of Total Population in Poverty with Various Means-Tested Benefits Added to Total Cash Income:  1979-98

Source: Congressional Budget Office tabulations. Additional calculations by HHS.

Table SUM 4. Percentage of Total Population in Poverty with Various Means-Tested Benefits Added to Total Cash Income: Selected Years

 197919831986198919931995199619971998
Cash Income plus All Social Insurance12.816.014.513.716.314.914.814.213.5
  • Plus Means-Tested Cash Assistance
11.615.213.612.815.113.813.713.312.7
  • Plus Food and Housing Benefits
9.713.712.211.213.412.012.111.911.3
  • Plus EITC and Federal Taxes
10.014.713.111.713.311.511.511.110.5
Reduction in Poverty Rate2.81.31.42.03.03.43.33.13.0

Note: The first measure of poverty, labeled cash income plus all social insurance, includes social security but not meanstested cash transfers. Adding means-tested cash transfers yields the official census definition of poverty, the second line in the table. Food and housing benefits may be received either as cash or (more generally) as in-kind benefits, in which case the market value of food and housing benefits is added. EITC refers to the refundable Earned Income Tax Credit, which is always a positive adjustment to income whereas Federal payroll and income taxes are a negative adjustment. The fungible value of Medicare and Medicaid is not included.

Source: Congressional Budget Office tabulations. Additional calculations by HHS.

The combined effect of means-tested assistance, food and housing benefits, and EITC and taxes was to reduce the poverty rate in 1998 by three percentage points, from 13.5 percent to 10.5 percent. The total reduction in the poverty rate is shown in the final row of Table SUM 4.

As economic conditions improved during the mid-1990s, poverty rates decreased under all four concepts of income. Of particular interest are the poverty rates in 1995, the same year as the dependence rates shown in Table SUM 1, and the poverty rates in 1998, the most recent year for which data are available. In 1995, the final poverty rate was 11.5 percent after adding in non-cash benefits and taxes, a decline from 13.3 percent in 1993. Over the same time period, the dependence measure also declined, from 5.9 percent to 5.1 percent.

More current data indicate that the poverty rate continued to fall between 1995 and 1998, falling to 12.7 percent under the official measure and 10.5 percent under the most comprehensive measure. Data are not yet available on dependence measures for 1998, although administrative data on caseloads indicate a continuing decline in overall receipt of AFDC/TANF and food stamps.

During most of the past two decades, means-tested benefits (including cash assistance, food and housing benefits, and the EITC and other taxes), have caused a net reduction in poverty rates for individuals of about three percentage points. The net effectiveness of these programs in reducing the poverty rate was somewhat lower during the recession of the early 1980s, and was somewhat higher in the mid 1990's, largely due to expansions in the EITC (see Figure SUM 4 and Table SUM 4).

The net effect of all sources of means-tested support (including cash assistance, food and housing benefits, and the EITC and taxes) on the reduction in poverty is higher for persons in families with related children under 18. The gap between poverty rates before and after public assistance has ranged from 3.5 to over 5 percentage points for these individuals in recent years, as shown in Table SUM 5. Again, the net effectiveness of means-tested programs was lower in the mid 1980s and highest in the mid 1990s.

Since the enactment of PRWORA in 1996 and the subsequent implementation of TANF, caseloads for AFDC/TANF and food stamps have fallen dramatically. Although dependency measures as defined in this report are not yet available for the period after PRWORA, available measures on recipiency rates suggest that the legislation has been successful in causing a noticeable fall in dependence on welfare programs. The deprivation measures presented in Tables SUM 4 and 5 suggest that these large caseload declines have been accomplished without observed increases in deprivation. In fact, under the strong economy of the late 1990s, poverty rates are at their lowest levels since 1989. It will be important to continue to track changes in these dependency and deprivation rates over the next several years, to see how they are affected by future changes in economic conditions.

Table SUM 5. Percentage of All Persons in Families with Related Children Under 18 Years of Age in Poverty with Various Means-Tested Benefits Added to Total Cash Income: Selected Years

 19791981198319861989199119931995199619971998
Cash Income plus All Social Insurance14.317.419.117.416.818.820.018.117.817.016.1
  • Plus Means-Tested Cash Assistance
12.916.318.416.515.817.718.716.816.615.915.2
  • Plus Food and Housing Benefits
10.213.916.514.613.615.316.414.314.414.113.2
  • Plus EITC and Federal Taxes
10.515.217.715.814.115.315.913.012.912.411.6
Reduction in Poverty Rate3.82.21.41.63.53.54.15.14.94.64.5

Note: The first measure of poverty, labeled cash income plus all social insurance, includes social security but not meanstested cash transfers. Adding means-tested cash transfers yields the official census definition of poverty, the second line in the table. Food and housing benefits may be received either as cash or (more generally) as in-kind benefits, in which case the market value of food and housing benefits is added. EITC refers to the refundable Earned Income Tax Credit, which is always a positive adjustment to income whereas Federal payroll and income taxes are a negative adjustment. The fungible value of Medicare and Medicaid is not included.

Source: Congressional Budget Office tabulations. Additional calculations by HHS.

Data Sources

For purposes of this report, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) has been used the most extensively and is considered the most useful national survey. Its strengths are its longitudinal design, system of monthly accounting, and detail concerning employment, income and participation in federal income-support and related programs. These features make the SIPP particularly effective for capturing the complexities of program dynamics and many of the indicators and predictors, or risk factors, associated with welfare receipt.

The SIPP does not, however, follow families for more than three years. Therefore, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) also is used in this report. The PSID collects annual income data, including transfer income, over a long time-period, providing vital data for indicators of long-term welfare receipt, dependence, and deprivation.

Some indicators in this report are based upon the annual March Current Population Survey (CPS), which is available on a more timely basis than the SIPP. The March CPS measures income and poverty over a single annual accounting period, and provides important information regarding child poverty. Finally, the report also draws upon administrative data for the AFDC/TANF, Food Stamp, and SSI programs.

One of the difficulties in preparing this year's annual report has been the challenge of obtaining recent data from the SIPP and the PSID, the two data sources used for most of the report. The most recent SIPP data available at the time of preparation of this year's annual report were 1995 data, collected from the third year of the 1993 SIPP three-year panel. Data from 1995, however, do not reflect many of the dramatic changes in welfare programs that have occurred since enactment of the welfare reform legislation in August 1996. Two more years of SIPP data are expected to be available next year, allowing an update of many indicators through early implementation of the TANF program.

PSID data for the mid- to late-1990s also were not available at the time of updating this report. Instead, the indicators that are based on PSID data cover the same ten-year period (1982-1991) as in last year's volume. Updated PSID analyses will be published in next year's report.

The most recent data are from the CPS and administrative sources. The CPS data are available for calendar year 1998 (and in some cases, March 1999), while administrative data are generally available through fiscal year 1998 (or, for some aggregate caseload statistics, fiscal year 1999). To the extent possible, TANF administrative data are reported in a consistent manner with data from the earlier AFDC program, as noted in the footnotes to the tables in Appendix A. The fact remains that assistance under locally designed TANF programs encompasses a diverse set of cash and non-cash services designed to support families in making a transition to work, and so direct comparisons between AFDC receipt and TANF receipt must be made with caution. This issue also will affect reported data on TANF receipt in national data sets such as the SIPP, once these are available.

Most of the data sources allow analysis of the indicators and predictors of welfare dependence across several age and race/ethnic categories. Where the data are available, statistics are shown for three racial/ethnic groups — non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics. In some instances, however, there are not sufficient data on individuals of Hispanic origin, and so the measures are shown for only two racial/ethnic categories.

A final technical note concerns the unit of analysis and the measurement of benefit receipt. The individual, rather than the family or household, is the unit of analysis for most of the statistics in this report. An individual is considered a recipient of AFDC/TANF or food stamps if he or she lives in a family receiving such benefits. In contrast, the SSI program provides benefits to individuals and couples, and so an individual is only considered an SSI recipient if he or she directly receives such an SSI benefit. All means-tested benefits — AFDC/TANF, food stamps, and SSI — are summed together with earnings and other sources of income for all individuals in a family unit to determine total family income, which is used to determine the poverty status, dependency status, and income levels for all individuals in the family.

Chapter II . Indicators of Dependence

Following the format of the previous annual reports to Congress, this second chapter presents summary data related to indicators of dependence. These indicators differ from other welfare statistics because of their emphasis on welfare dependence, rather than simple welfare receipt. As discussed in Chapter I, the Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators suggested measuring dependence as the proportion of families with more than 50 percent of their total income in a oneyear period coming from AFDC, food stamps and/or SSI. Furthermore, this welfare income was not to be associated with work activities.

The indicators in Chapter II were selected to provide information about dependence, following, to the extent feasible, the definition of dependence proposed by the Advisory Board. Existing data from administrative records and national surveys, however, do not generally distinguish welfare benefits received in conjunction with work from benefits received without work. Thus it was not possible to construct one single indicator of dependence; that is, one indicator that measures both percentage of income from means-tested assistance and presence of work activities. Instead, this chapter includes some indicators that focus on the percentage of recipients’ income from meanstested assistance, while other indicators focus on presence of work activities at the same time as welfare receipt. Still other indicators present summary data and characteristics on all recipients, not limited to those with more than 50 percent of total income from welfare programs or those without work activities

Overall, the ten indicators of dependency were selected to reflect both the range and depth of dependence. Here is a brief summary of each of the ten indicators:

Indicator 1: Degree of Dependence. This indicator focuses most closely on those individuals who meet the Advisory Board’s proposed definition of “dependence.” In addition to examining those individuals with more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC, food stamps and/or SSI, it examines those with more than 0 percent, 25 percent and 75 percent of their income from such sources, showing various levels of dependence (Indicator 1a). Dependency over a ten-year ime period is also examined (Indicator 1b), as is the average percentage of income from means-tested assistance and earnings received by various families (Indicator 1c).

Indicator 2: Dependence Spell Transitions. This indicator looks at the ability of individuals who are dependent on welfare in one year to make the transition out of dependence in the following year.

Indicator 3: Dependence Spell Duration. Like Indicator 2, this indicator is concerned with dynamics of welfare receipt and welfare dependence. It shows the proportion of individuals with short, medium, and long spells, or episodes, of AFDC receipt. The focus is on individuals in families with no labor force participants, following the Board’s interest in welfare income that is not associated with work activities. Information on spell lengths for SSI and food stamps is provided in Indicator 5.

Indicator 4: Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment. This indicator looks further at the relationship between receipt of means-tested assistance and participation in the labor force. This is an important issue because of the significant number of low-income individuals who use a combination of means-tested assistance and earnings from the labor force to get by each month.

Indicator 5: Program Spell Duration. One critical aspect of dependence is how long individuals receive means-tested assistance. Like Indicator 3, this indicator provides information on short, medium, and long spells of welfare receipt. It differs from Indicator 3 in looking at all recipients, regardless of attachment to the labor force, and in analyzing recipients of each of the three major means-tested programs – AFDC, food stamps, and SSI.

Indicator 6: Long-Term Receipt. Many individuals who leave welfare programs cycle back on after an absence of several months. Thus it is important to look beyond individual program spells, measured in Indicator 5, to examine the cumulative amount of time individuals receive assistance over a period of several years. The issue of long-term receipt is particularly important in light of the five-year time limit in the TANF program.

Indicator 7: Multiple Program Receipt. Depending on their circumstances, individuals may choose a variety of different means-tested assistance “packages.” This indicator looks at the percentage of individuals combining AFDC, food stamps, and SSI, examining how many rely on just one of these programs, and how many rely on a two-program or three-program package.

Indicator 8: Events Associated with the Beginning and Ending of Program Spells. To gain a better understanding of welfare dynamics, it is important to go beyond measures of spell duration and examine information regarding the major events in people’s lives that are correlated with the beginnings or endings of program spells. This measure focuses on receipt of AFDC.

Indicator 9: Rate of Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance. This indicator paints yet another picture of dependence by measuring recipiency rates, that is, the percentage of the population which receive AFDC, food stamps, or SSI in an average month. These data are readily available over time for the last 3 decades, allowing a better sense of historical trends than is available from the more specialized Indicators of dependence presented above.

Indicator 10: Participation in Means-Tested Assistance Programs. While means-tested public assistance programs are open to all that meet their requirements, not all eligible households participate in the programs. This indicator reflects “take up rates” – the number of families that actually participate in the programs as a percent of those who are eligible.

Indicators in this chapter focus on recipients of three major means-tested cash and nutritional assistance programs: Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), Supplemental Security Income (SSI) for elderly and disabled recipients, and the Food Stamp Program. Only limited administrative data are available to report on recipients of the new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. These are shown in Indicator 9a, which reports TANF recipiency rates for 1998. Information on how other dependency measures were affected by the replacement of the AFDC program by the TANF program will not be available until SIPP and other national survey data for 1998 are available.

Indicator 1. Degree of Dependence

Figure IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 1995

Figure IND 1a.  Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 1995

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

  • About 5 percent of the total population in 1995 received more than half of their total income from AFDC, food stamps and SSI. This number represents a decline from the proportion dependent on public assistance in 1993 (5.9 percent), but was not as low as the percentage in 1990 (4.2 percent), as shown in Table IND 1a.
  • Over four-fifths (83 percent) of the total population received no means-tested assistance in 1995. The inverse of this, the recipiency rate, (those receiving at least $1 of assistance from one of the three programs), was 17 percent. The proportion receiving no assistance has varied between 82 and 86 percent in previous years.
  • In 1995, as in earlier years, the majority of individuals receiving some public assistance reported that AFDC, food stamps, and SSI accounted for one-quarter or less of their total family income.
  • As shown in Table IND 1a, a larger percentage of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics received more than 50 percent of their income from means-tested assistance programs than non-Hispanic whites in all six years presented. However, even among these minority groups, more than 80 percent were not dependent on welfare under the definition used here.

Table IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs, by Race and Age: Selected Years

0%

> 0% and

<= 25%

> 25% and

<= 50%

Total

> 50%

> 50% and

<= 75%

Total

> 75%

 

1995

All Persons

83.0

9.4

2.5

5.1

1.4

3.8

Non-Hispanic White

89.6

6.9

1.4

2.3

0.8

1.6

Non-Hispanic Black

59.1

18.8

7.0

15.2

3.3

11.9

Hispanic

65.4

16.8

5.6

12.2

3.1

9.2

Children Ages 0 – 5

72.4

13.0

4.0

10.6

2.0

8.6

Children Ages 6 – 10

71.3

10.7

4.2

11.6

2.4

9.2

Children Ages 11 – 15

76.4

10.9

3.6

9.1

2.7

6.4

Women Ages 16 – 64

82.7

9.1

2.4

5.2

1.5

3.7

Men Ages 16 – 64

88.5

7.8

1.5

2.3

1.5

1.6

Adults Age 65 and over

87.8

8.1

2.3

1.8

0.7

1.1

 

1994

All Persons

82.0

9.9

2.5

5.6

1.6

4.0

Non-Hispanic White

88.9

7.1

1.4

2.6

0.9

1.7

Non-Hispanic Black

56.8

20.0

6.3

16.8

5.1

11.7

Hispanic

62.9

17.9

6.3

12.9

3.2

9.7

Children Ages 0 – 5

67.6

14.6

5.3

12.5

2.8

9.7

Children Ages 6 – 10

71.4

12.6

4.0

12.0

3.0

9.0

Children Ages 11 – 15

75.1

11.8

3.9

9.3

2.6

6.7

Women Ages 16 – 64

82.5

9.7

2.3

5.5

1.7

3.8

Men Ages 16 – 64

87.7

8.4

1.4

2.5

0.9

1.6

Adults Age 65 and over

87.7

8.2

2.0

2.2

1.0

1.1

 

1993

All Persons

82.2

9.5

2.5

5.9

1.6

4.3

Non-Hispanic White

88.8

7.0

1.4

2.8

0.8

2.0

Non-Hispanic Black

58.6

17.7

6.9

16.7

5.0

11.8

Hispanic

62.9

17.2

5.7

14.2

3.2

11.0

Children Ages 0 – 5

68.5

13.9

4.3

13.3

2.9

10.4

Children Ages 6 – 10

72.8

11.1

3.9

12.3

2.7

9.7

Children Ages 11 – 15

75.9

10.2

3.4

10.5

2.8

7.6

Women Ages 16 – 64

82.2

9.5

2.5

5.8

1.7

4.1

Men Ages 16 – 64

87.7

8.2

1.4

2.7

0.8

1.9

Adults Age 65 and over

88.1

7.7

2.3

2.0

0.8

1.2

Table IND 1a.  Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs, by Race and Age: Selected Years (continued)

> 0% and

> 25% and

Total

> 50% and

Total

0%

<= 25%

<= 50%

> 50%

<= 75%

> 75%

 

1992

All Persons

83.1

9.3

2.7

4.9

1.4

3.5

Non-Hispanic White

89.0

6.8

1.8

2.4

0.8

1.6

Non-Hispanic Black

59.0

18.3

6.9

15.9

4.1

11.7

Hispanic

66.7

17.6

5.1

10.5

2.5

8.0

Children Ages 0 - 5

71.1

12.1

4.6

12.2

3.0

9.3

Children Ages 6 - 10

76.2

10.7

3.6

9.5

2.6

6.9

Children Ages 11 - 15

76.8

11.9

3.8

7.5

2.1

5.4

Women Ages 16 - 64

83.0

9.2

2.8

5.0

1.3

3.7

Men Ages 16 - 64

88.2

8.2

1.6

1.9

0.7

1.3

Adults Age 65 and over

87.4

8.0

2.5

2.0

1.0

1.1

 

1990

All Persons

85.9

7.9

2.0

4.2

1.2

3.0

Non-Hispanic White

91.1

5.7

1.1

2.1

0.6

1.5

Non-Hispanic Black

63.4

16.0

6.0

14.6

5.2

9.3

Hispanic

70.5

16.8

4.4

8.3

2.1

6.2

Children Ages 0 - 5

76.0

11.0

2.8

10.3

2.4

7.9

Children Ages 6 - 10

79.8

9.2

2.6

8.5

2.4

6.0

Children Ages 11 - 15

81.2

9.6

2.8

6.4

1.8

4.5

Women Ages 16 - 64

85.9

7.7

1.8

4.6

1.3

3.2

Men Ages 16 - 64

90.5

6.7

1.3

1.5

0.5

1.0

Adults Age 65 and over

87.9

7.4

2.8

1.9

1.0

0.9

 
 

1987

All Persons

85.1

8.2

2.1

4.7

1.3

3.3

Non-Hispanic White

90.7

5.8

1.3

2.2

0.9

1.3

Non-Hispanic Black

59.1

18.7

6.5

15.7

3.9

11.8

Hispanic

71.7

13.6

3.8

10.9

2.2

8.7

Children Ages 0 - 5

75.5

10.9

3.7

10.0

2.7

7.3

Children Ages 6 - 10

76.8

10.5

2.6

10.1

2.8

7.3

Children Ages 11 - 15

80.2

9.2

2.6

8.0

1.6

6.4

Women Ages 16 - 64

85.6

7.9

1.9

4.6

1.1

3.5

Men Ages 16 - 64

89.9

6.8

1.4

2.0

0.8

1.2

Adults Age 65 and over

86.4

8.6

2.5

2.6

1.4

1.2

Note: Means-tested assistance includes AFDC, SSI and food stamps. While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included under AFDC. Total > 50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their income from these means-tested programs. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.


Figure IND 1b. Percentage of Recipients with More than 50 Percent of Income from AFDC and  Food Stamps between 1982 and 1991, by Years of Dependency

Figure IND 1b. Percentage of Recipients with More than 50 Percent of Income from AFDC and  Food Stamps between 1982 and 1991, by Years of Dependency

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1983 - 1992.


  • Unlike Figure IND 1a, which showed dependency rates for the total population, Figure IND 1b focuses on dependency among welfare recipients, measured over a ten-year time period. Half of all recipients in 1982 were not dependent on welfare in any year over the following decade, in the sense that in no year did they receive more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC and food stamps. (SSI receipt is not counted in this particular measure). This was also true for 55 percent of all recipients between 1972 and 1981, as shown in the lower half of Table IND 1b.
  • About 13 percent of recipients in 1982 were dependent for more than 5 years over the following decade, 15 percent were dependent for 3 to 5 years, and 23 percent were dependent for 1 or 2 years. Dependency is again defined as receiving more than 50 percent of annual income from AFDC and food stamps.
  • Child recipients were more likely to be dependent than other recipients; only 34 percent of young child recipients in 1982 were not dependent in any year between 1982 and 1991, as shown in Table IND 1b. A slightly higher percentage (39 percent) of child recipients had no years of dependency in the earlier decade. The percentage of young black children who were not dependent—that is, were in families who did not receive more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC and food stamps in any year – increased across the two time periods (from 24 percent to 31 percent). In comparison, the percentage of non-black recipient children who were not dependent decreased substantially across the two time periods (from 50 percent to 37 percent).

Table IND 1b. Percentage of Recipients with More than 50 Percent of Income from AFDC and Food Stamps Across Two Ten-Year Time Periods, by Years of Dependency, Race, and Age 

Note: The base for the percentages is recipients in a one-year time period, defined as individuals receiving at least $1 of AFDC in the first year (1982 or 1972). Child recipients are defined by age in the first year. This measures years of dependency over the specified ten-year time periods, and does not take into account years of dependency that may have occurred before the initial year (1972 or 1982).

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1973 - 1992.


Figure IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status: 1995

Figure IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status: 1995

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • Whereas the two previous figures show the proportion of individuals with more than 50 percent of total income from means-tested assistance, Figure IND 1c shows the average percentage of income from means-tested assistance and earnings, by poverty status.
  • Those in families with incomes below the poverty level received 42 percent of their total family income from means-tested assistance programs (AFDC, SSI, and food stamps) and 40 percent of their total family income from earnings. In contrast, families with total incomes at least 200 percent above the poverty line received the majority of their income from earnings (85 percent) and less than one percent of their income from means-tested assistance (a percentage so small as to not be visible in Figure IND 1c).
  • Those living in deep poverty (total family income less than 50 percent of poverty line) relied heavily on income from means-tested assistance (71 percent of total family income). This included assistance from AFDC and SSI (39 percent) and food stamps (33 percent), as shown in Table IND 1c. The percentage of income from earnings for those in deep poverty is about half the percentage for those in poverty (19 percent compared to 40 percent).

Table IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status, Race, and Age: 1995

Table IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources, by Poverty Status, Race, and Age: 1995 (continued)

Note: While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included in AFDC income. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest, and dividends. Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

Indicator 2. Dependence Transitions

Figure IND 2. Dependency Status in 1995 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 1994, by Race

Figure IND 2. Dependency Status in 1995 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 1994, by Race

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • Nearly four-fifths (79 percent) of all recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total income from means-tested assistance programs in 1994 also received more than 50 percent of their total income from these same programs in 1995.
  • Of recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total income from AFDC, food stamps and SSI in 1994, a larger percentage of non-Hispanic whites became “less dependent” in 1995 (received 50 percent or less of their total income from means-tested assistance programs) compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks.
  • As shown in Table IND 2, a slightly larger percentage of women who received more than half of their total income from means-tested assistance programs in 1994 remained “dependent” in 1995 compared to the same percentage for men (79 percent compared to 73 percent).

Table IND 2. Dependency Status in 1995 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 1994, by Race and Age

Percentage of Persons Receiving
Individuals Receiving more than 50% of Income from Assistance in 1994Total (000's)No Aid in 1995Up to 50% in 1995Over 50% in 1995
All Persons13,9862.718.878.5
Racial Categories    
Non-Hispanic White4,8043.126.270.7
Non-Hispanic Black4,7102.319.278.5
Hispanic3,4182.911.685.5
Age Categories    
Children Ages 0 – 53,1852.018.679.4
Children Ages 6 – 102,1020.617.881.6
Children Ages 11 – 151,7241.619.578.9
Men Ages 16 – 641,8662.518.772.6
Women Ages 16 – 644,4727.120.478.8
Adults Age 65 and over6364.617.977.5

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC, food stamps, and SSI. While only affecting a small number of cases, general assistance income is included within AFDC income. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, some transitions were based on twelve-month periods that did not correspond exactly to calendar years.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

Indicator 3. Dependence Spell Duration

Figure IND 3. Percentage of AFDC Spells of Individuals in Families with No Labor Force Participants for Individuals Entering Programs During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell

Figure IND 3. Percentage of AFDC Spells of Individuals in Families with No Labor Force Participants for Individuals Entering Programs During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • Forty-three percent of AFDC spells for individuals in families with no one in the labor force ended within a year.
  • Over one-quarter (27 percent) of AFDC spells for individuals in families where no one participated in the labor force lasted four months or less.
  • As shown in Table IND 3, a smaller percentage of AFDC spells to children in families with no labor force participants ended in four months or less compared to their adult counterparts (25 percent compared to 31 percent).
  • Spells shown in Figure IND 3 are limited to spells of recipients in families without any labor force participation. Spell lengths are shorter in Figure IND 5, which shows spells for all recipients, including those in families with labor force participants. For example, whereas only half (50 percent) of spells shown in Figure IND 3 end in 20 months or less, over two-thirds (69 percent) of all AFDC spells last 20 months or less, as shown in Figure IND 5.

Table IND 3. Percentage of AFDC Spells of Individuals in Families with No Labor Force Participants for Individuals Entering Programs During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell, Race, and Age 

 Spells <=4 monthsSpells <=12 monthsSpells <=20 monthsSpells >20 months
All Persons27.243.450.349.7
Racial Categories    
Non-Hispanic White30.240.743.057.0
Non-Hispanic Black17.445.6N/AN/A
Hispanic33.2N/AN/AN/A
Age Categories    
Children Ages 0-1524.741.949.150.9
Adults Ages 16-6430.645.851.948.1

Note: Spell length categories are not mutually exclusive. Spells separated by only 1 month are not considered separate spells. Due to the length of the observation period, actual spell lengths for spells that lasted more than 20 months cannot be observed. AFDC spells are defined as those spells starting during the 1993 SIPP panel. For certain racial categories, data are not available (N/A) due to insufficient sample size.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

Indicator 4. Receipt of Means-tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

Figure IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program: 1995

Figure IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program: 1995

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • In 1995, 46 percent of individuals who received AFDC, 37 percent of individuals who received SSI, and 54 percent of individuals who received food stamps were in families with at least one person in the labor force. The comparable figure for individuals in the general population is 83 percent (as shown in Table WORK 1, in Chapter III).
  • More than half of those families receiving AFDC with at least one participant in the labor force had no one in the labor force full time. Conversely, a significant majority of SSI and food stamp families with at least one member in the labor force had at least one family member working full time.
  • As shown in Table IND 4a, among AFDC recipients, a larger percentage of children under age 6 were in families with at least one full-time labor force participant compared to children ages 6 to 15.

Table IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, by Program, Race, and Age: 1995

  No one in LFAtleast one in LF No one FTAt least one FT LF participant
AFDCAll Persons54.123.822.1
 Non-Hispanic White52.422.125.6
 Non-Hispanic Black53.223.623.2
 Hispanic58.423.018.6
 Children Ages 0 - 555.021.323.7
 Children Ages 6 - 1059.021.119.9
 Children Ages 11 - 1555.626.917.5
 Women Ages 16 - 6452.124.023.9
 Men Ages 16 - 6441.633.924.5
 Adults Age 65 and over51.015.332.9
SSIAll Persons62.611.326.1
 Non-Hispanic White63.410.526.1
 Non-Hispanic Black64.413.721.9
 Hispanic60.99.529.6
 Children Ages 0 - 5N/AN/AN/A
 Children Ages 6 - 10N/AN/AN/A
 Children Ages 11 - 15N/AN/AN/A
 Women Ages 16 - 6457.917.025.1
 Men Ages 16 - 6456.810.133.1
 Adults Age 65 and over73.94.222.0
FOOD STAMPSAll Persons46.122.731.2
 Non-Hispanic White43.820.435.8
 Non-Hispanic Black50.823.725.5
 Hispanic44.222.633.2
 Children Ages 0 - 543.820.835.3
 Children Ages 6 - 1047.822.230.0
 Children Ages 11 - 1546.126.127.8
 Women Ages 16 - 6445.923.830.3
 Men Ages 16 - 6435.326.937.8
 Adults Age 65 and over82.04.213.7

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Data on receipt of SSI for young children are not available (N/A). Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


Figure IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: Selected Years

Figure IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: Selected Years

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.


  • In 1995, 22 percent of all AFDC recipients lived in families with at least one full-time labor force participant – a higher percentage than at any other point in the previous nine years.
  • In all years shown above, more than half of all AFDC recipients lived in families where no one participated in the labor force. This percentage has varied between 58 percent and 54 percent, as shown in Table IND 4b.
  • About one-fourth of AFDC recipients lived in families with a labor force participant who worked less than full-time. This percentage was lower in 1995 (24 percent) than in 1992 (28 percent), suggesting that some of the increase in full-time work among AFDC recipients represents a shift from part-time to full-time work.

Table IND 4b. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: Selected Years

 No one In LFAt least one in LF No one FTAt least one FT LF Participant
198755.328.116.6
198858.328.116.6
199058.323.318.4
199157.823.718.5
199254.228.117.7
199356.525.717.8
199454.525.320.2
199554.123.822.1

Note: Full-time labor force participants are defined as those who usually work 35 or more hours per week. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.

Indicator 5. Program Spell Duration

Figure IND 5. Percentage of AFDC, Food Stamp and SSI Spells for Individuals Entering Programs During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell

Figure IND 5. Percentage of AFDC, Food Stamp and SSI Spells for Individuals Entering Programs During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 Panel.


  • Short spells lasting 4 months or less accounted for 31 percent of AFDC spells, 24 percent of SSI spells, and 33 percent of food stamp spells.
  • Over one-half of all AFDC and food stamp spells lasted one year or less (56 percent and 60 percent, respectively). In contrast, only 32 percent of SSI spells ended within one year. The percentage of SSI spells that lasted more than 20 months is twice the percentage of AFDC and food stamp spells that lasted this long (see Table IND 5).
  • As shown in Table IND 5, for AFDC spells, a larger percentage of short spells (lasting 4 months or less) and a smaller percentage of long spells (lasting more than 20 months) occurred among non-Hispanic whites compared to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics.
  • As further shown in Table IND 5, a larger percentage of AFDC and food stamp spells among adults ages 16 to 64 ended within 4 months compared to spells among children.
  • Short spells are less common among recipients in families without labor force participants, as shown previously in Figure and Table IND 3.

Table IND 5. Percentage of AFDC, Food Stamp and SSI Spells for Individuals Entering Programs During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell, Race, and Age

  Spells <=4 monthsSpells <=12 monthsSpells <=20 monthsSpells >20 months
AFDCAll Recipients30.756.168.631.4
 Racial Categories    
 Non-Hispanic White35.662.272.327.7
 Non-Hispanic Black24.652.366.733.3
 Hispanic30.852.563.436.6
 Age Categories    
 Children Ages 0 - 1528.153.665.634.4
 Adults Ages 16 - 6433.559.072.227.8
SSIAll Recipients24.031.936.663.4
 Racial Categories    
 Non-Hispanic White27.234.640.859.2
 Non-Hispanic Black20.526.230.070.0
 Hispanic20.032.2NANA
 Age Categories    
 Adults Ages 16 - 6426.834.639.760.3
FOODSTAMPSAll Recipients33.159.970.030.0
 Racial Categories    
 Non-Hispanic White34.362.171.528.5
 Non-Hispanic Black28.453.464.935.1
 Hispanic35.464.071.128.9
 Age Categories    
 Children Ages 0 - 1529.856.567.033.0
 Adults Ages 16 - 6435.963.072.827.2

Note: Spell length categories are not mutually exclusive. Spells separated by only 1 month are not considered separate spells. Due to the length of the observation period, actual spell lengths for spells that lasted more than 20 months cannot be observed. AFDC spells are defined as those starting during the 1993 SIPP Panel. For certain age and racial categories, data are not available (N/A) because of insufficient sample size. Data on SSI recipiency for children are not available (N/A).

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 Panel.

Indicator 6. Long-term Receipt

Figure IND 6. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in 1982, by Years of Receipt: 1982-91

Figure IND 6. Percentage of AFDC Recipients in 1982, by Years of Receipt: 1982-91

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1983 - 1992


  • Among all AFDC recipients in 1982, almost half (47 percent) received assistance for only one or two years between 1982 and 1991. Over one quarter (28 percent) received AFDC and/or food stamps for 3 to 5 years, and about one quarter (26 percent) received AFDC for more than 5 years. Similar patterns were evident for recipients in 1972, as can be seen in the lower half of Table IND 6.
  • As shown in Table IND 6, compared to non-black recipients, a smaller percentage of black recipients received AFDC for only 1 to 2 years while a larger percentage received benefits for more than 5 years in both ten-year time periods.
  • As further shown in Table IND 6, a smaller percentage of child recipients experienced shortterm receipt and a larger percentage experienced longer-term receipt in both time periods relative to the percentages for all recipients.
  • Whereas over half (53 percent) of recipients received at least some AFDC for three or more years between 1982 and 1991 (as shown in Figure IND 6), only 28 percent of recipients received more than 50 percent of their income from AFDC and food stamps for three or more years over the same time period (as previously shown in Figure IND 1b).

Table IND 6. Percentage of AFDC Recipients, by Years of Receipt, Race, and Age

Between 1982 and 1991:
All Recipients
 All RecipientsBlackNon-Black
1 - 2 Years473753
3 - 5 Years282728
6 - 8 Years151912
9 - 10 Years11176
Children 0 - 5 in 1982
 All Child RecipientsBlack ChildrenNon-Black Children
1 - 2 Years342839
3 - 5 Years292830
6 - 8 Years171619
9 - 10 Years202913
Between 1972 and 1981:   
All Recipients
 All RecipientsBlackNon-Black
1 - 2 Years493259
3 - 5 Years283425
6 - 8 Years13199
9 - 10 Years11158
Children 0 - 5 in 1972
 All Child RecipientsBlack ChildrenNon-Black Children
1 - 2 Years372446
3 - 5 Years293127
6 - 8 Years152310
9 - 10 Years192317

Note: The base for percentages is recipients in a one-year time period, defined as individuals receiving at least $1 of AFDC in the first year (1982 or 1972). Child recipients are defined by age in the first year. This measures years of receipt over the specified ten-year time periods, and does not take into account years of receipt that may have occurred before the initial year (1972 or 1982).

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1973 - 1992.

Indicator 7. Multiple Program Receipt

Figure IND 7. Percentage of Population Receiving Assistance from One, Two or Three Programs (AFDC, Food Stamps, SSI), by Age: 1995

Figure IND 7. Percentage of Population Receiving Assistance from One, Two or Three Programs (AFDC, Food Stamps, SSI), by Age: 1995

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • The 10.7 percent of the population who received AFDC, food stamp, or SSI benefits in an average month include 5.5 percent who got benefits from one of the programs, 5.0 percent who received two types of assistance, and 0.2 percent with benefits from all three programs.
  • As shown in Table IND 7a, the most common patterns of benefit receipt are receipt of both food stamps and AFDC (4.3 percent) and receipt of food stamp benefits only (3.9 percent). The least common are receiving AFDC and SSI or participating in all three programs.
  • Children have higher recipiency rates than the population as a whole. Over one-fifth of children under 6, for example, receive AFDC, food stamps, or SSI, with most of these children (13 percent) receiving a combined package of AFDC and food stamp benefits, as shown in Table IND 7a. Most of the remaining children (8 percent) receive food stamps only.
  • There has been a slight upward trend in receipt of SSI over time, either alone, or in combination with food stamps, as shown in Table IND 7b.

Table IND 7a. Percentage of Population Receiving Assistance from One, Two or Three Programs (AFDC, Food Stamps, SSI), by Race and Age: 1995.

 Any ReceiptOne Program OnlyTwo ProgramsAll Three Programs
 AFDC, FS OR SSIAFDCFSSSIAFDC & FSAFDC & SSIFS & SSIAFDC, FS & SSI
All Persons10.70.53.91.14.3N/A0.70.2
Racial Categories        
Non-Hispanic White7.90.33.30.92.7N/A0.50.1
Non-Hispanic Black27.21.48.12.512.80.11.70.6
Hispanic23.41.08.91.410.6N/A1.10.4
Age Categories        
Children Ages 0 - 521.41.17.70.012.5N/AN/AN/A
Children Ages 6 - 1021.11.57.40.012.2N/AN/AN/A
Children Ages 11 - 1516.50.86.40.09.3N/AN/AN/A
Women Ages 16 - 6410.50.53.51.33.8N/A0.90.5
Men Ages 16 - 645.30.12.71.10.9N/A0.4N/A
Adults Age 65 and over6.90.11.63.0N/AN/A2.2N/A

See below for notes and source.


Table IND 7b. Percentage of Population Receiving Assistance from One, Two or Three Programs (AFDC, Food Stamps, SSI): Selected Years

 Any ReceiptOne Program OnlyTwo ProgramsAll Three Programs
 AFDC, FS, OR SSIAFDCFSSSIAFDC & FSAFDC & SSIFS & SSIAFDC, FS, & SSI
19878.70.53.51.03.2N/A0.50.1
19888.30.33.31.03.1N/A0.50.1
19908.30.43.01.03.4N/A0.50.1
19918.90.43.31.03.7N/A0.50.1
199210.00.33.81.14.0N/A0.60.1
199311.40.44.41.14.8N/A0.70.2
199411.20.44.31.14.6N/A0.70.2
199510.70.53.91.14.3N/A0.70.2

Note: Categories are mutually exclusive. SSI receipt based on individual receipt; AFDC and food stamp receipt based on family receipt. Although individuals may not receive both AFDC and SSI, an SSI recipient may be in a family where other members receive AFDC Benefits. For certain categories, data are not available (N/A) because of insufficient sample size and because SSI recipiency data are not available for children. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, 1995 estimates are based on a weighting adjustment to account for those who were not interviewed for the entire year. Percentage receiving assistance from any one program in average month (shown here) is lower than percentage receiving any assistance over course of year (shown in Table SUM 1 in Chapter I).

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1987, 1990, 1992, and 1993 panels.

Indicator 8. Events Associated with the Beginning and Ending of Program Spells

Table IND 8a. Percentage of First AFDC Spell Beginnings Associated with Specific Events: Selected Periods

 Spell Began 1973 - 1979Spell Began 1980 - 1985Spell Began 1986 - 1991
First birth to an unmarried, non-cohabiting mother27.920.922.2
First birth to a married and/or cohabiting mother13.317.411.3
Second (or higher order) birth19.918.215.2
Divorce/separation19.728.117.3
Mother's work hours decreased by >500 hours per year26.318.826.2
Other adults' work hours decreased by >500 hours, but no change in family structure34.827.921.6
Other adults' work hours decreased by >500 hours, and a change in family structure4.77.911.4
Householder acquired work limitation18.115.623.5
Other transfer income dropped by >$1,000 (in 1996$)4.56.54.1
Changed state of residence4.510.65.4

 

Note: Events are defined to be neither mutually exclusive nor exhaustive. Work limitation is defined as a self-reported physical or nervous condition that limits the type of work or the amount of work the respondent can do.

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1974–1992.


  • Between 1986 and 1991, the most common events associated with the beginnings of a first AFDC spell were work-related: a decrease in mother’s work hours (26 percent), a decrease in work hours of another adult (22 percent), and acquisition of a work limitation (24 percent).
  • The percentage of first AFDC episode beginnings associated with a householder acquiring a work limitation was higher for spells that began between 1986 and 1991 (24 percent) than for spells that began between 1973 and 1979 (16 percent) or 1980 to 1985 (18 percent).
  • Between 1973 and 1979, first births to an unmarried, non-cohabiting mother were associated with 28 percent of first AFDC episodes. In contrast, such births were associated with 21 percent of first spells beginning between 1980 and 1985, and 22 percent of spells beginning between 1986 and 1991.

Table IND 8b. Percentage of First AFDC Spell Endings Associated with Specific Events: Selected Periods

 Spell Ended 1973 – 1979Spell Ended 1980 – 1985Spell Ended 1986 – 1991
Mother married or acquired cohabitor16.117.121.7
Children under 18 no longer present4.44.14.8
Mother's work hours increased by more than 500 hours per year15.425.027.1
Other adults' work hours increased by more than 500 hours, but no change in family structure21.816.816.7
Other adults' work hours increased by more than 500 hours, and a change in family structure6.510.35.8
Householder no longer reports work limitation13.019.215.8
Other transfer income increased by $1,000 or more (in 1996$)5.05.55.8
Changed state of residence5.911.05.9

Note: Events are defined to be neither mutually exclusive nor exhaustive. Work limitation is defined as a selfreported physical or nervous condition that limits the type of work or the amount of work the respondent can do

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1974 - 1992.


  • During the 1986 to 1991 time period, over one-fourth (27 percent) of first AFDC spell endings were associated with increases in mother’s work hours. The corresponding percentage was smaller for spells ending between 1973 and 1979 (15 percent).
  • In the 1973 - 1979 period, a greater percentage of spell endings was associated with an increase in work hours for other adults (22 percent) as compared to mothers (15 percent). In the more recent time period (1986 - 1991), a greater percentage of spell endings was associated with an increase in mother’s work hours (27 percent) compared to other adults (17 percent).

Indicator 9. Rates of Receipt of Means-tested Assistance

Figure IND 9a. Percentage of the Total Population Receiving AFDC/TANF, by Age: 1970-98

Figure IND 9a. Percentage of the Total Population Receiving AFDC/TANF, by Age: 1970-98

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to November 1, 1999, Internet release date December 23, 1999 (Available online at http://www.census.gov).


  • Although the SIPP data needed to examine welfare dependency are not yet available past 1995, administrative data for AFDC/TANF, food stamps, and SSI provide measures of recipiency for each of these three programs through 1998, as shown in Figures IND 9a, IND 9b, and IND 9c. Additional administrative data are shown in Appendix A.
  • Only 3.2 percent of the population received TANF in 1998, the lowest AFDC/TANF recipiency rate in the 28 years shown in Figure IND 9a.
  • AFDC/TANF recipiency rates are much higher for children than for adults, with the child recipiency rates showing more pronounced changes over time. Child recipiency rates increased substantially between 1970 and 1976, and then remained relatively stable for the next 13 years (i.e. through 1989), before turning upward in the early 1990s and then declining sharply. Between 1993 and 1998, the child recipiency rate declined from 14.1 to 8.7 percent, a decline of 5 percentage points.

Table IND 9a. Number and Percentage of the Total Population Receiving AFDC/TANF, by Age: 1970- 98

 Total Recipients 1Adult RecipientsChild Recipients 2
Fiscal YearNumber (thousands)PercentNumber (thousands)PercentNumber (thousands)Percent
1970..............7,1883.51,8631.45,3257.6
1971..............9,2814.52,5161.86,7659.7
1972..............10,3454.92,8482.07,49710.8
1973..............10,7605.12,9842.17,77611.3
1974..............10,5915.02,9352.07,65611.3
1975..............10,8545.03,0782.17,77611.6
1976..............11,1715.13,2712.27,90011.9
1977..............10,9335.03,2302.17,70311.8
1978..............10,4854.73,1282.07,35711.4
1979..............10,1464.53,0711.97,07511.0
1980..............10,4224.63,2262.07,19611.3
1981..............10,9794.83,4912.17,48811.8
1982..............10,2334.43,3952.06,83810.9
1983..............10,4674.53,5482.16,91911.1
1984..............10,6774.53,6522.17,02511.2
1985..............10,6304.53,5892.07,04111.2
1986..............10,8104.53,6372.17,17311.4
1987..............10,8784.53,6242.07,25411.5
1988..............10,7344.43,5362.07,19811.4
1989..............10,7414.43,5031.97,23811.4
1990..............11,2634.53,6432.07,62011.9
1991..............12,3914.94,0162.18,37512.9
1992..............13,4235.34,3362.39,08713.7
1993..............13,9435.44,5192.49,42414.1
1994..............14,0335.44,5542.49,47914.0
1995..............13,4795.14,3222.29,15713.4
1996..............12,4764.73,9202.08,55612.4
19973............10,7794.03,106 41.67,673 411.0
1998..............8,6333.22,573 51.36,060 58.7

Note: See Appendix A, Tables A-5, A-12, and A-13, for more detailed data on recipiency rates.
1 Does not include the territories.
2 Includes a small number of dependents 18 and older who are students.
3 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC Program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program.
4 Average number of adults and children based on the first three quarters of 1997 only; data on number of adults and children under TANF not currently available.
5 The average number of adults and children in 1998 is estimated by multiplying the ratio of total children to total recipients (from the Quality Control data estimates) times the total number of recipients in 1998 from the administrative data records.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to November 1, 1999, Internet release date December 23, 1999 (Available online at http://www.census.gov).


Figure IND 9b. Percentage of the Total Population Receiving Food Stamps, by Age: 1975-98

Figure IND 9b. Percentage of the Total Population Receiving Food Stamps, by Age: 1975-98

Source: USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1998, and earlier reports and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to November 1, 1999, Internet release date December 23, 1999 (Available online at http://www.census.gov).


  • The food stamp recipiency rate, like the AFDC/TANF recipiency rate shown previously in Figure IND 9a, fell sharply in recent years, from a high of 10.5 in 1993 and 1994, to only 7.3 percent in 1998. The recipiency rate was lower in 1998 than at any other point since 1979.
  • In all years between 1980 and 1998, the percentage of all children who received food stamps was between two and one-half to three times that for all adults 18 to 59.
  • Similar trends – largely reflecting changes in the rate of unemployment and programmatic changes – existed for each age group: children, adults aged 18 to 59 and adults aged 60 and over. The percentages of individuals receiving food stamps within all age groups declined from 1984 through 1988, rose in the early 1990s, peaked in 1994, and fell sharply between 1994 and 1998.

Table IND 9b. Number and Percentage of the Population Receiving Food Stamps, by Age: 1975-98

 Total Recipients 1Adult Recipients 60 & olderAdult Recipients 18 to 9Child Recipients under 18
Fiscal YearNumber (thousands)PercentNumber (thousands)PercentNumber(thousands)PercentNumber (thousands)Percent
1975..............17,2178.0
1976..............16,7337.7
1977..............15,5797.1
1978..............14,5036.5
1979..............15,9767.1
1980..............19,2538.51,7414.97,1865.69,87615.5
1981..............20,6549.01,8455.07,8116.09,80315.5
1982..............20,4468.81,6414.47,8386.09,59115.3
1983..............21,6679.31,6544.48,9606.710,91017.4
1984..............20,7968.81,7584.58,5216.310,49216.8
1985..............19,8478.31,7834.58,2586.19,90615.8
1986..............19,3818.11,6314.17,8955.79,84415.7
1987..............19,0727.91,5893.97,6845.59,77115.5
1988..............18,6137.61,5003.77,5065.39,35114.8
1989..............18,7787.61,5823.87,5605.39,42914.9
1990..............20,0388.01,5113.68,0845.610,12715.8
1991..............22,5999.01,5933.89,1906.411,95218.4
1992..............25,3699.91,6873.910,5507.213,34920.2
1993..............26,95210.51,8764.411,2147.614,19621.2
1994..............27,46910.61,9524.511,5397.714,39121.2
1995..............26,57510.11,8964.310,9627.313,86020.2
1996..............25,5339.61,8924.310,7667.112,99218.8
1997..............22,8588.51,8344.19,3856.111,87117.1
1998..............19,7887.31,6373.77,7725.010,54615.1

Note: See Appendix A, Tables A-14 and A-19 for more detailed data on recipiency rates.
1 Does not include the territories.
Source: USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1998, and earlier reports and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to November 1, 1999, Internet release date December 23, 1999 (Available online at http://www.census.gov).


Figure IND 9c. Percentage of the Total Population Receiving SSI, by Age: 1974-98

Figure IND 9c. Percentage of the Total Population Receiving SSI, by Age: 1974-98

Note: Recipients are reported as of December in each year.

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics (data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html) and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to November 1, 1999, Internet release date December 23, 1999 (Available online at http://www.census.gov).


  • Unlike the recipiency rates for AFDC/TANF and food stamps, which are strongly influenced by the economy and welfare reform, recipiency rates for SSI show less variation. The proportion of the total population that receives SSI has risen slightly over time, from about 2 percent in 1975 to 2.4 percent in 1998.
  • Elderly adults (aged 65 and older) have much higher recipiency rates than any other age group. The gap has narrowed, however, as the percentage of adults aged 65 and older has fallen from 11 percent (in 1974) to 6 percent (in 1998).
  • The proportion of children receiving SSI has increased gradually between 1975 and 1990, rising from 0.2 percent to 0.5 percent. Since then it has grown more rapidly, reaching 1.5 percent in 1996. The child recipiency rate fell to 1.3 percent in 1997 and remained at that level through 1998.

Table IND 9c. Number and Percentage of the Population Receiving SSI, by Age: 1975-98

 Total RecipientsAdult Recipients 65 & olderAdult Recipients 18 to 64Child Recipients1  under 18
DateNumber (thousands)PercentNumber (thousands)PercentNumber (thousands)PercentNumber (thousands)Percent
Dec '754,3142.02,50810.91,6781.31280.2
Dec '764,2361.92,39710.21,6861.31530.2
Dec '774,2381.92,3539.71,7091.31750.3
Dec '784,2171.92,3049.31,7161.31970.3
Dec '794,1501.82,2468.81,6921.22120.3
Dec '804,1421.82,2218.61,6931.22290.4
Dec '814,0191.72,1218.01,6681.22300.4
Dec '823,8581.72,0117.41,6181.12290.4
Dec '833,9011.72,0037.31,6621.12360.4
Dec '844,0291.72,0377.21,7431.22490.4
Dec '854,1381.72,0317.11,8411.22650.4
Dec '864,2691.82,0186.91,9721.32800.4
Dec '874,3851.82,0156.72,0811.42890.5
Dec '884,4641.82,0066.62,1681.42900.5
Dec '894,5931.92,0266.52,2711.52960.5
Dec '904,8171.92,0596.52,4181.63400.5
Dec '915,1182.02,0806.52,6001.74390.7
Dec '925,5662.22,1006.52,8431.86240.9
Dec '935,9842.32,1136.43,1012.07711.1
Dec '946,2962.42,1196.33,2842.18931.3
Dec '956,5142.52,1156.33,4252.19741.4
Dec '966,6302.52,1106.23,5032.11,0161.5
Dec '976,4952.42,0546.03,5112.19301.3
Dec '986,5662.42,0335.93,6052.29281.3

Note: December population figures used as the denominators are obtained by averaging the Census Bureau's July 1 population estimate for the current and the following year. See Appendix, Tables A-23, A-25, and A-26.
1 Includes a small number of dependents 18 and older who are students.
Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics (data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html) and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to November 1, 1999, Internet release date December 23, 1999 (Available online at http://www.census.gov).

Indicator 10. Rates of Participation in Means-tested Assistance Programs

Figure IND 10. Participation Rates in the AFDC/TANF, Food Stamp and SSI Programs: Selected Years

Figure IND 10. Participation Rates in the AFDC/TANF, Food Stamp and SSI Programs: Selected Years

Sources: AFDC and SSI participation rates are from the Urban Institute TRIM microsimulation model, while food stamp participation rates are from a Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. model. See Tables IND 10a, IND 10b, and IND 10c for details.


  • Whereas Indicator 9 examined participants as a percentage of the total population (recipiency rates), this Indicator examines participating families or households as a percentage of the estimated eligible population (participation rates, also known as “take up” rates).
  • Participation rates for both AFDC/TANF and the Food Stamp program fell significantly between 1995 and 1997. In contrast, SSI participation rates have risen slightly over this time period.
  • Only 69 percent of the families estimated as eligible for AFDC/TANF actually enrolled and received benefits in an average month in 1997. This was significantly lower than traditional participation rates, which ranged from 77 to 86 percent between 1981 and 1996.
  • The SSI participation rate in 1997 was slightly higher than the AFDC rate – 71 percent – while the food stamp participation rate was lower – 56 percent.

Table IND 10a. Number and Percentage of Eligible Families Participating in AFDC/TANF: Selected Years

Calendar YearEligible Families (in millions)Participating Families (in millions)Participation Rate (percent)
1981............................4.83.980
1983............................4.73.778
1985............................4.73.779
1987............................4.93.877
1988............................4.83.778
1989............................4.53.884
1990............................4.84.082
1992............................5.64.886
1993............................6.15.082
1994 ............................6.05.083
1995............................5.84.984
1996............................5.84.679
1997............................5.74.069

Notes: Eligible families estimated by an Urban Institute model (TRIM) which uses CPS data to simulate AFDC/TANF eligibility for an average month, by calendar year. Caseload data are reported by calendar year and adjusted to exclude the territories and pregnant women with no other children because these cases are not identified in the TRIM-based eligibility estimates. There have been small changes in estimating methodology over time, due to model improvements and revisions to the CPS. Most notably, the model was revised in 1997 to more accurately exclude ineligible immigrants. This change has the effect of increasing the 1997 participation rates relative to rates for prior years.

Source: DHHS, Administration for Children and Families caseload tabulations and unpublished data from the Urban Institute TRIM microsimulation model.


  • There was little change in the size of the eligible population for AFDC/TANF between 1995 and 1997, according to estimates shown in Table IND 10a. Thus the large caseload declines over that period were largely a result of declining participation or “take up” rates among the eligible populations.

Table IND 10b. Number and Percentage of Eligible Households Participating in the Food Stamp Program: Selected Years

DateEligible Households (in millions)Participating Households (in millions)Participation Rate (percent)
September 76..................16.35.333
February 78....................14.05.338
August 80.......................14.07.452
August 82.......................14.57.551
August 84.......................14.27.352
August 86.......................15.37.147
August 88.......................14.97.047
August 90.......................14.58.055
August 91.......................15.69.259
August 92.......................16.710.262
August 93.......................17.010.964
August 94 (o)...................17.011.065
August 94 (r) ...................15.910.767
August 95.......................15.510.467
August 96.......................15.910.163
September 97...................15.08.556

Note: Eligible households estimated from a Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. model that uses CPS data to simulate the Food Stamp Program. Caseload data are from USDA, FNS program operations caseload data. There have been small changes in estimating methodology over time, due to model improvements and revisions to the CPS. Most notably, the model was revised in 1994 to produce more accurate (and lower) estimates of eligible households. The original 1994 estimate and estimates for previous years show higher estimates of eligibles and lower participation rates relative to the revised estimate for 1994 and estimates for subsequent years.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Trends in Food Stamp Program Participation Rates: Focus on September 1997.


  • The proportion of eligible households who participated in the Food Stamp program fell from 63 percent in 1996 to 56 percent in 1997, a drop of 7 percentage points. This is the second year in a row that there has been a decline in Food Stamp participation rates.
  • In addition, there was a decline in the number of households eligible for the Food Stamp program, from close to 16 million in August 1994, to 15 million in September 1997. This decline was driven by new eligibility restrictions on aliens and able-bodied adults without dependent children, growth in the economy, changes in the TANF program, and other factors.
  • The significant drop in participating households, from 10.1 million households in August 1996 to 8.5 million households in September 1997, reflects the combined effect of a decline in the eligible population and lower participation rates.

 Table IND 10c. Percentage of Eligible Adult Units Participating in the SSI Program, by Type: 1993-97

DateAll Adult UnitsOne-Person UnitsMarried-Couple Units
AgedDisabled
1993..............62.057.071.037.0
1994..............65.058.473.043.9
1995..............69.164.974.052.2
1996..............66.660.473.546.7
1997..............71.162.779.449.1

Notes: Participation rates estimated by an Urban Institute model (TRIM) which uses CPS data to simulate SSI eligibility for an average month, by calendar year. There have been small changes in estimating methodology over time, due to model improvements and revisions to the CPS. In particular, the model was revised in 1997 to more accurately exclude ineligible immigrants. Thus the increased participation rate in 1997 is partly due to a revision in estimating methodology. Also note that the figure for married-couple units is based on very small sample sizes–married couple units were only about 7 percent of the adults units in the average month of 1997.

Source: Unpublished data from the Urban Institute TRIM microsimulation model.


  • In contrast to the declining participation rates for the AFDC/TANF and Food Stamp programs, the participation rate for adult units in the SSI Program has been increasing, from 62 percent in 1993, to 71 percent in 1997. Note, however, that some of the apparent growth between 1996 and 1997 may be due to a revision in estimating methodology, as noted above.
  • · In 1997, as in past years, disabled adults in one-person units had a higher participation rate (79 percent) than both aged adults in one-person units (63 percent) and adults in marriedcouple units (49 percent).

Chapter III. Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt

The Welfare Indicators Act challenges the Department of Health and Human Services to identify and set forth not only indicators of welfare dependence and welfare duration, but also predictors and causes of welfare receipt. Up to this point, welfare research has not established clear and definitive causes of welfare dependence. However, research has identified a number of risk factors associated with welfare utilization. For purposes of this report, the terms “predictors” and “risk factors” are used somewhat interchangeably, although the differences between them are acknowledged.

Where the Advisory Board recommended narrowing the focus of dependence indicators, it recommended an expansive view toward predictors and risk factors. The first two annual reports included a set of 30 different predictors and risk factors; of these, 20 are included in the current volume. As discussed in Chapter I, the reduction in the length of the report responds to Congressional intent and reduces overlap with other publications issued by the Department. Even with this reduction, the range of possible predictors is extremely wide, and until they are measured and analyzed over time as the PRWORA changes are implemented, their value will not be known. Some of the “predictors” included in this chapter may turn out to be simply correlates of welfare receipt, some may have a causal relationship, some may be consequences, and some may have predictive value.

For purposes of this report, the predictors/risk factors included in this chapter are grouped into three categories: economic security risk factors, employment-related risk factors, and risk factors associated with non-marital childbearing.

Economic Security Risk Factors (ECON).

The first group includes six measures associated with economic security. This group encompasses three measures of poverty, as well as measures of child support receipt, food insecurity, and lack of health insurance. The tables and figures illustrating measures of economic security are labeled with the prefix ECON throughout this chapter.

Poverty measures are important predictors of dependence, because families with fewer economic resources are more likely to be dependent on means-tested assistance. In addition, poverty and other measures of deprivation, such as food insecurity, are important to assess in conjunction with the measures of dependence outlined in Chapter II. Reductions in caseloads and dependence can reduce poverty, to the extent that such reductions are associated with greater work activity and higher economic resources for former welfare families. However, reductions in welfare caseloads can increase poverty and other deprivation measures, to the extent that former welfare families are left with fewer economic resources.

Three aspects of poverty are examined in this chapter: overall poverty rates (ECON 1); the length of poverty episodes or spells (ECON 2); and the cumulative time spent in poverty over a decade (ECON 3). All three are measured using the official poverty rate, which counts all cash income, but does not take into account the value of non-cash benefits, such as food stamps, or the effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit or other taxes. Some more comprehensive measures of poverty were shown in Chapter I (see Tables SUM 4 and SUM 5). Further work on analyzing poverty trends under alternative poverty measures is under way, and next year’s report may include revised measures of poverty, following those recommended by the National Academy of Sciences.

This chapter also includes data on child support payments (ECON 4), which can play an important role in reducing dependence on government assistance and thus serve as a predictor of dependence. Household food insecurity (ECON 5) is an important measure of deprivation that, although correlated with general income poverty, provides an alternative measure of tracking the incidence of material hardship and need, and how it may change over time. Finally, health insurance (ECON 6) is both tied to the income level of the family, and may be a precursor to future health problems among both adults and children.

Economic Security Risk Factor 1. Poverty Rates

Figure ECON 1a. Percentage of Persons in Poverty, by Age: 1959-98

Figure ECON 1a. Percentage of Persons in Poverty, by Age: 1959-98

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and data published online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html.


  • The percentage of persons living in poverty has continued to decline since 1993, when the poverty rate for all persons was at a ten-year high of just over 15 percent. In 1998, the overall poverty rate was just under 13 percent, the lowest level since 1989.
  • While the poverty rate for children has declined along with the overall rate in the past several years, children, particularly young children, continue to have higher poverty rates than the overall population. For example, in 1998, the poverty rate for related children ages 0 to 5 was 21 percent, compared to 13 percent for the overall population.
  • The poverty rate for blacks declined 7 percentage points between 1992 and 1998, from 33 percent to 26 percent, as shown in Table ECON 1a. Though at an historic low, the poverty rate for blacks remains 16 percentage points above the rate for whites. The poverty rate among Hispanics has also declined over this time period; in 1998, the Hispanic poverty rate was just about equal to that of blacks.
  • The poverty rate for the elderly reached an historic low of 10.5 percent in 1995 and has remained at essentially that level since then.

Table ECON 1a. Percentage of Persons in Poverty, by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: Selected Years

 Related ChildrenAll Persons  Hispanic
 Ages 0 - 5Ages 6 - 17TotalUnder 18 118 to 6465 & overWhiteBlackOrigin 2
1959N/AN/A22.427.317.035.218.155.1N/A
1963N/AN/A19.523.1N/AN/A15.3N/AN/A
1966N/AN/A14.717.610.528.511.341.8N/A
196915.313.112.114.08.725.39.532.2N/A
197315.713.611.114.48.316.38.431.421.9
197617.715.111.816.09.015.09.131.124.7
197917.915.111.716.48.915.29.031.021.8
198020.316.813.018.310.115.710.232.525.7
198122.018.414.020.011.115.311.134.226.5
198223.320.415.021.912.014.612.035.629.9
198324.620.415.222.312.413.812.135.728.0
198423.419.714.421.511.712.411.533.828.4
198522.618.814.020.711.312.611.431.329.0
198621.618.813.620.510.812.411.031.127.3
198722.318.913.420.310.612.510.432.428.0
198821.817.513.019.510.512.010.131.326.7
198921.917.412.819.610.211.410.030.726.2
199023.018.213.520.610.712.210.731.928.1
199124.019.514.221.811.412.411.332.728.7
199225.719.414.822.311.912.911.933.429.6
199325.620.015.122.712.412.212.233.130.6
199424.519.514.521.811.911.711.730.630.7
199523.718.313.820.811.410.511.229.330.3
199622.718.313.720.511.410.811.228.429.4
199721.618.013.319.910.910.511.026.527.1
199820.617.112.718.910.510.510.526.125.6

1 All persons under 18 include related children (own children, including stepchildren and adopted children, plus all other children in the household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption), unrelated individuals under 18 (persons who are not living with any relatives), and householders or spouses under age 18.2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and data published online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html.&nbsp;


Figure ECON 1b. Percentage of Population Below 50 and 100 Percent of Poverty Level: 1975-98

Figure ECON 1b. Percentage of Population Below 50 and 100 Percent of Poverty Level: 1975-98

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and unpublished tables available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html.


  • Between 1993 and 1998, the percentage of the population with incomes below 50 percent of the poverty level decreased by one percentage point (from 6.2 percent in 1993 to 5.1 percent in 1998).
  • In general, the percentage of the population with incomes below 50 percent of the poverty threshold has risen and fallen in a pattern that reflects to some degree the trend in the overall poverty rate. For example, the percentage of people below 50 percent of poverty rose between 1976 and 1983, then after falling slightly, rose to a second peak in 1993. The overall poverty rate – the percentage of people below 100 percent of poverty – also peaked in 1983 and 1993 in a somewhat similar pattern, although with more pronounced peaks and valleys.
  • Over the past two decades, however, there has been an overall increase in the proportion of the poverty population that falls below 50 percent of the poverty threshold. From a low of 28 percent of the poverty population in 1976, the population below 50 percent of the poverty threshold rose to nearly 41 percent by 1992. In 1998, 40 percent of poor persons experienced “deep poverty,” that is, had incomes that fell below 50 percent of the poverty level.
  • Not only the poverty rate, but also the total number of poor people fell in 1998, as shown in Table ECON 1b. In 1998, there were 34.5 million people with family incomes below 100 percent of the poverty threshold, 5 million fewer than the poverty population in 1959.

Table ECON 1b. Number and Percentage of Population Below 50, 75, 100, and 125 Percent of Poverty Threshold: Selected Years

in 000’sTotalBelow 50 percentBelow 75 percentBelow 100 percentBelow 125 percent
 PopulationNumberPercentNumberPercentNumberPercentNumberPercent
1959176,600N/AN/AN/AN/A39,50022.454,90031.1
1961181,300N/AN/AN/AN/A39,60021.954,30030.0
1963187,300N/AN/AN/AN/A36,40019.550,80027.1
1965191,400N/AN/AN/AN/A33,20017.346,20024.1
1967195,700N/AN/AN/AN/A27,80014.239,20020.0
1969199,5009,600 14.8 116,400 18.2 124,10012.134,70017.4
1971204,600N/AN/AN/AN/A25,60012.536,50017.8
1973208,500N/AN/AN/AN/A23,00011.132,80015.8
1975210,9007,7003.715,4007.325,90012.337,10017.6
1976212,3007,0003.314,9007.025,00011.835,50016.7
1977213,9007,5003.515,0007.024,70011.635,70016.7
1978215,7007,7003.614,9006.924,50011.434,10015.8
1979222,9008,6003.816,3007.326,10011.736,60016.4
1980225,0009,8004.418,7008.329,30013.040,70018.1
1981227,20011,2004.920,7009.131,80014.043,80019.3
1982229,40012,8005.623,20010.134,40015.046,60020.3
1983231,70013,6005.923,60010.235,30015.247,00020.3
1984233,80012,8005.522,7009.733,70014.445,40019.4
1985236,60012,4005.222,2009.433,10013.644,20018.7
1986238,60012,7005.322,4009.432,40014.044,60018.7
1987241,00012,5005.221,7009.032,20013.443,10017.9
1988243,50012,7005.221,4008.831,70013.042,60017.5
1989246,00012,0004.920,7008.431,50012.842,60017.3
1990248,60012,9005.222,6009.133,60013.544,80018.0
1991251,20014,1005.624,4009.735,70014.247,50018.9
1992256,50015,5006.126,20010.238,00014.850,50019.7
1993259,30016,0006.227,20010.539,30015.151,90020.0
1994261,60015,4005.926,40010.138,10014.550,50019.3
1995263,70013,9005.324,5009.336,40013.848,80018.5
1996266,20014,4005.424,8009.336,50013.749,30018.5
1997268,50014,6005.424,2009.035,60013.347,80017.8
1998271,10013,9005.123,0008.534,50012.746,00017.0

1 The number of persons below 50 percent and 75 percent of poverty are estimated based on the distribution of persons below 50 percent and 75 percent for 1969 taken from the 1970 decennial census: 1970 Census of Population, Volume 1, Social and Economic Characteristics, Table 259.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and unpublished tables available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html.

Economic Security Risk Factor 2. Poverty Spells

Figure ECON 2. Percentage of Poverty Spells for Individuals Entering Poverty During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell

Figure ECON 2. Percentage of Poverty Spells for Individuals Entering Poverty During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.


  • Nearly half (47 percent) of all poverty spells that began during the 1993 SIPP panel ended within 4 months and three-fourths ended within one year. Only 16 percent of all such spells were longer than 20 months.
  •  Spells of poverty among adults age 65 and older tend to last longer than poverty spells among younger individuals. As shown in Table ECON 2, only 65 percent of poverty spells among adults age 65 and older ended within one year compared to 80 percent for women ages 16 to 64, 75 percent for men ages 16 to 64, and 73 percent for children ages 0 to 15.
  •  As shown in Table ECON 2, a larger percentage of poverty spells among non-Hispanic blacks were longer than 20 months (23 percent) than was the case for spells among non-Hispanic whites (14 percent) and among Hispanics (15 percent).
  • In general, poverty spells are shorter than spells of welfare receipt begun in the same time period, as can be seen by comparing Figure ECON 2 to Figure IND 5 in Chapter II. That is, there is more movement in and out of poverty than movement on and off welfare. For example, 75 percent of poverty spells lasted a year or less, whereas only 60 percent of food stamp spells and 56 percent of AFDC spells lasted a year or less.

Table ECON 2. Percentage of Poverty Spells for Individuals Entering Poverty During the 1993 SIPP Panel, by Length of Spell, Race, and Age

 Spells <=4 monthsSpells <=12 monthsSpells <=20 monthsSpells >20 months
All Persons47.375.484.315.7
Racial Categories    
Non-Hispanic White47.378.886.313.7
Non-Hispanic Black39.964.176.723.3
Hispanic42.574.484.715.3
Age Categories    
Children Ages 0 – 1543.873.082.217.8
Women Ages 16 – 6447.679.988.911.1
Men Ages 16 – 6451.675.284.215.8
Adults Age 65 and over40.765.473.027.0

Note: Spell length categories are not mutually exclusive. Spells separated by only 1 month are not considered separate spells. Due to the length of the observation period, actual spell lengths for spells that lasted more than 20 months cannot be observed.

Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.

Economic Security Risk Factor 3. Long-term Poverty

Figure ECON 3. Percentage of Children Ages 0 to 5 in 1982 Living in Poverty, by Years in Poverty

Figure ECON 3. Percentage of Children Ages 0 to 5 in 1982 Living in Poverty, by Years in Poverty

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1983-1992.


  • Among children who were ages 0 to 5 in 1982, nearly three-quarters (73 percent) never lived in poverty for any year over the next ten years, as shown in Figure ECON 3. One-fifth (20 percent) lived in poverty for one to five years and 7 percent were poor for six to ten years.
  • During the 1982-1991 period, 28 percent of black children experienced longer-term poverty of six to ten years, a percentage much higher than that for non-black children during the same ten-year period (3 percent).
  • Similar patterns existed in the 1972-1981 period, as shown in Table ECON 3. For both time periods, the percentages of all individuals who were poor for only one to two years were much larger than the percentages of all individuals who experienced longer-term poverty. For example, while 11 percent of all individuals were poor for only one to two years between 1982 and 1991, only 3 percent were poor for six to eight years and only 2 percent were poor for nine to ten years during the same time period.
  • Children were more likely than others to experience long-term poverty, especially poverty of nine or ten years. This pattern was true in both time periods.

Table ECON 3. Percentage of Individuals Living in Poverty, by Years in Poverty, Race, and Age

Between 1982 and 1991:
  All Persons 
 All PersonsBlackNon-Black
0 Years78.850.682.9
1 - 2 Years11.314.910.7
3 - 5 Years5.314.44.0
6 - 8 Years2.811.22.0
9 - 10 Years1.88.90.7
 100.0100.0100.0
  Children 0 - 5 in 1982 
 All ChildrenBlack ChildrenNon-Black Children
0 Years73.340.979.2
1 - 2 Years12.316.511.6
3 - 5 Years7.514.86.1
6 - 8 Years3.211.11.7
9 - 10 Years3.816.81.4
Between 1972 and 1981:
  All Persons 
 All PersonsBlackNon-Black
0 Years79.245.683.7
1 - 2 Years12.32011.3
3 - 5 Years4.616.63.1
6 - 8 Years2.510.41.5
9 – 10 Years1.27.50.4
  Children 0 - 5 in 1972 
 All ChildrenBlack ChildrenNon-Black Children
0 Years75.634.182.3
1 - 2 Years13.121.711.7
3 - 5 Years5.620.53.2
6 - 8 Years3.211.11.9
9 – 10 Years2.512.80.9

Source: Unpublished data from the PSID, 1973-1992.

Economic Security Risk Factor 4. Child SUPPORT

Figure ECON 4a. Total, Non-AFDC/TANF, and AFDC/TANF Title IV-D Child Support Collections: 1978-98

Figure ECON 4a. Total, Non-AFDC/TANF, and AFDC/TANF Title IV-D Child Support Collections: 1978-98

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement, Preliminary Child Support Enforcement FY 1998 Data Report, 1999 (and earlier years), Washington, DC.


  • Collections paid through the Child Support Enforcement system (Title IV-D of the Social Security Act) totalled $14.3 billion in 1998, nearly $1 billion more than in 1997. Over the past 10 years, collections have grown rapidly, at an average rate of $948 million a year.
  • Non-TANF collections increased by nearly $1.2 billion between 1997 and 1998, while TANF collections declined by $0.2 billion. The growth in non-TANF collections was due to the growth in both the number of non-custodial parents paying child support and increases in the average amount of support paid per case. Note that the 7 percent drop in TANF collections was smaller than the 20 percent drop in the number of TANF recipient families in the same year.
  • In 1997 and 1998, over 94 percent of TANF collections (collections on behalf of TANF recipients and for past due support assigned to the state by former TANF recipients) were retained to reimburse the state and federal governments for the cost of welfare benefits. A larger proportion of TANF collections were paid to AFDC/TANF families between FY 1984 and FY 1996, when the first $50 of each month’s child support collection were “passed through” to families that were receiving cash benefits (see “IV-D Payments to AFDC/TANF Families” in Figure ECON 4a). The $50 pass-through was repealed by the 1996 welfare reform law, although a number of states have opted to pass through some or all of collections to the custodial TANF family, despite the loss of revenues to the state.

Table ECON 4a. Total, Non-AFDC/TANF, and AFDC/TANF Title IV-D Child Support Collections: 1978-98

 Total Collections (in millions) 
 TotalAFDC/TANF Collections  
Fiscal YearCurrent DollarsConstant '98 DollarsTotalPayments to AFDC/TANF FamiliesFederal & State Share of CollectionsNon-AFDC/TANF CollectionsTotal IV-D Administrative Expenditures
1978$1,047$2,568$472$13$459$575$312
19791,3333,00259712584736383
19801,4782,98560310593874466
19811,6292,99667112659958526
19821,7713,04078615771985612
19832,0243,337880158651,144691
19842,3783,7561,000179831,378723
19852,6944,1031,0901899011,604814
19863,2494,8211,2252759552,019941
19873,9175,6601,3492781,0702,5691,066
19884,6056,4031,4862891,1883,1281,171
19895,2416,9421,5933071,2863,6481,363
19906,0107,5841,7503341,4164,2601,606
19916,8868,2711,9843811,6034,9021,804
19927,9649,2852,2594351,8245,7051,995
19938,90710,0802,4164461,9716,4912,241
19949,85010,8602,5504572,0937,3002,556
199510,82711,6142,6894742,2158,1383,012
199612,02012,5452,8554802,3759,1653,055
199713,36413,5812,8431572,68510,5213,432
199814,34814,3482,6501522,49811,6983,589

Note: Not all states report current child support collections in all years. Constant dollar adjustments to the 1998 level were made using a CPI-U-X1 fiscal year average price index.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement, Preliminary Child Support Enforcement FY 1998 Data Report, 1999 (and earlier years), Washington, DC.


Figure ECON 4b. Average Annual Child Support Enforcement Payments for Current Support by Non-Custodial Parents with an Obligation and Payment (1997 Dollars): 1986-97

Figure ECON 4b. Average Annual Child Support Enforcement Payments for Current Support by Non-Custodial Parents with an Obligation and Payment (1997 Dollars): 1986-97Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement, Preliminary Child Support Enforcement FY 1997 Data Report, 1998, and Twentieth Annual Report to Congress, for the period ending September 30, 1995 (and earlier years), Washington, DC.


  • Average payments on behalf of families not receiving AFDC/TANF have, over time, been about twice as large as those payments for families receiving AFDC/TANF, as shown in Figure ECON 4b. (Note that many families not on AFDC/TANF may have received AFDC/TANF sometime in the past.)
  • Although current dollar annual payments on behalf of AFDC/TANF and non-AFDC/TANF families have increased by more than 40 percent between FY 1986 and FY 1997, when converted to constant dollars, average payments have not quite kept pace with inflation (as shown in Table ECON 4b and Figure ECON 4b).

Table ECON 4b. Average Annual Child Support Enforcement Payments for Current Support by Non-Custodial Parents with an Obligation and Payment (Nominal and 1997 Dollars): 1986-97

 AFDC/TANFNon-AFDC/TANFTotal 
Fiscal YearCurrent DollarsConstant ’97 DollarsCurrent DollarsConstant ’97 DollarsCurrent DollarsConstant ’97 DollarsF.Y. CPI-U
1986$959$1,402$1,936$2,830$1,433$2,095109.3
19879101,2941,8512,6321,4162,013112.4
19889751,3321,7932,4491,4682,005117.0
19891,0461,3631,7702,3071,4571,899122.6
19901,1101,3781,9982,4811,6722,076128.7
19911,0491,2401,9892,3511,7112,022135.2
19921,2101,3882,3142,6551,9192,201139.3
19931,2301,3702,4982,7821,9902,216143.5
19941,1781,2782,2662,4581,8892,049147.3
19951,2941,3662,5952,7392,1672,287151.4
19961,2801,3152,5912,6612,1522,210155.6
19971,3611,3612,3152,3152,1182,118159.8
1986-97       
– change$402-$41$379-$515$685$2350.5
– percent41.9%-2.9%19.6%-18.2%47.8%1.1%46.2%

Note: Data for 1997 are preliminary and do not include information from Florida, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Wisconsin.

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Child Support Enforcement, Preliminary Child Support Enforcement FY 1997 Data Report, 1998, and Twentieth Annual Report to Congress, for the period ending September 30, 1995 (and earlier years), Washington, DC.

Economic Security Risk Factor 5. Food Insecurity

Figure ECON 5. Percentage of Households Classified as Food Insecure: 1998

Figure ECON 5. Percentage of Households Classified as Food Insecure: 1998

Source: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, ERS, calculations using data August 1998 CPS Food Security Supplement.


  • A large majority (88 percent) of American households was food secure in 1998 – that is, showed little or no evidence of concern about food supply or reduction in food intake.
  • Approximately 12 percent of households experienced food insecurity (not being able to afford enough food) at some level during 1998. More than two-thirds of the food insecure households were without hunger, meaning that although food insecurity was evident in their concerns and in adjustments to household food management, little or no reduction in food intake was reported.
  • Less than 4 percent of all households were classified as food insecure with hunger. Thus, one or more members of these households were estimated to have experienced reduced food intake and hunger as a result of financial constraints in 1998.
  • As shown in Table ECON 5, households with children under 18 were more likely than households with elderly but no children to experience food insecurity in 1998 (17.6 percent compared to 5.4 percent).
  • Households with income below poverty had a higher rate of food insecurity (38 percent) than the 12 percent rate among the general population. Only 5 percent of families with incomes at or above 185 percent of the poverty level showed evidence of food insecurity.

Table ECON 5. Percentage of Households Classified as Food Insecure, by Selected Characteristics: 1998

 Food SecureFood Insecure Without HungerFood Insecure With Hunger
All Households88.28.13.7
Racial Categories   
Non-Hispanic White91.75.62.6
Non-Hispanic Black75.715.88.5
Hispanic75.018.26.8
Non-Hispanic Other86.59.83.6
Households, by Age and Race   
Households with Children Under 681.214.84.0
Non-Hispanic White87.310.22.5
Non-Hispanic Black66.624.98.5
Hispanic69.824.65.6
Households with Children Under 1882.413.34.3
Non-Hispanic White87.79.33.0
Non-Hispanic Black69.122.58.4
Hispanic69.223.87.0
Households with Elderly but No Children94.63.71.7
Non-Hispanic White96.42.61.0
Non-Hispanic Black82.411.36.3
Hispanic84.19.46.5
Households with Children, by Family Structure   
Married Couple Families88.59.42.1
Female Head, No Spouse64.624.810.6
Male Head, No Spouse80.214.35.5
Household Income-to-Poverty Ratio   
Under 0.5058.125.716.2
Under 1.0061.924.413.6
Under 1.3065.722.411.9
Under 1.8572.018.79.3
1.85 and over94.93.81.4

Note: Food secure households show little or no evidence of concern about food supply or reduction in food intake. Households classified as food insecure without hunger report food-related concerns, adjustments to household food management, and reduced variety and desirability of diet but report little or no reduction in food intake. Households classified as food insecure with hunger report reduced food intake and hunger, among adults at moderate levels of severity, and extending to children in households with more severe levels of hunger.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, calculations using data from the CPS Food Security Supplement, August 1998.

Economic Security Risk Factor 6. Lack of Health Insurance

Figure ECON 6. Percentage of Persons without Health Insurance, by Income: 1998

Figure ECON 6. Percentage of Persons without Health Insurance, by Income: 1998

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey, March 1999.


  • Poor persons were twice as likely as all persons to be without health insurance in 1998 (32 percent compared to 16 percent). While the ratio varied across categories, poor persons with family income at or below the poverty line were more likely to be without health insurance regardless of race, gender, educational attainment, or age.
  • Hispanics were the racial/ethnic group least likely to have health insurance in 1998, both among the general population and those with incomes below the poverty line. While whites in general were more likely to have insurance than blacks, poor blacks were more likely to have insurance than poor whites.
  • Among all persons, amount of education was inversely related to health insurance coverage, as shown in Table ECON 6. However, among poor persons, college graduates were just as likely to be without health insurance as those without a high school diploma.
  • As shown in Table ECON 6, individuals ages 18 to 34 are the most likely to be without health insurance, among both the general population and the poor population. Nearly half of all 18 to 34 year-olds with incomes below the poverty line had no health insurance in 1998.

    Table ECON 6. Percentage of Persons without Health Insurance, by Income and Selected Characteristics: 1998

 All PersonsPoor Persons
All Persons16.332.3
Male17.335.7
Female15.329.9
White15.033.8
Black22.228.8
Hispanic35.344.0
No H.S. Diploma26.736.0
H.S. Graduate, no college18.338.1
College Graduate8.536.6
Age 18 and under15.425.2
Ages 18 – 2430.046.7
Ages 25 – 3423.749.2
Ages 35 – 4417.243.5
Ages 45 – 6414.234.6
Age 65 and over1.13.2

Note: Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Health Insurance Coverage: 1998,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-208, 1999.

Non-Marital Birth Risk Factors (BIRTH).

The final group of risk factors addresses out-of-wedlock childbearing. The tables and figures in this subsection are labeled with the BIRTH prefix. This category includes long-term time trends in births to unmarried women (BIRTH 1), births to unmarried teens (BIRTH 2 and BIRTH 3), and children living in families with never-married parents (BIRTH 4). Children living in families with never-married mothers are at high risk of dependence, and it is therefore important to track changes in the size of this vulnerable population.

As noted above, the predictors/risk factors included in this chapter do not represent an exhaustive list of measures. They are merely a sampling of available data that address in some way the question of how a family is faring on the scale of deprivation and well-being. Such questions are a necessary part of the dependence discussion as researchers assess the effects of the major changes that have occurred in the laws governing public assistance programs.

Figure BIRTH 1. Percentage of Births to Unmarried Women, by Age Group: 1940-98

Figure BIRTH 1. Percentage of Births to Unmarried Women, by Age Group: 1940-98

Figure BIRTH 1. Percentage of Births to Unmarried Women, by Age Group: 1940-98

Sources: Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births to Unmarried Mothers: United States, 1980 - 1992,” Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21, No. 53, 1995; Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births: Final Data for 1997,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(18), 1999; Martin, J.A., Smith, B.L, Mathews, T.J., Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births and Deaths: Preliminary Data for 1998,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(25), 1999.


  • The percentage of children born outside of marriage to women of all ages has increased over the past half-century, from 4 percent in 1940 to 33 percent in 1998. This increase reflects changes in several factors: the rate at which unmarried women have children, the rate at which married women have children, and the rate at which women marry.
  • The percentage of children born outside of marriage is especially high among teen women, as shown in Figure BIRTH 1. Among teens, close to four-fifths (79 percent) of births were outside of marriage in 1998. The comparable percentage for all women is 33 percent.
  • Figure BIRTH 1 shows that the percentage of unmarried births to all women has leveled off since 1994. Growth in the percentage of unmarried births to teen mothers has also
    slowed since 1994, but it is still rising (from 76 percent in 1994 to 79 percent in 1997).
  • The trend toward leveling off has occurred among black teens and all black women while among white teens and all white women the trend continues upward (see Table B-1 in Appendix B for non-marital birth data by age and race).

Table BIRTH 1. Percentage of Births to Unmarried Women, by Age Group: 1940-98

 Under 1515-17 Years18-19 YearsAll TeensAll Women
194064.5N/AN/A14.03.8
194164.1N/AN/A14.23.8
194264.5N/AN/A13.23.4
194364.2N/AN/A13.43.3
194464.5N/AN/A15.73.8
194570.0N/AN/A18.24.3
194666.4N/AN/A15.73.8
194765.1N/AN/A13.03.6
194861.420.88.512.73.7
194961.821.18.612.93.7
195063.722.69.413.94.0
195162.921.89.113.53.9
195263.622.89.214.03.9
195364.022.39.614.14.1
195464.423.210.114.74.4
195566.323.210.314.94.5
195666.123.010.014.64.6
195766.123.19.814.54.7
195866.223.310.314.95.0
195967.924.210.615.45.2
196067.824.010.715.45.3
196169.725.311.316.25.6
196269.526.711.316.45.9
196371.128.212.518.06.3
196474.229.913.519.76.8
196578.532.815.321.67.7
196676.335.316.122.68.4
196780.337.718.025.09.0
196881.040.420.127.69.7
196979.341.321.128.710.0
197080.843.022.430.510.7
197182.144.523.231.811.3
197281.945.924.733.812.4
197384.846.725.635.013.0
197484.648.327.036.413.2
197587.051.429.839.314.2
197686.454.031.641.214.8
197788.256.634.443.815.5
197887.357.536.244.916.3
197988.860.038.146.917.1
198088.761.539.848.318.4
198189.263.341.449.918.9
198289.265.043.051.419.4
198390.467.545.754.120.3
198491.169.248.156.321.0
198591.870.950.758.722.0
198692.573.353.661.523.4
198792.975.856.064.024.5
198893.677.158.565.925.7
198992.477.760.467.227.1
199091.677.761.367.628.0
199191.378.763.269.329.5
199291.379.264.670.530.1
199391.379.966.171.831.0
199494.584.170.075.932.6
199593.583.769.875.632.2
199693.884.470.876.332.4
199795.786.772.578.232.4
199896.587.473.578.832.8

Notes: Births to unmarried women in the United States for 1940 - 1979 are estimated from data for registration areas in which marital status of the mother was reported; see sources below. Beginning in 1980, births to unmarried women in the United States are based on data from states reporting marital status directly and data from non-reporting states for which marital status was inferred from other information on the birth certificate; see sources below. Data for 1998 are preliminary.

Sources: Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births to Unmarried Mothers: United States, 1980 - 1992,” Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21, No. 53, 1995; Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births: Final Data for 1997,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(18), 1999; Martin, J.A., Smith, B.L, Mathews, T.J., Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births and Deaths: Preliminary Data for 1998,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(25), 1999.

Non-marital Birth Risk Factor 2. Births to Unmarried Teens

Figure BIRTH 2. Percentage of All Births to Unmarried Teens Ages 15 – 19, by Race: 1940-98

Figure BIRTH 2. Percentage of All Births to Unmarried Teens Ages 15 – 19, by Race: 1940-98

Sources: Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births to Unmarried Mothers: United States, 1980–1992,” Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21, No. 53, 1995; Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births: Final Data for 1997,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(18), 1999; Martin, J.A., Smith, B.L, Mathews, T.J., Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births and Deaths: Preliminary Data for 1998,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(25), 1999.


  • In contrast to Figure BIRTH 1, which showed births to unmarried teens as a percentage of all teen births, Figure BIRTH 2 shows births to unmarried teens as a percentage of births to all women. Births to unmarried teens as a percentage of all births have risen over time, from 2 percent in 1940 to 10 percent in 1998. This percentage is affected by several factors: the age distribution of the population, the marriage rate among teens, the birth rate among unmarried teens, and the birth rate among all other women.
  • Since 1960, the trend in the percentage of all births that were to unmarried teens has been upward among white women.
  • Among black women, the percentage of all births that were to unmarried teens varied greatly during the same period, peaking in 1975, then falling until the early 1990s. The sharp increase in the percentage for black women in the early 1970s reflects a rise in non-marital teen births concurrent with a decline in total black births. The percentage of all births that were to unmarried black teens has leveled off over the last five years.

Table BIRTH 2. Percentage of All Births to Unmarried Teens Ages 15 – 19, by Race: 1940-98

 All RacesWhiteBlack
19401.70.8N/A
19411.70.7N/A
19421.50.7N/A
19431.50.6N/A
19441.60.8N/A
19451.80.8N/A
19461.50.7N/A
19471.40.7N/A
19481.50.7N/A
19491.50.6N/A
19501.60.6N/A
19511.50.6N/A
19521.50.6N/A
19531.60.6N/A
19541.70.7N/A
19551.70.7N/A
19561.70.7N/A
19571.80.7N/A
19581.90.8N/A
19592.00.9N/A
19602.00.9N/A
19612.21.0N/A
19622.31.1N/A
19632.51.2N/A
19642.81.3N/A
19653.31.6N/A
19663.81.9N/A
19674.12.1N/A
19684.52.3N/A
19694.72.417.5
19705.12.618.8
19715.52.620.3
19726.23.022.6
19736.53.223.4
19746.73.323.9
19757.13.724.2
19767.13.823.8
19777.24.023.4
19787.24.022.7
19797.24.122.5
19807.34.422.2
19817.14.521.5
19827.14.521.2
19837.24.621.2
19847.14.620.7
19857.24.820.3
19867.55.120.1
19877.75.320.0
19888.05.620.3
19898.35.918.6
19908.46.118.3
19918.76.418.1
19928.76.520.2
19938.96.820.2
19949.77.521.1
19959.67.621.1
19969.67.720.9
19979.98.021.3
19989.98.020.6

Notes: Births to unmarried women in the United States for 1940–1979 are estimated from data for registration areas in which marital status of the mother was reported; see sources below. Beginning in 1980, births to unmarried women in the United States are based on data from states reporting marital status directly and data from non-reporting states for which marital status was inferred from other information on the birth certificate; see sources below. Data for 1998 are preliminary.

Sources: Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births to Unmarried Mothers: United States, 1980–1992,” Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21, No. 53, 1995; Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births: Final Data for 1997,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(18), 1999; Martin, J.A., Smith, B.L, Mathews, T.J., Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births and Deaths: Preliminary Data for 1998,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(25), 1999.

Non-marital Birth Risk Factor 3. Unmarried Teen Birth Rates Within Age Groups

Figure BIRTH 3a. Births per 1,000 Unmarried Teens Ages 15 - 17, by Race: 1960-97

Figure BIRTH 3a. Births per 1,000 Unmarried Teens Ages 15 - 17, by Race: 1960-97

Figure BIRTH 3b. Births per 1,000 Unmarried Teens Ages 18 and 19, by Race: 1960-97

Figure BIRTH 3b. Births per 1,000 Unmarried Teens Ages 18 and 19, by Race: 1960-97

Sources: Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births to Unmarried Mothers: United States, 1980–1992,” Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21, No. 53, 1995; Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births: Final Data for 1997,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(18), 1999; Martin, J.A., Smith, B.L, Mathews, T.J., Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, “Births and Deaths: Preliminary Data for 1998,” National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(25), 1999.


  • The birth rate per 1,000 unmarried teens fell between 1994 and 1997 for both black and white teens and for both younger (15 to 17 years) and older age groups (18 to 19 years). Declines were larger among black teens than among white teens.
  • Prior to 1994, birth rates among unmarried white teens in both age groups rose steadily for nearly three decades (4 to 24 percent among 15 to 17 year-olds and 11 to 56 percent among 18 to 19 year-olds).
  • Among unmarried black teens in both age groups, birth rates varied greatly over the period, reaching peaks in both the early 1970s and early 1990s. Rates for both age groups were lower in 1997 than in 1969. While birth rates among unmarried black teens remain high compared to rates for unmarried white teens, the gap been black and white teens is narrowing.

Table BIRTH 3. Births per 1,000 Unmarried Teen Women Within Age Groups, by Race: 1960-97

 Ages 15 – 17Ages 18 – 19
 TotalWhiteBlackTotalWhiteBlack
196011.14.4N/A24.311.4N/A
196111.74.6N/A24.612.1N/A
196210.74.1N/A23.811.7N/A
196310.94.5N/A25.813.0N/A
196411.64.9N/A26.513.6N/A
196512.55.0N/A25.813.9N/A
196613.15.4N/A25.614.1N/A
196713.85.6N/A27.615.3N/A
196814.76.2N/A29.616.6N/A
196915.26.672.030.816.6128.4
197017.17.577.932.917.6136.4
197117.57.480.731.715.8135.2
197218.58.082.830.915.1128.2
197318.78.481.230.414.9120.5
197418.88.878.631.215.3122.2
197519.39.676.832.516.5123.8
197619.09.773.532.116.9117.9
197719.810.573.034.618.7121.7
197819.110.368.835.119.3119.6
197919.910.871.037.221.0123.3
198020.612.068.839.024.1118.2
198120.912.665.939.024.6114.2
198221.513.166.339.625.3112.7
198322.013.666.840.726.4111.9
198421.913.766.542.527.9113.6
198522.414.566.845.931.2117.9
198622.814.967.048.033.5121.1
198724.516.269.948.934.5123.0
198826.417.673.551.536.8130.5
198928.719.378.956.040.2140.9
199029.620.478.860.744.9143.7
199130.921.880.465.749.6148.7
199230.421.678.067.351.5147.8
199330.622.176.866.952.4141.6
199432.024.175.170.156.4141.6
199530.523.668.667.655.4131.2
199629.022.764.065.954.1129.2
199728.222.460.665.253.6127.2

Note: Rates are per 1,000 unmarried women in specified group. Births to unmarried women in the U. S. for 1940–1979 are estimated from data for registration areas in which marital status of the mother was reported; see sources below (rates for 1960–65 are calculated by ASPE from National Center for Health Statistics estimates of births and Census population estimates). Beginning in 1980, births to unmarried women in the U.S. are based on data from states reporting marital status directly and data from non-reporting states for which marital status was inferred from other information on the birth certificate; see sources below. Beginning in 1980, data are tabulated by the race of the mother. Prior to 1980, data are tabulated by the race of the child; see sources below. Rates for 1981-1989 have been revised and differ, therefore, from rates published in Vital Statistics in the United States, Vol. 1, Natality, for 1991 and earlier years.

Source: See Figures BIRTH 3a and 3b.

Non-marital Birth Risk Factor 4. Never-married Family Status

Figure BIRTH 4. Percentage of All Children Living in Families With Never-Married Female Head, by Race: 1982-98

Figure BIRTH 4. Percentage of All Children Living in Families With Never-Married Female Head, by Race: 1982-98

Source of CPS data: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Marital Status and Living Arrangements,” Current Population Reports, Series P20-212, 287, 365, 380, 399, 418, 423, 433, 445, 450, 461, 468, 478, 484, 491, 496, 506, 514, various years. Source of 1960 data: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census of Population, PC(2)-4B, “Persons by Family Characteristics,” tables 1 and 19.


  • The percentage of children living in families with never-married female heads increased from 5 percent in 1982 to 10 percent in 1998. This increase reflects growth across all racial categories.
  • The percentage of white children living in families headed by never-married women has increased significantly, from less than 2 percent in 1982 to over 5 percent in 1998. The percentage remains low, however, relative to proportions for other racial categories.
  • Among Hispanics, the percentage of children living with never-married female heads more than doubled over the past sixteen years, going from less than 6 percent in 1982 to 12 percent in 1998.
  • The percentage of black children living in families headed by never-married women was much higher than the percentages for other groups throughout the time period. In 1998, 35 percent of black children, compared to 12 percent of Hispanic children and 5 percent of white children, lived in families headed by never-married women.

Table BIRTH 4. Number and Percentage of All Children Living in Families with Never-Married Female Head, by Race and Hispanic Origin: Selected Years

 Number of Children(in thousands)Percentage 4
 All RacesWhiteBlackHispanicAll RacesWhiteBlackHispanic
1960 1221491730.40.12.2
1970 25271104420.80.25.2
19751,1662968641.80.59.9
1980 21,7455011,1932102.91.014.54.0
1982 32,7687931,9472914.61.622.75.7
19843,1319592,1093575.21.923.96.5
19863,6061,1742,3754515.92.326.67.2
19873,9851,3852,5245876.52.828.29.2
19884,3021,4822,7366007.03.030.49.2
19894,2901,4832,6955926.92.929.68.7
19904,3651,5272,7386057.03.029.68.7
19915,0401,7253,1766448.03.433.39.0
19925,4102,0163,1927578.43.933.110.3
19935,5112,0153,3178488.53.933.611.3
19946,0002,4123,3211,0839.04.532.912.0
19955,8622,3173,2551,0178.74.332.310.8
19966,3652,5633,5671,1619.44.834.412.0
19976,5982,7883,5751,2429.75.134.312.4
19986,7002,8503,6441,2549.85.235.112.2

1 Decennial census data. Nonwhite data are shown for Black in 1960. 2 Revised based on population from the decennial census for that year. 3 Introduction of improved data collection and processing procedures that helped to identify parent-child subfamilies. (See Current Population Reports, P-20, 399, Marital Status and Living Arrangements: March 1984.) 4 Children not living with one or both parents are excluded from the denominator.

Note: Data are for all children under 18 who are not family heads (excludes householders, subfamily reference persons, and their spouses). Also excludes inmates of institutions; children who are living with neither of their parents are excluded from the denominator. Based on Current Population Survey (CPS) except where otherwise indicated. Source of CPS data: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Marital Status and Living Arrangements,” Current Population Reports, Series P20-212, 287, 365, 380, 399, 418, 423, 433, 445, 450, 461, 468, 478, 484, 491, 496, 506, 514 , various years. Source of 1960 data: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census of Population, PC(2)-4B, “Persons by Family Characteristics,” tables 1 and 19.

Appendix A: Program Data

Introduction

The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 specifies that the annual welfare indicators reports shall include analyses of families and individuals receiving assistance under three means-tested benefit programs: the program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (replaced with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), the Food Stamp Program under the Food Stamp Act of 1977, as amended, and the Supplemental Security Income program under title XVI of the Social Security Act.  This chapter includes information on these three programs, derived primarily from administrative data reported by state and federal agencies instead of the national survey data presented in previous chapters.  National caseloads and expenditure trend information on each of the three programs is included, as well as state-by-state trend tables on each program and information on the characteristics of participants in each program.

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was established by the Social Security Act of 1935 as a grant program to enable states to provide cash welfare payments for needy children who had been deprived of parental support or care because their father or mother is absent from the home, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed.  All 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands operated an AFDC program.  States defined "need," set their own benefit levels, established (within federal limitations) income and resource limits, and administered the program or supervised its administration.  States were entitled to unlimited federal funds for reimbursement of benefit payments, at "matching" rates which were inversely related to state per capita income.  States were required to provide aid to all persons who were in classes eligible under federal law and whose income and resources were within state-set limits.

During the 1990s, the federal government increasingly used its authority under Section 1115 of the Social Security Act to waive portions of the federal requirements under AFDC.  This allowed states to test such changes as expanded earned income disregards, increased work requirements and stronger sanctions for failure to comply with them, time limits on benefits, and expanded access to transitional benefits such as child care and medical assistance.  As a condition of receiving waivers, states were required to conduct rigorous evaluations of the impacts of these changes on the welfare receipt, employment, and earnings of participants.

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) eliminated the federal entitlement to cash assistance under AFDC, and replaced AFDC cash welfare and other related programs (AFDC administration, the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) program and the Emergency Assistance program) with a cash welfare block grant called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).  Key elements of TANF include a lifetime limit of five years (60 months) on the amount of time a family with an adult can receive assistance funded with federal funds, increasing work participation rate requirements which states must meet, and broad state flexibility on program design.  Spending through the TANF block grant is capped and funded at $16.4 billion per year, slightly above fiscal year 1995 federal expenditures for the four component programs.  States must also meet a "maintenance of effort (MOE) requirement" by spending on needy families at least 75 percent of the amount of state funds used in FY 1994 on these programs (80 percent if they fail work participation rate requirements).

TANF gives states wide latitude in spending both Federal TANF funds and state MOE funds.  Subject to a few restrictions, TANF funds may be used in any way that supports one of the four statutory purposes of TANF: to provide assistance to needy families so that children can be cared for at home; to end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work and marriage; to prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies; and to encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families.

Data Issues Relating to the AFDC-TANF Transition

States had the option of beginning their TANF programs as soon as PRWORA was enacted in August 1996, and a few states began TANF programs as early as September 1996.  All states were required to implement TANF by July 1, 1997.  Because states implemented TANF at different times, the FY 1997 data reflects a combination of the AFDC and TANF programs.  In some states, limited data are available for FY 1997 because states were given a transition period of six months after they implemented TANF before they were required to report data on the characteristics and work activities of TANF participants.

Because of the greatly expanded range of activities allowed under TANF, a substantial portion of TANF funds will be spent on activities other than cash payments to families.  For the purpose of tracking expenditure trends, these tables only include those TANF funds spent on "cash and work-based assistance," not on work activities, supportive services, or other allowable uses of funds.  However, the administrative costs include funds spent administering these other activities. 1

There also is potential for discontinuity between the AFDC and the TANF caseload figures.  One program change is that there is no longer a separate "Unemployed Parent" program under TANF.  While a separate work participation rate is calculated for two-parent families, this population is not identical to the UP caseload under AFDC.  Moreover, it is possible that a limited number of families will be considered recipients of TANF assistance, even if they do not receive a monthly cash benefit.  At present, the vast majority of families receiving "assistance" 2 are, in fact, receiving cash payments; however, this may change over time.

AFDC/TANF Program Data

The following tables and figures present a variety of data about the AFDC and TANF programs.  Tables A-1 through A-5 and Figures A-1 through A-3 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the AFDC/TANF program.  These are followed by two tables showing information on characteristics of AFDC/TANF families and a series of tables presenting state-by-state data on trends in the AFDC/TANF program.  These data complement the data on trends in AFDC recipiency and participation rates shown in Table IND 9a and Table IND 10a in Chapter II.

Table A-1 presents information on the average monthly number of AFDC families and recipients for each fiscal year since 1970 through 1998.  The U.S. caseload peaked at record highs in 1994, with an average 14.2 million recipients in over 5 million families receiving AFDC benefits each month.  Since then the caseload has declined about 38 percent — to a monthly average of 8.8 million recipients in 3.2 million families in 1998.

As shown in Figure A-1, AFDC enrollments and benefit outlays generally tended to increase in times of economic recession and decline in times of economic growth.  Policy changes, such as the eligibility restrictions of the early 1980s, have also affected caseloads.  However, the recent decline has far outstripped that experienced in any previous period.  A number of studies have attempted to explain the recent decline, and to determine the relative effect of economic factors versus policy changes in explaining the caseload by looking at the variation in caseload decline among states.

A recent report by the Council of Economic Advisors, The Effects of Welfare Policy and the Economic Expansion on Welfare Caseloads: An Update, August 3, 1999, finds that during the pre-TANF period (1993-1996), the strong economy was the largest factor explaining the welfare decline, and that changing policies under waivers and lower welfare benefits in real dollars also had a substantial impact.  During the post-TANF period (1996-1998), the CEA finds that policy changes accounted for about a third of the decline in welfare receipt, and that both the strong economy and the increase in the minimum wage accounted for about 10 percent of the decline each.  In both periods, a large portion of the welfare decline is not explained by the examined variables.  Possible factors that could account for this additional decline include the expansions of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and changing cultural perceptions of welfare receipt.

A common misperception of welfare families is that they have unusually large numbers of children.  Table A-1 and Figure A-2 show that the average number of children per welfare family dropped steadily from the late 1960s through the early 1980s, and has remained steady at around 2 children per household since.  While female-headed households receiving welfare have a higher average number of children than non-poor female-headed households, they have a lower average than all poor female-headed households.  Children as percentage of all AFDC/TANF recipients have increased somewhat in the past few years, because child-only cases have not declined as fast as other cases in the welfare population.

Table A-2 and Figure A-3 show that inflation has had a significant effect in eroding the value of the average monthly AFDC/TANF benefit.  In real dollars, the average monthly benefit per recipient in 1998 was only 65 percent of what it was at its peak in the late 1970s.

Tables A-3 and A-4 show trends in expenditures on AFDC and TANF.  Table A-3 breaks out the costs of benefits and administrative expenses, and shows the division between federal and state spending.  Table A-4 breaks out the benefits paid under the single parent or "basic" program and the Unemployed Parent (UP) program, and also nets out the value of child support collected on behalf of recipient children, but retained by the state to reimburse welfare expenditures.  This table presents data through 1996 only, because the TANF data reporting requirements do not require that caseload data be separated into "basic" and "UP" components.

Table A-5 places the AFDC/TANF caseload trends in context, by showing the number of recipients as a percentage of various populations.  In 1998, TANF recipients were a smaller percentage of the total population than at any time since 1967.

Figure A-4 and Table A-6 show a number of demographic characteristics of AFDC/TANF families.  One of the most striking trends is the recent jump in the fraction of families with earnings.  In FY 1998, 20.6 percent of TANF families had earned income, up from 11.1 percent in FY 1996 and 7.4 percent in FY 1992.

Tables A-7 through A-13 present state-by-state trend data on the AFDC/TANF expenditures and caseloads.  These reveal a great deal of state-to-state variation in the trends discussed above.  For example, as shown in Table A-9, while every state has experienced a caseload decline since 1993, the percentage change from 1993-1998 ranges from 84 percent (Wyoming) to 12 percent (Rhode Island).  Table A-10 shows that states reached their peak caseloads as early as May 1990 (Louisiana) and as late as May 1995 (Maryland).

Food Stamp Program

The Food Stamp Program, administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service, is the largest food assistance program in the country, reaching more poor individuals over the course of a year than any other public assistance program.  Unlike many other public assistance programs, the Food Stamp Program has few categorical requirements for eligibility, such as the presence of children, elderly or disabled individuals in a household.  As a result, the program offers assistance to a large and diverse population of needy persons, many of whom are not eligible for other forms of assistance.

The Food Stamp Program was designed primarily to increase the food purchasing power of eligible low-income households to the point where they can buy a nutritionally adequate low-cost diet.  Participating households are expected to be able to devote 30 percent of their counted monthly cash income to food purchases.  Food stamp benefits then make up the difference between the household's expected contribution to its food costs and an amount judged to be sufficient to buy an adequate low-cost diet.  This amount, the maximum food stamp benefit level, is derived from USDA's lowest-cost food plan, the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP).

The Federal government is responsible for virtually all of the rules that govern the program, and, with limited variations, these rules are nationally uniform, as are the benefit levels.  Nonetheless, States, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands, through their local welfare offices, have primary responsibility for the day-to-day administration of the program.  They determine eligibility, calculate benefits, and issue food stamp allotments.  The Food Stamp Act provides 100 percent federal funding of food stamp benefits.  States and other jurisdictions have responsibility for about half the cost of state and local food stamp agency administration.

In addition to the regular Food Stamp Program, the Food Stamp Act authorizes alternative programs in Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa.  The largest of these, the Nutrition Assistance Program in Puerto Rico, had an average of 1.2 million participants in 1988, funded under a Federal block grant of $1.2 billion.  Unless noted otherwise, the food stamp caseload and expenditure data in this Appendix include costs for the Nutrition Assistance Program in Puerto Rico.  Prior to 1982, the regular Food Stamp Program operated in Puerto Rico, under modified eligibility and benefit rules.

The Food Stamp Program has financial, employment/training-related and "categorical" tests for eligibility.  The basic food stamp beneficiary unit is the "household."  Generally, individuals living together constitute a single food stamp household if they customarily purchase food and prepare meals in common.  Members of the same household must apply together, and their income, expenses, and assets normally are aggregated in determining food stamp eligibility and benefits.  Except for households composed entirely of TANF, SSI, or general assistance recipients (who generally are automatically eligible for food stamps), monthly cash income is the primary food stamp eligibility determinant.  Unless exempt, adult applicants for food stamps must register for work, typically with the welfare agency or a state employment service office.  To maintain eligibility, they must accept a suitable job if offered one and fulfill any work, job search, or training requirements established by the administering welfare agencies.

Food stamp benefits are a function of a household's size, its net monthly income, its assets, and maximum monthly benefit levels.  Allotments are not taxable and food stamp purchases may not be charged sales taxes.  Receipt of food stamps does not affect eligibility for or benefits provided by other welfare programs, although some programs use food stamp participation as a "trigger" for eligibility and others take into account the general availability of food stamps in deciding what level of benefits to provide.

Recent Legislative and Regulatory Changes

Title IV and Subtitle A of title VIII of the PRWORA contains major and extensive revisions to the Food Stamp Program, including strong work requirements on able-bodied adults without children, restricted benefits for legal immigrants, and a reduction in maximum benefits.  These three provisions, and subsequent amendments, are discussed below; their impact on program participation and expenditures begins to appear in food stamp administrative data for 1997, with the fuller impact shown in data for 1998.

First, a new work requirement was added for able-bodied adult food stamp recipients without dependents (ABAWDs).  Unless exempt, ABAWDs between the ages of 18 and 50 are not eligible for benefits for more than 3 months in every 36-month period unless they are (1) working at least 20 hours a week; (2) participating in and complying with a work program for at least 20 hours a week; or (3) participating in and complying with a workfare program.  Under the original legislation, the Department of Agriculture was authorized to waive application of the work requirement to any group of individuals at the request of the state agency, if a determination is made that the area where they reside has an unemployment rate over 10 percent or does not have a sufficient number of jobs to provide them employment.  The provision was further moderated under the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which allowed states to exempt up to 15 percent of the ABAWD caseload (beyond those subject to waivers) and which increased funds for the Food Stamp employment and training program for the creation of job slots for the able-bodied.

Separately, title IV of PRWORA made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for Food Stamp benefits.  As first enacted, most qualified aliens (including legal immigrants — illegal aliens are already ineligible) were barred from Food Stamps until citizenship.  Subsequently, the Agriculture Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-185] restored food stamp eligibility to certain groups of qualified aliens who were legally residing in the United States before passage of PRWORA (August 22, 1996).  Specifically, the ban on food stamp eligibility was lifted for children, the disabled and people who were 65 on August 22, 1996.

Finally, the 1996 legislation restrained growth in future program expenditures by making changes in the benefit structure for eligible participants, including a reduction in the maximum food stamp allotment.  Other provisions of the 1996 act disqualified from eligibility those convicted of drug-related felonies and gave states the option to disqualify individuals, both custodial and noncustodial parents, from food stamps when they do not cooperate with child support agencies or are in arrears in their child support.

Recent regulatory changes also could affect the Food Stamp Program.  In July 1999, President Clinton announced a series of executive actions designed to increase access to food stamps among working poor families.  The initiative included regulatory changes to make it easier for working families to report income changes and to own a car and still qualify for food stamps, and a new public education campaign supports states' and localities' efforts to serve this population.  These changes were intended to address concerns that some of the decline in food stamp caseloads may be leaving poor families without nutritional assistance as they make the transition from welfare dependence to full self-sufficiency.

Food Stamp Program Data

The following seven tables and figures provide information about the Food Stamp Program, including information about the Nutrition Assistance Program in Puerto Rico:

  • Tables A-14 and A-15 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the Food Stamp program, as discussed below;
  • Figure A-5 and Table A-16 present some demographic characteristics of the food stamp caseload; and
  • Tables A-17 through A-19 present some state-by-state trend data on the Food Stamp program through fiscal year 1998.

Table A-14 presents information on the average monthly number of food stamp recipients for each fiscal year since 1970 through Fiscal Year 1999.  Food stamp participation (including participants in Puerto Rico's block grant) has continued to fall from its peak of 28.9 million in 1994 to an average of 19.3 million persons in 1999.  Both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of the population, food stamp recipiency is lower than at any point in the past twenty years.  See also Table IND 9b and Table IND 10b in Chapter II for further data on the recent decline in food stamp recipiency and participation rates.

Total program costs, shown in Table A-15, have also declined.  In fiscal year 1998, total program costs (including Puerto Rico) were $20.1 billion, reaching their lowest levels since 1984, after adjusting for inflation.  (Average monthly participation in fiscal year 1998 was 21.0 million).  Average monthly benefits per person have also declined in recent years after adjusting for inflation.  Benefits were $72 per person in fiscal year 1999, considerably lower than the $82 per person benefit (in constant dollars) paid in 1992, but higher than the $68 per person paid in 1987.

In general, the health of the economy has historically been a good predictor of the number of participants in the Food Stamp Program.  Economic factors such as increases in unemployment, increases in the number of "working poor," increases in food prices, and changes in the distribution of income are important, as are demographic changes such as an increase in the number of female-headed households.  The size of the food stamp caseload also is influenced by programmatic changes, including amendments to the Food Stamp Program, modifications in other public assistance programs, and changes in immigration laws.  In addition, changes in attitudes toward "welfare" affect the rate at which eligible individuals participate in the program and may also influence the average length of time spent in the program.

A Congressionally mandated study undertaken in 1990 concluded that a variety of factors contributed to the caseload growth in the late 1980s, including increased unemployment, expansions in Medicaid eligibility, and changes in immigration laws, particularly the legalization of undocumented aliens.  Similarly, several factors contribute to the more recent declines in food stamp participation.  Some of these declines can be attributed to eligibility changes made in the 1996 welfare law, most notably the elimination of eligibility for most legal immigrants and for many childless adults aged 18-50.3  The strong economy also played an important role in recent caseload declines.  In addition, studies of families leaving TANF cash assistance suggest that many of them leave the Food Stamp Program as well, even though many of them appear to be eligible for food stamp benefits.  Increased stigma about welfare use and unintentional diversion from the Food Stamp Program may be additional factors affecting food stamp participation.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program is a means tested, federally administered income assistance program authorized by title XVI of the Social Security Act.  Established in 1972 (Public Law 92-603) and begun in 1974, SSI provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to needy aged, blind and disabled persons.  To qualify for SSI payments, a person must satisfy the program criteria for age, blindness or disability.  Children may qualify for SSI if they are under age 18, unmarried, and meet the applicable SSI disability or blindness, income and resource requirements.  Individuals and couples are eligible for SSI if their countable incomes fall below the Federal maximum monthly SSI benefit levels, which were $504 for an individual and $751 for a couple in fiscal year 1999.  SSI eligibility is restricted to qualified persons who have countable resources/assets of not more than $2,000, or $3,000 for a couple.

SSI law requires that SSI applicants file for all other money benefits for which they may be entitled.  Since its inception, SSI has been viewed as the "program of last resort" — after evaluating all other income, SSI pays what is necessary to bring an individual to the statutorily prescribed income "floor."  (The Social Security Administration, which administers the SSI program, works with recipients and helps them get any other benefits for which they are eligible.)  As of December 1996, 37 percent of all SSI recipients also received Social Security benefits; Social Security benefits are the single highest source of income for SSI recipients.

No individual could receive both SSI payments and AFDC benefits; if eligible for both, the individual was required to choose which benefit to receive.  Generally, the AFDC agency encouraged individuals to file for SSI and, once the SSI payments had started, the individual was removed from the AFDC filing unit.  The PRWORA does not specifically prohibit an individual's receipt of both TANF benefits and SSI; states have complete authority to set TANF eligibility standards and benefit levels.

Except in California, which converted food stamp benefits to cash that is included in the State supplementary payment, SSI recipients may be eligible to receive food stamps.  If all household members receive SSI, they do not need to meet the Food Stamp Program financial eligibility standards to participate in the program because they are categorically eligible.  If SSI beneficiaries live in households where other household members do not receive SSI benefits, the household must meet the net income eligibility standard of the Food Stamp Program to be eligible for food stamp benefits.

Recent Legislative Changes

Several legislative changes made in the 104th Congress are likely to affect Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation and expenditures.  Public Law 104-121, the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996, prohibits SSI eligibility to individuals whose drug addiction and/or alcoholism (DAA) is a contributing factor material to the finding of disability.  This provision applied to individuals who filed for benefits on or after the date of enactment (March 29, 1996) and to individuals whose claims were finally adjudicated on or after the date of enactment.  It applied to current beneficiaries on January 1, 1997.

The PRWORA made several changes designed to maintain the SSI program's goal of providing benefits for severely disabled children while preventing children without serious impairments from receiving benefits.  First, the act replaced the former law "comparable severity" test with a new definition of childhood disability based on a medically determinable physical or mental impairment.  Second, it discontinued use of the Individualized Functional Assessment (IFA) which authorized subjective judgment to determine children's eligibility for SSI.  Third, it eliminated references to "maladaptive behavior" in the Listings of Impairments (among medical criteria for evaluation of mental and emotional disorders in the domain of personal/behavioral function).  The latter two provisions were effective for all new and pending applications upon enactment (August 22, 1996).  Current beneficiaries receiving benefits due to an IFA or maladaptive behavior listing received notice no later than January 1, 1997, that their benefits might end when their case is redetermined.  All currently receiving benefits are subject to redetermination using the new eligibility criteria by February 28, 1998 (per P.L. 105-33, enacted August 5, 1997).

Title IV of PRWORA also made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for SSI benefits.  Essentially, qualified aliens (including legal immigrants) are barred from SSI.  Some of the restrictions were subsequently moderated, most notably by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which grandfathered immigrants who were receiving SSI at the time of enactment of the PRWORA.

SSI Program Data

The following set of tables and figures provide SSI program data:

  • Tables A-20 through A-23 present national caseload and expenditure trend data on the SSI program;
  • Figures A-6 and A-7 present some demographic characteristics of the SSI caseload; and
  • Tables A-24 through A-26 present some state-by-state trend data on the SSI program through fiscal year 1996.

Table A-20 presents information on the number of persons receiving SSI payments in December of each year from 1974 through 1998.  In addition to data on the total number of SSI recipients, Table A-20 also shows recipients by eligibility category (aged, blind and disabled) and by type of recipient (child, adult age 18-64, and adult age 65 or older).  See also Table IND 9a and Table IND 9b in Chapter II for further data on trends in recipiency and participation rates.

From 1990 to 1995, the program increased from 4.8 million beneficiaries to 6.5 million beneficiaries, an average growth rate of over 6 percent per year.  Since 1995, the number of beneficiaries has stabilized, fluctuating between 6.5 and 6.6 million persons.  In December 1998, there were 6.6 million beneficiaries.

The composition of the SSI caseload has been shifting over time, as shown in Table A-20.  The number of beneficiaries eligible because of age has been declining steadily, from a high of 2.3 million persons in December 1975 to 1.3 million persons in December 1998.  At the same time there has been a strong growth in disabled beneficiaries, from 1.6 million in December 1974 to 5.1 million in December 1998.  Moreover, the number of disabled children has increased dramatically, particularly in the 1990s, when the number of disabled children receiving SSI increased from 340,000 in December 1990 to over 1 million in December 1996.  The number of disabled children has fallen in the past two years, declining to 928,000 in December 1998.

Several factors have contributed to the growth of the Supplemental Security Income program.  Expansions in disability eligibility (particularly for mentally impaired adults and for children), increased outreach, overall growth in immigration, and transfers from state programs were among the key factors identified in a 1995 study by the General Accounting Office (GAO).  GAO concluded that three groups – adults with mental impairments, children, and non-citizens – accounted for nearly 90 percent of the SSI program's growth in the early 1990s: adults with mental impairments, non-citizens, and children.  The growth in disabled children beneficiaries is generally believed to be due to outreach activities, the Supreme Court decision in the Zebley case 4 , expansion of the medical impairment category, and reduction in reviews of continuing eligibility.

Footnotes

1. In addition, IV-A child care administrative costs were included under AFDC, but are no longer counted under TANF, since these programs were moved to the Child Care and Development Fund as part of PRWORA.

2. States are allowed to use TANF funds on a variety of services, including employment and training services, domestic violence services, and child care, transportation, and other support services.  Families receiving such services, however, should generally not be counted as recipients of TANF ‘assistance."   Under the final regulations for TANF, "assistance" includes primarily payments directed at ongoing basic needs.  It includes payments when individuals are participating in community service and work experience (or other work activities) as a condition of receiving payments (e.g., workfare).  In addition to cash assistance, the definition also includes certain child care and transportation benefits (provided the families are not employed).  It excludes, however, such things as: non-recurrent, short-term benefits; services without a cash value, such as education and training, case management, job search, and counseling; and benefits such as child care and transportation when provided to employed families.

3. By April 1, 1997, many states began removing legal immigrants who were receiving food stamps on August 22, 1996.  Most states removed at least a portion of the childless 18-50 year olds on or around March 1, 1997.

4. On February 20, 1990, the Supreme Court ruled that the individual functional assessment (or a residual functional capacity assessment) applied to adults whose condition did not meet or equal a listing of medical impairments to determine eligibility should also be applied to children whose condition did not meet or equal the medical listing of impairments.  The GAO study estimated that 87,000 children were added to the SSI caseload after the individual functional assessments for children were initiated.

List of Figures

Figure A-1. AFDC/TANF Families Receiving Income Assistance

Figure A-1. AFDC/TANF Families Receiving Income Assistance 1

Figure A-1. AFDC/TANF Families Receiving Income Assistance

1 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program.
Note: Shaded areas are periods of recession. Effective July 1, 1981 families with incomes greater than 150 percent of a State's standard of need were no longer eligible for income assistance; this income cut-off was raised to 185 percent in 1984. Last data point plotted is December 1998.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation.

Figure A-2. Average Number of Children per Family For Families with Related Children Under 18 by Living Arrangement, 1960 – 1998

Figure A-2. Average Number of Children per Family For Families with Related Children Under 18 by Living Arrangement, 1960 – 1998 (In millions)

Figure A-2. Average Number of Children per Family For Families with Related Children Under 18 by Living Arrangement, 1960 – 1998

Note: For 1960-74 the average number of children per married-couple family is estimated based on all male-headed families of which during this period they comprised 98-99 percent.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Quarterly Public Assistance Statistics, 1992-1993 and earlier years; U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998," Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and earlier years.

Figure A-3. Average Monthly AFDC/TANF Benefit by Family and Recipient in Constant Dollars

Figure A-3. Average Monthly AFDC/TANF Benefit by Family and Recipient in Constant Dollars

Figure A-3. Average Monthly AFDC/TANF Benefit by Family and Recipient in Constant Dollars

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Quarterly Public Assistance Statistics, 1992 & 1993, and unpublished data.

Figure A-4. Characteristics of AFDC Families

Figure A-4. Characteristics of AFDC Families

Figure A-4. Characteristics of AFDC Families

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of TANF Recipients: Fiscal Year 1998 and earlier years, (Current data available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/content.htm).

Figure A-5. Characteristics of Food Stamp Recipients

Figure A-5. Characteristics of Food Stamp Recipients

Figure A-5. Characteristics of Food Stamp Recipients

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 1998 (Advance Report) and earlier years.


  • In 1998, over one-fourth (26 percent) of food stamp households had earned income during the same month they were receiving food stamps. This is the highest proportion of households with earnings over the period examined. From 1980 to 1995, the proportion of food stamp households with earnings was in the range of 18 to 21 percent.
  • There has been a drop in the proportion of food stamp households that receive AFDC/TANF income, from 43 percent in 1990, to 31 percent in 1998. The sharpest decline was between 1996 and 1998. The overall proportion of those food stamp households receiving any public assistance (e.g., AFDC/TANF, SSI or general assistance) has not declined as steeply, because of growth in the proportion of household receiving SSI income, as shown in Table A-16.
  • About three-fifths (58 percent) of food stamp households had children in 1998. The proportion of households with children was slightly higher (60 to 62 percent) in most of the period between 1985 and 1996.
  • The vast majority (91 percent) of households receiving food stamps had gross monthly income below the poverty level in 1998, as shown in Table A-16. This percentage has ranged from a low of 87 percent in 1980 to a high of 95 percent in the recession year of 1982.

Figure A-6. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 1998

Figure A-6. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 1998

Figure A-6. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 1998

Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).


  • The proportion of persons receiving SSI who are 65 years of age or older (as a percent of all SSI recipients) has decreased steadily from a high of 61 percent in 1974 to a low of 31 percent in 1998, essentially cutting the proportion of recipients who are elderly in half. The actual number who are 65 or older has declined from 2.5 million in 1975 to a little more than 2 million today, (as shown in Table A-20).
  • The percentage of child recipients increased two and one half times during the 1970s, going from 2 percent in 1974 to 5 percent by the end of the decade. During the 1980s, it remained fairly constant at about 6 percent. In the 1990s, the share of child recipients increased rapidly, more than doubling to 15 percent in 1997. It declined slightly, to 14 percent, in 1998.
  • The percentage of persons receiving SSI between the ages of 18 and 64 has increased steadily over time, rising from 38 percent in 1974 to 55 percent in 1998.

Figure A-7. Number and Percentage Distribution of Persons Age 15 or Older With Supplemental Security Income, by Race and Hispanic Origin Selected Years, 1975 – 1998

Figure A-7. Number and Percentage Distribution of Persons Age 15 or Older With Supplemental Security Income, by Race and Hispanic Origin Selected Years, 1975 – 1998 (In thousands)

Figure A-7. Number and Percentage Distribution of Persons Age 15 or Older With Supplemental Security Income, by Race and Hispanic Origin Selected Years, 1975 – 1998

Note: The numbers above each column indicate the particular group's percent share of total recipients in the given year. The sum of the percentages does not equal 100.
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1998," Current Population Reports, Series P60-206 and earlier years.

List of Tables

Table A-1. Trends in AFDC/TANF Enrollments, 1962 – 1998

 Average Monthly Number (In thousands)Children as a Percent of Total RecipientsAverage Number of Children per Family
Fiscal YearTotal Families 1Total RecipientsUnemployed Parent FamiliesUnemployed Parent RecipientsTotal Children
1962...........9243,593492242,77877.33.0
1963...........9503,834542912,89675.53.0
1964...........9844,059603433,04375.03.1
1965...........1,0374,323694003,24275.03.1
1966...........1,0744,472623613,36975.33.1
1967...........1,1414,718583403,56175.53.1
1968...........1,3075,348673774,01175.03.1
1969...........1,5386,147663614,59174.73.0
1970...........1,9097,429784205,49474.02.9
1971...........2,5329,5561437266,96372.92.8
1972...........2,91810,6321346397,69872.42.6
1973...........3,12411,0381205577,96572.22.5
1974...........3,17010,845954347,82472.12.5
1975...........3,35711,0671014517,92871.62.4
1976...........3,57511,3391355938,15671.92.3
1977...........3,59311,1081496597,81870.42.2
1978...........3,53910,6631285677,47570.12.1
1979...........3,49610,3111145067,19369.82.1
1980...........3,64210,5971416127,32069.12.0
1981...........3,87111,1602098817,61568.22.0
1982...........3,56910,4312329766,97566.92.0
1983...........3,65110,6592721,1447,05166.11.9
1984...........3,72510,8662871,2227,15365.81.9
1985...........3,69210,8132611,1317,16566.31.9
1986...........3,74810,9952541,1027,30066.41.9
1987...........3,78411,0652361,0357,38166.72.0
1988...........3,74810,9202109297,32567.12.0
1989...........3,77110,9351938567,37067.42.0
1990...........3,97411,4602048997,75567.72.0
1991...........4,37412,5922681,1488,51367.61.9
1992...........4,76813,6253221,3489,22667.71.9
1993...........4,98114,1433591,4899,56067.61.9
1994...........5,04614,2263631,5109,61167.61.9
1995...........4,87913,6593351,3849,28067.91.9
1996...........4,55212,6443011,2418,67168.61.9
1997 2.........3,94710,954275 31,158 37,781 371.0 32.0 3
1998...........3,1798,770179753 46,33072.22.0

1 Includes unemployed parent families.
2 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program.
3 Based on data from the old AFDC reporting system which was available only for the first 9 months of the fiscal year.
4 Estimated based on the ratio of Unemployed Parent recipients to Unemployed Parent families in 1997.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, (Available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/).

Table A-2. Trends in AFDC/TANF Average Monthly Payments, 1962 – 1998

 Monthly Benefit per RecipientAverage Number of Persons per FamilyMonthly Benefit per Family (not reduced by Child Support)Weighted Average 1 Monthly Benefit (per 3-person Family)
Fiscal YearCurrent Dollars1998 DollarsCurrent Dollars1998 DollarsCurrent Dollars1998 Dollars
1962...........$31$1553.9$121$603NANA
1963...........311534.0126618NANA
1964...........321544.1131637NANA
1965...........341614.2140670NANA
1966...........351644.2146681NANA
1967...........361654.1150681NANA
1968...........401734.1162710NANA
1969...........431824.0173729186 2787
1970...........461843.9178716194 2781
1971...........481843.8180694201 2774
1972...........511913.6187696205 2763
1973...........531893.5187667213 2759
1974...........571863.4194637229 2752
1975...........631893.3209626243728
1976...........711993.2226633257720
1977...........782033.1241629271708
1978...........832033.0249613284696
1979...........871962.9257579301678
1980...........941902.9274554320648
1981...........961772.9277509326600
1982...........1031772.9300516331569
1983...........1061752.9311511336553
1984...........1101742.9321507352555
1985...........1121712.9329501369562
1986...........1161722.9339503383569
1987...........1231782.9359519393568
1988...........1271772.9370514404561
1989...........1311742.9381505412546
1990...........1351702.9389491421531
1991...........1351622.9388466425510
1992...........1361592.9389453419488
1993...........1311492.8373422414469
1994...........1341472.8376415420458
1995...........1341442.8377404418449
1996...........1351402.8374390422440
1997 3........1341362.8373379420427
1998...........1321322.8364364431431

1 The maximum benefit for a 3-person family in each state is weighted by that state’s share of total AFDC families.
2 Estimated based on the weighted average benefit for a 4-person family.
3 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program.
Note: AFDC benefit amounts have not been reduced by child support collections. Constant dollar adjustments to 1998 level were made using a CPI-U-X1 fiscal year price index.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Quarterly Public Assistance Statistics, 1992 & 1993 and earlier years along with unpublished data.

Table A-3. Total, Federal, and State AFDC/TANF Expenditures, 1970 – 1998

Table A-3. Total, Federal, and State AFDC/TANF Expenditures, 1970 – 1998 [In millions of current and 1998 dollars]

 Federal Funds (Current Dollars)State Funds (Current Dollars)Total (Current Dollars)Total (Constant 98 Dollars 1)
Fiscal YearBenefitsAdministrativeBenefitsAdministrativeBenefitsAdministrativeBenefitsAdministrative
1970..............$2,187$572 2$1,895$309$4,082$881 2$16,409$3,541
1971..............3,0082712,4692545,47752521,0772,020
1972..............3,612240 32,9422416,554481 324,356NA
1973................3,8653133,1382967,00361024,9952,177
1974..............4,0713793,3003627,37174024,2322,433
1975..............4,6255523,7875298,4121,08225,2053,242
1976..............5,2585414,4185279,6761,06927,1402,998
1977..............5,6265954,76258310,3881,17727,1223,073
1978..............5,7246314,89861710,6211,24826,0163,057
1979..............5,8256834,95466810,7791,35024,2793,041
1980..............6,4487505,50872911,9561,47924,2102,995
1981..............6,9288355,91781412,8451,64823,6513,034
1982..............6,9228785,93487812,8571,75622,1183,021
1983..............7,3329156,27591513,6071,83022,3893,011
1984..............7,7078766,66482214,3711,69822,6812,680
1985..............7,8178906,76388914,5801,77922,2122,710
1986..............8,2399936,99696715,2351,96022,6372,912
1987..............8,9141,0817,4091,05216,3232,13323,5843,082
1988..............9,1251,1947,5381,15916,6632,35323,1293,266
1989..............9,4331,2117,8071,20617,2402,41722,8373,202
1990..............10,1491,3588,3901,30318,5392,66123,3933,358
1991..............11,1651,3739,1911,30020,3562,67324,4513,211
1992..............12,2581,4599,9931,37822,2502,83725,9403,308
1993..............12,2701,51810,0161,43822,2862,95625,2213,345
1994..............12,5121,68010,2851,62122,7973,30125,1343,639
1995..............12,0191,77010,0141,75122,0323,52123,6323,777
1996..............11,0651,6339,3461,63320,4113,26621,3033,409
1997 4...........9,7461,2717,9021,12817,6482,39917,9352,438
1998..............6,7881,1257,0961,02813,8842,15413,8842,154

Note: Benefits do not include emergency assistance payments and have not been reduced by child support collections. Foster care payments are included from 1971 to 1980. Beginning in fiscal year 1984, the cost of certifying AFDC households for food stamps is shown in the food stamp program’s appropriation under the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Administrative costs include: Work Program, ADP, FAMIS, Fraud Control, Child Care administration (through 1996), SAVE and other State and local administrative expenditures.
1 Constant dollar adjustments to 1998 level were made using a CPI-U-X1 fiscal year price index.
2 Includes expenditures for services.
3 Administrative expenditures only.
4 The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 repealed the AFDC program as of July 1, 1997 and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. Under PRWORA, spending categories are not entirely equivalent to those under AFDC: for example administrative expenses under TANF do not include IV-A child care administration (which accounted for 4 percent of 1996 administrative expense).
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Program Systems.

Table A-4. Federal and State AFDC Benefit Payments Under the Single Parent and Unemployed Parent Programs, Fiscal Years 1970 to 1996

Table A-4. Federal and State AFDC Benefit Payments Under the Single Parent and Unemployed Parent Programs, Fiscal Years 1970 to 1996 [In millions of current and 1996 dollars]

Fiscal Year (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Single Parent 1 Unemployed Parent Child Support Collections 2 Net Benefits 3 (1) + (2) minus (3) Net Benefits (1996 dollars) 4
1970 3,851 231 0 4,082 15,722
1971 4,993 412 0 5,405 19,882
1972 5,972 422 0 6,394 22,715
1973 6,459 414 0 6,873 22,504
1974 6,881 324 0 7,205 22,740
1975 7,791 362 0 8,153 23,363
1976 8,825 525 245 9,105 24,469
1977 9,420 617 395 9,642 24,121
1978 9,624 565 459 9,730 22,870
1979 9,865 522 584 9,803 21,156
1980 10,847 693 593 10,947 21,186
1981 11,769 1,075 659 12,185 21,472
1982 11,601 1,256 771 12,086 19,879
1983 12,136 1,471 865 12,742 20,128
1984 12,759 1,612 983 13,388 20,264
1985 13,024 1,556 901 13,679 19,967
1986 13,672 1,563 951 14,284 20,335
1987 14,807 1,516 1,070 15,252 21,115
1988 15,243 1,420 1,196 15,466 20,569
1989 15,889 1,350 1,286 15,952 20,246
1990 17,059 1,480 1,416 17,123 20,702
1991 18,529 1,827 1,603 18,753 21,583
1992 20,130 2,121 1,824 20,426 22,816
1993 19,988 2,298 1,971 20,315 22,028
1994 20,393 2,404 2,093 20,704 21,871
1995 19,820 2,212 2,215 19,817 20,367
1996 18,438 1,973 2,374 18,037 18,037

1 Includes payments to two-parent families where one adult is incapacitated.
2 Total AFDC collections (including collections on behalf of foster care children) less payments to AFDC families.
3 Net AFDC benefits--Gross benefits less those reimbursed by child support collections.
4 Constant dollar adjustments to 1996 level were made using a CPI-U-XI fiscal year price index.
Note: Data are not available after 1996 because the TANF data reporting requirements do not require that caseload data be separated into single parent and unemployed parent components.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Financial Management.

Table A-5. Number of AFDC/TANF Recipients, and Recipients as a Percentage of Various Population Groups, 1970 – 1998

Table A-5. Number of AFDC/TANF Recipients, and Recipients as a Percentage of Various Population Groups, 1970 – 1998

Calendar 1 YearTotal Recipients in the States & DC (in thousands)Child Recipients inthe States & DC (in thousands)Recipients as a Percentof Total Population 2Recipients as a Percentof Poverty Population 3Recipients as a Percent of Pretransfer Poverty Population 4Child Recipients as a Percentof Total Child Population 2Child Recipients as a Percent of Children in Poverty 3
1970...........8,3036,1044.132.7NA8.858.5
1971...........10,0437,3034.939.3NA10.569.2
1972...........10,7367,7665.143.9NA11.275.5
1973...........10,7387,7635.146.7NA11.380.5
1974...........10,6217,6375.045.4NA11.375.2
1975...........11,1317,9285.243.0NA11.871.4
1976...........11,0987,8505.144.4NA11.876.4
1977...........10,8567,6324.943.9NA11.774.2
1978...........10,3877,2704.742.4NA11.273.2
1979...........10,1407,0574.538.953.111.068.0
1980...........10,5997,2954.736.249.211.463.2
1981...........10,8937,3974.734.247.111.759.2
1982...........10,1616,7674.429.540.610.849.6
1983...........10,5696,9674.529.941.911.150.1
1984...........10,6447,0174.531.643.611.252.3
1985...........10,6727,0734.532.345.011.354.4
1986...........10,8517,2064.533.546.611.556.0
1987...........10,8427,2404.533.646.711.555.9
1988...........10,7287,2014.433.847.711.457.8
1989...........10,7997,2864.434.347.611.557.9
1990...........11,4977,7814.634.247.112.157.9
1991...........12,7288,6015.035.649.113.260.0
1992...........13,5719,1895.335.750.813.960.1
1993...........14,0079,4605.435.748.514.160.2
1994...........13,9709,4485.436.750.013.961.8
1995...........13,2419,0135.036.450.113.161.5
1996...........12,1558,3554.633.346.412.157.8
1997...........10,2237,340 53.828.740.710.552.0
1998...........8,2005,7563.023.834.68.242.7

1 Total recipients are calculated here as the monthly average for the calendar year in order to compare with the calendar year counts of the poverty populations used to compute the recipiency rates. See Table IND 9a for fiscal year recipiency rates.
2 Population numbers used as denominators are resident population. See Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106.
3 For poverty population data see Current Population Reports, Series P60-201 and Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to November 1, 1999, Internet release date December 23, 1999.
4 The pretransfer poverty population used as denominator is the number of all persons in families with related children under 18 years of age whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.
5 Average for January through June of 1997.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998," Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and earlier years, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).

Table A-6. AFDC Characteristics, 1969 – 1998

Table A-6. AFDC Characteristics, 1969 – 1998

 MayMayMarchFiscal year 1
 1969197519791983198819901992199419961998
Average Family Size (persons)4.03.23.03.03.02.92.92.82.82.8
Number of Child Recipients (percentof AFDCCases):
One26.637.942.343.442.542.242.542.643.942.4
Two23.026.028.129.830.230.330.230.029.929.6
Three17.716.115.615.215.815.815.515.615.015.7
Four or More32.520.013.910.19.99.910.19.69.210.6
UnknownNANANA1.51.71.40.71.51.31.8
Basis for Eligibility (percent of children):
Parents Present:          
Incapacitated11.7 27.75.33.43.73.64.13.94.3NA
Unemployed4.6 23.74.18.76.56.48.28.78.3NA
Parents Absent:          
Death5.5 23.72.21.81.81.61.61.71.6NA
Divorce or Separation43.3 248.344.738.534.632.930.026.524.3NA
No Marriage Tie27.9 231.037.844.351.954.053.155.758.6NA
Other Reason3.5 24.05.91.41.61.92.02.62.4NA
UnknownNANANA1.7NANA0.91.00.6NA
Mother's Employment Status (percent of mothers) 3:
Full-Time Job8.210.48.71.52.22.52.23.24.7NA
Part-Time Job6.35.75.43.44.24.24.24.55.4NA
Presence of Income (percent of families):
With EarningsNA14.612.85.78.48.27.48.711.120.6
No Non-AFDC Income56.071.180.6 486.8 479.6 480.1 478.9 478.076.073.0
Median Months on AFDC
Since Most Recent Opening23.031.029.026.026.323.022.521.523.6NA
Proportion of Households (percent offamilies):
Living in Public Housing12.814.6NA10.09.69.69.28.38.8NA
Participating in Food Stamp          
Or Donated Food Program52.975.175.183.084.685.687.388.789.383.5
Incld. Non-Recipient Members33.134.8NA36.936.837.738.946.449.9NA

1 Percentages are based on the average monthly caseload during the year. Hawaii and the territories are not included in 1983. Data after 1986 include the territories and Hawaii.
2 Calculated on the basis of total number of families.
3 For years after 1983, data are for adult female recipients.
4 States began collecting child support directly in 1975, removing one source of non-AFDC income.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance, Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of TANF Recipients: Fiscal Year 1998 and earlier years, (Current data available online at http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/opre/characteristics/fy98/sum.htm).

Table A-7. AFDC/TANF Benefits by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1978 – 1998

Table A-7. AFDC/TANF Benefits 1 by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1978 – 1998
[Millions of dollars]

 1978198219841986198819901992199419961998
Alabama$78$72$74$68$62$62$85$92$75$42
Alaska1732374654609611310777
Arizona30496779103138243266228137
Arkansas51343948535761575223
California1,8132,7343,2073,5744,0914,9555,8286,0885,9084,081
Colorado748710710712513716315812967
Connecticut168210226223218295377397323274
Delaware28282825242937403524
Dist. of Columbia91867577768410212612197
Florida145207251261318418733806680357
Georgia103172149223266321420428385299
Guam34543581214NA
Hawaii838883737799125163173153
Idaho Illinois21 69920 80221 84519 88619 81520 83924 88330 91430 8336 771
Indiana11813915314816717021822815367
Iowa10712715917015515216416913182
Kansas73818791971051191239841
Kentucky122123135104143179213198191134
Louisiana9712714516218218818216813054
Maine51596984801011181089980
Maryland166213229250250296333314285190
Massachusetts476468406471558630751730560442
Michigan7801,0641,2141,2481,2311,2111,1621,132779540
Minnesota164235287322338355387379333222
Mississippi33555874858689826860
Missouri152175196209215228274287254143
Montana15192737414046494530
Nebraska38495662565965625437
Nevada8121016202741484831
New Hampshire New Jersey21 48925 51316 48520 50921 45932 45154 52762 53150 46237 345
New Mexico324549515661106144153105
New York1,6891,6411,9162,0992,1402,2592,9442,9132,9292,194
North Carolina138143149138206247335353300178
North Dakota14141620222428262117
Ohio4416067258048058779841,016763405
Oklahoma74748510011913216916512239
Oregon148100101120128145200197155141
Pennsylvania726740724389747798906935822536
Puerto Rico256538336772757463NA
Rhode Island597071798299128136125117
South Carolina527675103919611911510152
South Dakota18171715212225252210
Tennessee777483100125168206215190108
Texas122118229281344416517544496292
Utah41475255616476776447
Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia21 2 13638 3 16640 2 16540 2 17940 2 16948 3 17767 4 22565 4 25356 4 19947 NA 113
Washington175240294375401438606610585383
West Virginia Wisconsin53 26056 40675 519109 444107 506110 440120 453126 425101 29132 115
Wyoming69131619192721176
United States$10,621$12,857$14,371$15,236$16,663$18,543$22,250$22,798$20,411$13,884

1 Benefits refers to total cash benefits paid (see Table A-3) but does not include emergency assistance payments.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Program Support, Office of Management Services, data from the ACF-196 TANF Report and ACF-231 AFDC Line by Line Report.

Table A-8. Comparison of Federal Funding for AFDC and Related Programs and 1998 Family Assistance Grants Awarded Under PRWORA

Table A-8. Comparison of Federal Funding for AFDC and Related Programs and 1998 Family Assistance Grants Awarded Under PRWORA [In millions]

StateFY 1996 Grants for AFDC, EA & JOBS 1FY 1998 State Family Assistance Grant 2Increase from FY 1996 LevelPercent Increase fr FY 1996 Level
United States$14,931$16,562$1,63111
Alabama$75.9$96.0$20.126
Alaska58.765.36.611
Arizona197.8226.428.614
Arkansas51.958.26.412
California3,622.83,732.7109.93
Colorado158.3139.3-19.0-12
Connecticut215.3266.851.524
Delaware35.232.3-2.9-8
Dist of Columbia70.892.621.831
Florida497.5576.979.316
Georgia288.4339.751.318
Hawaii97.998.91.01
Idaho31.332.81.55
Illinois601.1585.1-16.0-3
Indiana133.1206.873.755
Iowa128.9131.52.72
Kansas89.8101.912.214
Kentucky157.2181.324.015
Louisiana114.3168.153.847
Maine74.878.13.34
Maryland214.3229.114.87
Massachusetts353.1459.4106.330
Michigan632.2775.4143.123
Minnesota220.8268.047.121
Mississippi70.388.918.626
Missouri195.4217.121.711
Montana40.446.76.316
Nebraska56.058.02.04
Nevada41.444.93.59
New Hampshire34.738.53.811
New Jersey383.2404.020.95
New Mexico132.1129.3-2.8-2
New York2,160.72,442.9282.313
North Carolina312.6310.9-1.7-1
North Dakota25.726.40.73
Ohio543.7728.0184.334
Oklahoma118.2147.829.625
Oregon142.0166.824.817
Pennsylvania770.1719.5-50.6-7
Rhode Island89.595.05.56
South Carolina94.4100.05.66
South Dakota20.221.31.15
Tennessee137.4196.759.343
Texas419.0498.979.919
Utah64.778.914.222
Vermont42.447.45.012
Virginia121.4158.336.930
Washington415.4404.3-11.1-3
West Virginia87.7110.222.526
Wisconsin276.4317.541.115
Wyoming15.021.56.644

1 Excludes IV-A child care. AFDC benefits include the Federal share of child support collections to be comparable to the Family Assistance Grant; 1996 expenditures as reported through February 25, 1997.
2 The awards include State Family Assistance Grants (SFAG) and Supplemental Grants for Population Increases. AZ, CA, OK, OR, SD WI, and WY cumulative totals have been adjusted for Tribes operating TANF within the State.
Source: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Legislative Affairs and Budget.

Table A-9. Average Monthly AFDC Recipients by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1965 – 1998

Table A-9. Average Monthly AFDC Recipients by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1965 – 1998 [In thousands]

 19651970197519801985199019951998Percent Change
1989-931993-98
Alabama78123160180151130118588-59
Alaska5812151620373187-15
Arizona405171517212419011087-44
Arkansas304510185647163354-52
California5281,1481,3621,3871,6191,9022,6802,07240-16
Colorado42669677791021095527-55
Connecticut598312513912212017112952-20
Delaware122031322421251744-38
Dist. of Columbia2040103855849735739-15
Florida106204265256271370622291113-58
Georgia7119835422123929338320250-49
Guam123564873430
Hawaii142547605144664731-15
Idaho10161921171724427-80
Illinois2623687776727356366965089-26
Indiana487316215716515418911343-46
Iowa44648510412398101684-33
Kansas365367686777803719-58
Kentucky8112915916716017518912844-43
Louisiana104202235213230282251123-5-53
Maine193680605756604133-40
Maryland8013121621219518622312626-43
Massachusetts9420834735023526327417635-46
Michigan1622536416856916555983608-48
Minnesota517612413515217118014417-25
Mississippi8311518617315517914460-4-65
Missouri10714026019919721125415629-40
Montana71322192229342125-38
Nebraska163038354443413718-23
Nevada51214121423412775-24
New Hampshire49262214162815132-48
New Jersey10428644045936730931620817-40
New Mexico3051615351571046863-29
New York5171,0521,2101,1001,1129811,25691522-24
North Carolina11112417019816622331318467-45
North Dakota8111413121614921-53
Ohio18326653551367363261236614-49
Oklahoma73959789821121246534-53
Oregon31759910274891044835-60
Pennsylvania30342662762956152159637816-38
Puerto Rico2022232321681731901681263-34
Rhode Island243852524446615447-12
South Carolina30521351531201111296636-55
South Dakota11162520161917106-50
Tennessee7612920116215521127614859-52
Texas9121439430836361174340145-49
Utah223334373845462921-44
Vermont51221232222272045-29
Virgin Islands124343541110
Virginia468717416615415118410333-47
Washington7110914315417822828621531-25
West Virginia116936977106111105489-60
Wisconsin457916121328823720946-3-81
Wyoming4577101415333-84
United States4,3237,41511,09410,59710,81311,46013,6598,77029-38

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Time Trends, FY 1984-1995, and unpublished data.

Table A-10. AFDC Caseload by State, October 1989 to June 1999 Peak

Table A-10. AFDC Caseload by State, October 1989 to June 1999 Peak [In thousands]

StatePeak Caseload Oct ‘89 to June ‘99Date Peak Occurred Oct ’89 to June ‘99June ‘97 CaseloadJune ‘99 CaseloadPercent Decline 1 June ‘97 to June ‘99Percent Decline Peak to June '99
Alabama52.3Mar-9332.019.43963
Alaska13.4Apr-9412.08.33138
Arizona72.8Dec-9352.533.23754
Arkansas27.1Mar-9220.712.04256
California933.1Mar-95789.9607.32335
Colorado43.7Dec-9328.713.45369
Connecticut61.9Mar-9555.533.44046
Delaware11.8Apr-949.56.33347
Dist. of Columbia27.5Apr-9423.717.92435
Florida259.9Nov-92160.673.55472
Georgia142.8Nov-9398.253.14663
Guam2.6Sep-972.22.6-170
Hawaii23.6Sep-9723.415.83233
Idaho9.5Mar-956.71.38187
Illinois243.1Aug-94191.6114.74053
Indiana76.1Sep-9342.437.21251
Iowa40.7Apr-9428.421.32548
Kansas30.8Aug-9318.212.83058
Kentucky84.0Mar-9362.540.63552
Louisiana94.7May-9051.736.62961
Maine24.4Aug-9318.213.62544
Maryland81.8May-9555.034.93757
Massachusetts115.7Aug-9376.050.93356
Michigan233.6Apr-91145.890.53861
Minnesota66.2Jun-9252.345.11432
Mississippi61.8Nov-9136.414.95976
Missouri93.7Mar-9467.648.42848
Montana12.3Mar-94 4.94560
Nebraska17.2Mar-938.8 13.310.81937
Nevada16.3Mar-9511.77.43755
New Hampshire11.8Apr-947.96.41946
New Jersey132.6Nov-9297.659.63955
New Mexico34.9Nov-9425.925.2328
New York463.7Dec-94371.0287.92238
North Carolina134.1Mar-9495.655.44259
North Dakota6.6Apr-934.03.12354
Ohio269.8Mar-92180.5103.14362
Oklahoma51.3Mar-9328.318.33564
Oregon43.8Apr-9322.716.92661
Pennsylvania212.5Sep-94157.0107.73149
Puerto Rico61.7Jan-9247.335.42543
Rhode Island22.9Apr-9419.518.0821
South Carolina54.6Jan-9330.317.24368
South Dakota7.4Apr-935.03.13958
Tennessee112.6Nov-9364.456.71250
Texas287.5Dec-93204.0107.54763
Utah18.7Mar-9311.69.61749
Vermont10.3Apr-928.26.52137
Virgin Islands1.4Dec-951.20.92536
Virginia76.0Apr-9450.934.63254
Washington104.8Feb-9591.460.73442
West Virginia41.9Apr-93 11.16174
Wisconsin82.9Jan-9228.7 38.18.37890
Wyoming7.1Aug-922.00.86289
United States5,098Mar-943,7892,5363350

1 Negative values denote percent increase.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Division of Data Collection and Analysis.

Table A-11. Average Number of AFDC Child Recipients By State, Selected Fiscal Years 1965 – 1998

Table A-11. Average Number of AFDC Child Recipients By State, Selected Fiscal Years 1965 – 1998 [In thousands]

 19651970197519801985199019951998Percent Change
C1989-931993-98
United States3,2425,4837,9527,3207,1657,7559,2806,33030-34
Alabama62961191291059387469-54
Alaska469101013242082-12
Arizona3139543850871305082-63
Arkansas23347562455145274-48
California3918169439321,0701,2941,8331,50444-12
Colorado335068535369744426-46
Connecticut4362929782811148851-19
Delaware91523221614171542-21
Dist. of Columbia163175594334514220-9
Florida85160200184191264432215103-55
Georgia5415026116116620626915148-45
Guam112443553141
Hawaii101833403329433331-12
Idaho7111414111116324-79
Illinois2022835624734934364783839-19
Indiana36551191111111051297940-44
Iowa32465969776466465-30
Kansas284150494552552718-55
Kentucky58931131181071171289138-37
Louisiana79157177156163199173127-3-33
Maine142656403635382831-34
Maryland611001571451261241529127-39
Massachusetts7115324222815216817612135-42
Michigan1191904544604414273982539-44
Minnesota39588991951101219919-21
Mississippi669314412811212910648-3-62
Missouri8210619313512913917512028-30
Montana61016131519221426-37
Nebraska122328252929292716-16
Nevada49108916292074-19
New Hampshire3718159111810123-44
New Jersey7920931631824721321315316-36
New Mexico233945353437674452-28
New York38075986275972965881166021-16
North Carolina839412514111315221113664-39
North Dakota6810981010618-46
Ohio13619837334842441441526115-45
Oklahoma557174655777864633-51
Oregon235267654960713433-56
Pennsylvania21730743043236934540327617-32
Puerto Rico161166170118116130114852-34
Rhode Island182737362830413147-23
South Carolina24401001098480965037-53
South Dakota812181511131287-45
Tennessee589915011510514419010663-51
Texas6816229222525642852228544-48
Utah162323242431312223-37
Vermont4814141414171341-28
Virgin Islands123232329-41
Virginia35661251161031041287434-44
Washington5076959711314818414231-23
West Virginia806547586468673410-54
Wisconsin346011614218115814633-1-79
Wyoming34557910234-82

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, unpublished data.

Table A-12. AFDC Recipiency Rates for Children by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1965 - 1998

Table A-12. AFDC Recipiency Rates for Children by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1965 - 1998 [In percent]

 19651970197519801985199019951998Percent Change
1989-931993-98
United States4.47.611.611.311.211.913.48.923-37
Alabama4.67.79.911.19.78.88.04.39-54
Alaska3.15.06.28.05.97.412.610.669-14
Arizona4.86.07.24.85.98.611.04.061-67
Arkansas3.15.210.99.37.18.27.04.13-50
California6.012.314.614.615.616.220.916.928-16
Colorado4.46.48.46.56.17.87.64.316-51
Connecticut4.46.19.811.810.810.814.411.146-20
Delaware4.77.512.313.410.28.79.68.333-23
Dist. of Columbia6.013.841.140.933.930.744.640.5301
Florida4.37.68.47.87.68.812.96.178-59
Georgia3.29.115.59.810.111.814.07.538-50
Hawaii3.66.511.714.511.610.514.211.024-12
Idaho2.74.24.84.73.63.64.70.915-80
Illinois5.37.516.014.616.114.815.312.06-22
Indiana2.03.06.96.97.57.38.75.239-46
Iowa3.24.76.68.410.28.89.16.44-30
Kansas3.55.47.37.56.97.98.03.914-56
Kentucky4.98.310.210.910.512.413.19.238-39
Louisiana5.511.313.211.812.216.514.110.6-1-31
Maine3.97.716.412.511.711.512.49.532-31
Maryland4.67.311.912.411.410.612.07.118-41
Massachusetts3.88.114.215.311.212.412.38.331-44
Michigan3.75.815.016.717.717.415.79.96-45
Minnesota2.94.27.07.78.59.49.87.912-23
Mississippi7.011.117.315.714.017.614.06.3-3-62
Missouri5.26.913.29.99.810.612.78.523-32
Montana2.04.06.65.76.18.49.56.322-34
Nebraska2.34.45.85.56.86.86.56.214-18
Nevada2.55.25.43.83.95.07.34.237-38
New Hampshire1.42.66.95.83.73.96.23.5114-46
New Jersey3.48.814.116.013.511.710.87.710-38
New Mexico5.29.510.98.57.88.313.58.842-31
New York6.313.016.316.216.715.417.914.716-16
North Carolina4.45.37.28.57.19.311.87.154-46
North Dakota2.33.64.94.74.36.05.74.023-44
Ohio3.65.310.911.214.714.914.69.214-45
Oklahoma6.48.58.77.66.39.19.85.231-52
Oregon3.37.49.69.06.98.18.84.222-59
Pennsylvania5.58.012.313.812.912.313.99.614-32
Rhode Island5.99.113.314.712.613.417.213.242-23
South Carolina2.34.210.411.69.18.710.15.235-54
South Dakota3.15.08.27.15.76.76.03.93-44
Tennessee4.27.511.38.98.611.814.58.057-53
Texas1.74.17.15.25.48.79.75.134-52
Utah3.75.45.04.44.04.94.53.116-41
Vermont2.75.49.39.99.99.511.59.037-25
Virginia2.24.17.97.97.16.87.94.527-47
Washington4.76.58.58.59.711.313.09.617-28
West Virginia12.211.28.410.412.615.715.78.416-51
Wisconsin2.23.87.810.514.212.110.82.5-5-79
Wyoming2.13.24.13.44.17.07.51.737-81

Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of AFDC child recipients in each State during the given fiscal year as a percent of the resident population under 18 years of age as of July 1 of that year. The numerators are from Table A-11.
Sources: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available on line at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Table A-13. AFDC Recipiency Rates for Total Population by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1965 – 1998

Table A-13. AFDC Recipiency Rates for Total Population by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1965 – 1998 [In percent]

 19651970197519801985199019951998Percent Change
1989-931993-98
United States2.13.55.04.64.54.55.13.224-41
Alabama2.23.64.34.63.83.22.81.34-60
Alaska1.82.63.13.73.03.76.15.072-17
Arizona2.62.93.11.92.33.44.42.369-52
Arkansas1.52.34.73.72.83.02.61.41-54
California2.95.76.35.86.16.48.56.331-20
Colorado2.23.03.72.62.53.12.91.416-60
Connecticut2.12.74.14.53.83.75.23.953-20
Delaware2.43.65.45.43.93.23.52.336-42
Dist. of Columbia2.55.314.613.39.28.113.210.951-6
Florida1.83.03.12.62.42.84.42.096-61
Georgia1.64.37.04.04.04.55.32.639-54
Hawaii1.93.25.46.24.93.95.54.023-17
Idaho1.42.22.32.21.71.62.10.314-82
Illinois2.53.36.95.96.45.65.94.26-29
Indiana1.01.43.02.93.02.83.31.939-48
Iowa1.62.33.03.64.33.53.52.42-34
Kansas1.62.42.92.92.83.13.11.416-60
Kentucky2.54.04.64.64.34.84.93.240-45
Louisiana2.95.66.15.05.26.75.82.8-6-54
Maine1.93.67.55.44.94.54.93.331-40
Maryland2.23.35.25.04.43.94.42.520-45
Massachusetts1.83.76.06.14.04.44.52.935-47
Michigan2.02.97.07.47.67.06.23.74-49
Minnesota1.42.03.23.33.63.93.93.012-28
Mississippi3.65.27.86.96.06.95.42.2-6-67
Missouri2.43.05.44.03.94.14.82.925-42
Montana1.01.92.92.42.73.63.92.419-41
Nebraska1.12.02.52.22.82.72.52.215-25
Nevada1.22.42.31.51.41.92.71.544-40
New Hampshire0.71.23.12.41.41.52.41.3128-51
New Jersey1.54.06.06.24.94.04.02.615-42
New Mexico3.05.05.34.13.53.86.23.951-34
New York2.95.86.76.36.25.56.95.021-24
North Carolina2.22.43.13.42.63.44.42.458-49
North Dakota1.21.72.12.01.82.42.31.423-53
Ohio1.82.55.04.86.35.85.53.312-50
Oklahoma3.03.73.52.92.53.63.81.931-55
Oregon1.63.64.33.92.83.13.31.424-63
Pennsylvania2.63.65.35.34.84.45.03.115-38
Rhode Island2.74.05.55.54.54.66.25.548-11
South Carolina1.22.04.64.93.63.23.51.730-57
South Dakota1.62.43.62.92.32.72.31.42-51
Tennessee2.03.34.73.53.34.35.32.752-55
Texas0.91.93.12.12.23.64.02.035-53
Utah2.23.12.82.52.32.62.31.410-50
Vermont1.42.64.44.44.23.94.73.441-31
Virginia1.01.93.43.12.72.42.81.526-49
Washington2.43.24.03.74.04.75.33.819-31
West Virginia6.45.33.74.05.56.25.82.68-60
Wisconsin1.11.83.54.56.14.84.10.9-7-81
Wyoming1.11.51.81.42.03.13.00.630-85

Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of AFDC recipients in each State during the given fiscal year expressed as a percent of the total resident population as of July 1 of that year. The numerators are from Table A-9.
Sources: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available on line at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Table A-14. Trends in Food Stamp Participation, Selected Years 1962 – 1999

Table A-14. Trends in Food Stamp Participation, Selected Years 1962 – 1999

 Food Stamp Participants 1Participants as a Percent of:Child Participants As a Percent of:
Fiscal YearIncluding Territories (in thousands)Excluding Territories (in thousands)Children Excld Terr. (in thousands)Total Population 2All Poor Persons 2Pre-transfer Poverty Population 3Total Child Population 2Children  in Poverty 2
19626,5546,554NA3.517.0NANANA
19655,1665,166NA2.715.5NANANA
19708,2778,277NA4.132.6NANANA
197113,04213,042NA6.351.0NANANA
197214,10214,102NA6.757.7NANANA
197314,64114,641NA6.963.7NANANA
197414,78414,765NA6.963.2NANANA
1975 418,30817,217NA8.066.2NANANA
197618,24016,7339,1267.766.7NA13.888.8
197717,01415,579NA7.162.7NANANA
197815,98814,503NA6.558.9NANANA
1979 517,68215,976NA7.160.957.1NANA
198021,08219,2539,4938.565.560.715.585.6
198122,43020,6549,6749.064.660.815.578.4
1982 622,05520,3929,5458.859.056.315.370.3
1983 623,19521,66710,7839.361.158.517.478.4
1984 622,38420,79610,3728.861.758.516.878.2
1985 621,37919,8479,8248.360.056.615.876.1
1986 620,90919,3819,8468.159.956.215.776.5
1987 620,58319,0729,7657.959.255.615.575.4
1988 620,09518,6139,3637.658.655.214.875.1
1989 620,26618,7789,4297.659.655.614.974.9
1990 621,54720,03810,1278.059.755.715.875.4
1991 624,11522,59911,9529.063.359.318.483.3
1992 626,88625,36913,3499.966.764.020.287.3
1993 628,42226,95214,19610.568.663.821.290.3
1994 628,87927,43414,39110.572.266.921.294.1
1995 627,98926,57913,86010.173.067.620.294.5
1996 626,87225,49413,1899.669.964.719.191.2
1997 624,14822,82011,8478.564.360.017.083.9
1998 620,97019,74610,5247.357.457.915.178.1
1999 619,32718,151NA6.7NANANANA

1 Total participants includes all participating States, the District of Columbia, and the territories (including Puerto Rico). The number of child participants includes only the participating States and D.C. (the territories are not included). From 1962 to 1983 the number of participants includes the Family Food Assistance Program (FFAP) which was largely replaced by the Food Stamp program in 1975. The FFAP participants (as of December) for the seven years shown during the period from 1962 to 1974 were respectively: 6,411; 4,742; 3,977; 3,642; 3,002; 2,441; and 1,406 (all in thousands). From 1975 to 1983 the number of FFAP participants averaged only 88 thousand. The monthly average number of participants for 1970-76 is computed as an average from October of the prior calendar year to September, the span of the fiscal year since 1977.
2 Includes all participating States and the District of Columbia only--the territories are excluded from both numerator and denominator. Population numbers used as denominators are the resident population—see Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106. For the persons living in poverty used as denominators, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-207.
3 The pretransfer poverty population used as denominator is the number of all persons in families or living alone whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.
4 The first fiscal year in which food stamps were available nationwide.
5 The fiscal year in which the food stamp purchase requirement was eliminated, on a phased in basis.
6 Participation figures in column 1 from 1982 on include enrollment in Puerto Rico’s Nutrition Assistance Program (averaging 1.2 to 1.5 million persons a month under the nutrition assistance grant and higher figures in earlier years under Food Stamps) as shown in Table A-18.

Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, National Data Bank, the 1996 Green Book, and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998," Current Population Reports, Series P60-207 and earlier years.

Table A-15 Trends in Food Stamp Expenditures, Selected Years 1962 – 1999

Table A-15 Trends in Food Stamp Expenditures, Selected Years 1962 – 1999

 Total Federal Cost Administration 1 Average Monthly Benefit per Person
Fiscal YearCurrent Dollars [In millions]1999 Dollars 3[In millions]Benefits 2 (Federal) In millions]Federal [In millions]State & Local [In millions]Total Cost [In millions]Current Dollars1999 Dollars 3
1962.......................241 41,220240 41NA2417.7039.00
1965.......................261 41,274259 42NA2616.4031.20
1970.......................866 43,549839 4272088610.6043.40
1971.......................1,897 47,4401,844 453401,93713.5052.90
1972 5.....................2,182 48,2642,109 473552,23713.5051.10
1973.......................2,466 48,9702,386 480602,52614.6053.10
1974.......................3,378 411,3173,254 4124953,47317.0057.00
1975 6.....................5,074 415,4944,836 42381805,25419.6059.80
1976.......................5,659 416,1765,294 43652755,93423.9068.30
1977.......................5,475 414,5665,073 44023005,77524.0063.90
1978.......................5,558 413,8755,124 44343255,88325.7064.20
1979 7.....................7,000 416,0676,485 45153887,38830.1069.10
1980.......................9,258 419,1058,755 45033759,63334.3070.80
1981.......................11,402 421,39410,724 467850411,90639.5074.10
1982 9.....................11,140 419,53010,431 470955711,69739.0068.40
1983 9.....................12,731 421,34811,953 477861213,34343.1072.30
1984 9.....................12,44620,01811,475971 880513,25142.9069.00
1985 9.....................12,57319,52011,5301,04387113,44445.1070.00
1986 9.....................12,51018,94311,3971,11393513,44545.6069.00
1987 9.....................12,51218,42311,3171,19599613,50845.9067.60
1988 9.....................13,28118,78711,9911,2901,08014,36149.9070.60
1989 9.....................13,90418,76912,5721,3321,10115,00551.9070.10
1990 9.....................16,50321,22115,0811,4221,17417,67759.0075.90
1991 9.....................19,79024,22518,2741,5161,24721,03763.9078.20
1992 9.....................23,53527,96121,8791,6561,37524,91068.7081.60
1993 9.....................24,73328,52523,0171,7161,57226,30568.0078.40
1994 9.....................25,58728,74823,7981,7891,64327,23069.0077.50
1995 9.....................25,77628,17723,8591,9171,74827,52471.4078.00
1996 9.....................25,52727,15223,5431,9841,84227,36973.5078.20
1997 9.....................22,66123,46920,6921,9691,90424,56571.3073.80
1998 9.....................20,09720,48118,0552,0421,98922,08671.3072.50
1999 9.....................NANA16,9591,923NANA72.2072.20

1 Amounts include the Federal share of state administrative and employment and training costs (including administrative costs of Puerto Rico's block grant) and certain direct Federal administrative costs. They do not generally include approximately $60 million in food-stamp related federal administrative costs budgeted under a separate appropriation account (although estimates prior to 1989 do include estimates of food stamp related Federal administrative expenses paid out of other Agriculture Department accounts). State and local costs are estimated based on the known Federal shares and represent an estimate of all administrative expenses of participating states (including Puerto Rico).
2 Benefit costs include the Food Stamp Program and Puerto Rico's nutritional assistance program and are based on unpublished data from the USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, National Data Bank (see Table A-17).
3 Constant dollar adjustments to 1999 level were made using a CPI-U-X1 fiscal year average price index.
4 From 1962 to 1983 total Federal cost includes the cost of the family food assistance program (FFAP) which was largely replaced by the Food Stamp program in 1975. The FFAP amounts for the seven years shown from 1962 to 1974 were: $227, $227, $289, $321, $312, $255, and $205 (in millions). The average amount for the period for 1975 to 1983 was $32 million with the highest year being 1981 at $94 million.
5 The first fiscal year in which benefit and eligibility rules were, by law, nationally uniform and indexed for inflation.
6 The first fiscal year in which food stamps were available nationwide.
7 The fiscal year in which the food stamp purchase requirement was eliminated, on a phased in basis.
8 Beginning 1984 USDA took over from DHHS the administrative cost of certifying public assistance households for food stamps.
9 Includes funding for Puerto Rico's nutrition assistance grant; earlier years beginning in 1975 include funding for Puerto Rico under the regular food stamp program. Average benefit figures do not reflect the lower benefits in Puerto Rico under its nutrition assistance program.
Source: USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the National Data Bank; and the 1998 Green Book.

Table A-16. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, 1980 - 1998

Table A-16. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, 1980 - 1998 [In percent]

 Year
 1980 11982 11984 11986 11988 11990 11992 11994 11996 11998 1
With Gross Monthly Income:          
Below the Federal Poverty Levels.....87959393929292909190
Between the Poverty Levels and 130          
Percent of the Poverty Levels............10566888989
Above 130 Percent of Poverty...........2*1****111
With Earnings........................................19181921201921212326
With Public Assistance Income 2...........65697169727366696765
With AFDC/TANF Income...............NA424238424340383731
With SSI Income...............................18181818201919232428
With Children........................................60586161616162616058
And Female Heads of Household......NA454748505151515047
With No Spouse Present 3...........NANANANA393744434341
With Elderly Members 4......................23202220191815161618
With Elderly Female Heads of          
Household 4.....................................NA1416151411911NANA
Average Household Size........................2.82.82.82.72.62.62.52.52.52.4

1 Data were gathered in August in the years 1980-84 and during the summer in the years from 1986 to 1994. Reports from 1995 to the present are based on fiscal year averages.
2 Public assistance income includes AFDC, SSI, and general assistance.
3 In 1996 female heads of household with children whose spouse is present comprised about 7 percent of all female heads of household with children.
4 Elderly members and heads of household include those age 60 or older.
* Less than 0.5 percent.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1998 and earlier years.

Table A-17. Value of Food Stamps Issued by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1975 – 1998

Table A-17. Value of Food Stamps Issued by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1975 – 1998 [Millions of dollars]

 19751980198519901992199419961998
United States$4,798$8,721$11,530$15,081$21,879$23,796$23,543$18,055
Alabama$108$246$318$328$451$456$440$357
Alaska727252541535450
Arizona4597121239377418372253
Arkansas78122126155207212224206
California3745306399681,7602,3952,5552,020
Colorado487194156219224210157
Connecticut38596272131152175161
Delaware821222542484734
Dist. of Columbia3241404370869585
Florida2364213686091,3061,3241,296845
Georgia144264290382627695703538
Guam315181528222734
Hawaii26609381121153196178
Idaho1229364053576147
Illinois2593947138351,0701,0691,034844
Indiana64154242226373415330263
Iowa2954107109143145141109
Kansas1338649613314613583
Kentucky138211332334430416413345
Louisiana149243365549677642597467
Maine36606263109111113100
Maryland79140171203316350362282
Massachusetts104171173207315330295222
Michigan132263541663846834773588
Minnesota4362105165234229221181
Mississippi115199264352421397376254
Missouri85142212312447482480345
Montana1118314152565852
Nebraska1225445978797868
Nevada1115224174889163
New Hampshire1422152045464230
New Jersey136226260289433486508384
New Mexico498188117182194199144
New York2337269381,0861,5861,9452,0541,505
North Carolina139234237282461490547421
North Dakota59162535343225
Ohio2683826978611,1021,076934613
Oklahoma4073134186275305308231
Oregon5880142168226241259198
Pennsylvania1903735476619161,001981764
Puerto Rico3668287868949731,0501,1021,166
Rhode Island1931354269767857
South Carolina126181194240297303299264
South Dakota818263542414137
Tennessee126282280372562600542437
Texas3195147011,4292,1032,3202,1401,425
Utah1322407196948775
Vermont1018202237444334
Virgin Islands919231819234222
Virginia70158189247406448450307
Washington7190140229344386426308
West Virginia5787159192255261252224
Wisconsin3368148180236220198130
Wyoming36152126272821

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the Food Stamp National Data Bank.

Table A-18. Average Number of Food Stamp Recipients by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1998

Table A-18. Average Number of Food Stamp Recipients by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1998 [In thousands]

         Percent Change
 197719811985198919921994199619981989-931993-98
United States17,01422,43021,37920,26626,88628,87926,87220,97040-26
Alabama31660558843655054550942729-24
Alaska113222263846464265-2
Arizona14021020626445751242729685-39
Arkansas21330525322727728327425625-10
California1,3451,6051,6151,7762,5583,1553,1432,25961-21
Colorado14717517021126026824419129-30
Connecticut17817514511420222322319690-9
Delaware265640305159584695-21
Dist. of Columbia9810172588291938548-1
Florida7289576306681,4041,4741,371991125-34
Georgia45965456748575483079363267-22
Guam22252013201518250100
Hawaii1081049978941151301223219
Idaho336459617282806230-21
Illinois9229841,1109901,1561,1891,10592319-22
Indiana19640540628544851839031374-37
Iowa10816320316819219617714117-28
Kansas6210811912817519217211947-37
Kentucky39451956044752952248641219-22
Louisiana4255746447257797566705377-31
Maine1011401148413313613111564-17
Maryland25534628724934239037532351-14
Massachusetts57943733731442944237429341-34
Michigan6359429858749941,03193577217-25
Minnesota15820222824530931829522029-31
Mississippi3335144954935365114573299-39
Missouri22137836240454959355441146-30
Montana274758566671716226-11
Nebraska407594921071111029523-16
Nevada1837324180979772126-23
New Hampshire4454282258625340176-34
New Jersey49360846435349454554042550-20
New Mexico11818315715122124423517562-28
New York1,6461,8511,8341,4631,8852,1542,0991,62740-20
North Carolina42860547439059763063152861-16
North Dakota152933394645403425-30
Ohio8039761,1331,0681,2511,2451,04573419-42
Oklahoma15820626326134637635428842-22
Oregon15323222821326528628823833-16
Pennsylvania8431,0711,0329161,1371,2081,12490729-24
Puerto Rico1,4721,8051,4801,4601,4801,4101,3301,181-1-18
Rhode Island798869578794917262-22
South Carolina28044337327236938535833345-16
South Dakota264648505553494511-19
Tennessee39267751850070273563853855-30
Texas8231,2261,2631,6342,4542,7262,3721,63663-38
Utah366575951231281109240-31
Vermont464844345465564670-21
Virgin Islands25343216162031178-1
Virginia24043236033349554753839761-26
Washington21227128132143146847836444-21
West Virginia19925227825931032130026924-17
Wisconsin17526936329133433028319316-43
Wyoming91527273334332525-26

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the National Data Bank.

Table A-19.Food Stamp Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1998

Table A-19.Food Stamp Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 1998 [In percent]

         Percent Change
 197719811985198919921994199619981989-931993-98
United States7.19.08.37.69.910.59.67.337-30
Alabama8.415.414.810.813.312.911.99.824-27
Alaska2.77.74.14.86.47.67.66.951-4
Arizona5.87.56.57.311.812.39.66.368-48
Arkansas9.713.310.99.711.611.510.910.121-14
California6.06.66.16.18.310.19.96.951-25
Colorado5.55.95.36.57.57.36.44.819-37
Connecticut5.85.64.53.56.26.86.86.090-9
Delaware4.59.36.54.57.38.48.06.183-26
Dist. of Columbia14.515.911.49.414.116.017.216.3609
Florida8.29.45.55.310.410.69.56.6107-39
Georgia8.811.79.57.611.211.810.88.355-29
Hawaii11.810.69.57.18.29.811.010.22416
Idaho3.86.75.96.16.77.26.75.118-30
Illinois8.18.69.78.710.010.19.37.716-24
Indiana3.67.47.45.27.99.06.75.369-39
Iowa3.75.67.26.16.96.96.24.915-29
Kansas2.74.54.95.26.97.56.64.543-39
Kentucky11.014.215.212.114.113.712.310.515-25
Louisiana10.613.414.617.018.217.615.412.37-32
Maine9.212.49.86.910.711.010.69.362-17
Maryland6.18.16.55.37.07.87.46.344-17
Massachusetts10.17.65.75.27.27.36.14.841-35
Michigan6.910.210.89.410.510.89.67.914-27
Minnesota4.04.95.55.76.97.06.34.724-34
Mississippi13.520.319.119.120.519.216.912.06-41
Missouri4.57.77.27.910.611.210.37.642-33
Montana3.65.97.17.08.18.38.17.120-15
Nebraska2.64.75.95.96.76.86.25.720-19
Nevada2.74.43.43.66.06.66.04.186-39
New Hampshire5.15.82.82.05.25.44.63.3172-38
New Jersey6.78.26.14.66.36.96.85.247-22
New Mexico9.713.710.910.014.014.713.810.151-33
New York9.210.510.38.110.411.911.69.039-21
North Carolina7.510.27.65.98.78.98.67.052-22
North Dakota2.44.44.96.07.27.16.25.327-30
Ohio7.59.110.69.911.411.29.46.516-43
Oklahoma5.56.78.08.310.811.610.78.639-25
Oregon6.38.78.57.68.99.39.07.322-22
Pennsylvania7.19.08.87.79.510.09.37.628-23
Rhode Island8.39.37.25.78.79.49.27.363-21
South Carolina9.413.911.37.910.310.59.68.738-20
South Dakota3.86.66.97.27.67.36.66.17-21
Tennessee8.914.611.010.314.014.212.09.948-35
Texas6.28.37.89.713.914.812.58.352-44
Utah2.74.34.65.66.86.65.44.427-38
Vermont9.49.48.26.19.411.19.67.765-23
Virginia4.67.96.35.47.88.48.15.852-29
Washington5.66.46.46.88.48.88.66.430-27
West Virginia10.412.914.614.317.117.716.514.924-16
Wisconsin3.85.77.66.06.76.55.53.711-45
Wyoming2.13.05.46.07.27.26.95.323-27

Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of food stamp recipients in each State during the particular fiscal year expressed as a percent of the total resident population as of July 1 of that year. The numerator is from Table A-18.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the National Data Bank and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Table A-20. Number of Persons Receiving Federally Administered SSI Payments 1974 – 1998

Table A-20. Number of Persons Receiving Federally Administered SSI Payments 1974 – 1998 [In thousands]

  Eligibility CategoryType of Recipient
   Blind and Disabled Adults
DateTotalAgedTotalBlindDisabledChildren 1Age 18-6465 or Older
Dec 19743,9962,2861,710751,636711,5032,422
Dec 19754,3142,3072,007741,9331281,6782,508
Dec 19764,2362,1482,088762,0121531,6862,397
Dec 19774,2382,0512,187772,1091751,7092,353
Dec 19784,2171,9682,249772,1721971,7162,304
Dec 19794,1501,8722,278772,2012121,6922,246
Dec 19804,1421,8082,334782,2562291,6932,221
Dec 19814,0191,6782,341792,2622301,6682,121
Dec 19823,8581,5492,309772,2312291,6182,011
Dec 19833,9011,5152,386792,3072361,6622,003
Dec 19844,0291,5302,499812,4192491,7432,037
Dec 19854,1381,5042,634822,5512651,8412,031
Dec 19864,2691,4732,796832,7132801,9722,018
Dec 19874,3851,4552,930832,8462892,0812,015
Dec 19884,4641,4333,030832,9482902,1682,006
Dec 19894,5931,4393,154833,0712962,2712,026
Dec 19904,8171,4543,363843,2793402,4182,059
Dec 19915,1181,4653,654853,5694392,6002,080
Dec 19925,5661,4714,095854,0106242,8432,100
Dec 19935,9841,4754,509854,4247713,1012,113
Dec 19946,2961,4664,830854,7458933,2842,119
Dec 19956,5141,4465,068844,9849743,4252,115
Dec 19966,6141,4135,201825,1191,0183,5062,090
Dec 19976,4951,3625,133815,0529433,4992,054
Dec 19986,5661,3325,234805,1549283,6052,033

1 Includes students 18-21; there were 50,661 students 18-21 in December 1997 and 40,798 in December 1998.
Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).

Table A-21. Federal and State SSI Benefit Payments, 1974 – 1998

Table A-21. Federal and State SSI Benefit Payments, 1974 – 1998 1 [In millions of current and 1998 dollars]

Calendar YearTotal BenefitsFederal PaymentsState SupplementationAdministrative Costs (fiscal year)
1998 2 DollarsCurrent DollarsTotalFederally AdministeredState Administered
1974.............$16,475$5,246$3,833$1,413$1,264$149$285
1975.............17,0495,8784,3141,5651,403162399
1976.............16,6466,0664,5121,5541,388166500
1977.............16,2646,3064,7031,6031,431172NA
1978.............15,8226,5524,8811,6711,491180539
1979.............15,5847,0755,2791,7971,590207610
1980.............15,7277,9415,8662,0741,848226668
1981.............15,5468,5936,5182,0761,839237718
1982.............15,3138,9816,9072,0741,798276779
1983.............15,3909,4047,4231,9821,711270830
1984.............16,27110,3728,2812,0911,792299864
1985.............16,75511,0608,7772,2831,973311953
1986.............17,96712,0819,4982,5832,2433401,022
1987.............18,58312,95110,0292,9222,563359976
1988.............18,99513,78610,7343,0522,671381975
1989.............19,69114,98011,6063,3742,9554191,051
1990.............20,70116,59912,8943,7053,2394661,075
1991.............22,16918,52414,7653,7593,2315291,257
1992.............25,83022,23318,2473,9863,4355501,538
1993.............27,70124,55720,7223,8353,2705661,467
1994.............28,46125,87722,1753,7013,1165851,775
1995.............29,54927,62823,9193,7083,1185901,973
1996.............29,91128,79225,2653,5272,9885391,949
1997.............29,50529,05225,4573,5952,9136822,055
1998.............30,21630,21626,4053,8123,0038082,304

1 Payments and adjustments during the respective year but not necessarily accrued for that year.
2 Data adjusted for inflation by ASPE using the CPI-U-X1.
Source: Social Security Administration, Office of SSI, and Office of Budget, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 1998 (available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).

Table A-22. Average Monthly SSI Benefit Payments, 1974 – 1998

Table A-22. Average Monthly SSI Benefit Payments, 1974 – 1998

Calendar YearTotal 1Federal PaymentsState Supplementation
1998 DollarsCurrent DollarsTotalFederally AdministeredState Administered
1974.............$447$135$108$64$71$35
1975.............31811292666945
1980.............302158133899176
1984.............329211187939393
1985.............3292191939999102
1986.............343232202107108101
1987.............344242208117118110
1988.............344253219118118118
1989.............347267230126126127
1990.............347283244132131136
1991.............353297260125122143
1992.............379328292124121147
1993.............379337306112107150
1994.............37033831010599152
1995.............374350322110103164
1996.............371359333108103145
1997.............3753693429910286
1998.............379379349103104102
 Number of Persons Receiving Payments (in thousands)
   State Supplementation
 TotalFederalTotalFederally AdministeredState Administered
Jan1974......3,2492,9561,8391,480358
Dec1975......4,3603,8931,9871,684303
Dec1980......4,1943,6821,9341,685249
Dec1984......4,0943,6991,8751,607268
Dec1985......4,2003,7991,9161,661255
Dec1986......4,3473,9222,0031,723279
Dec1987......4,4584,0192,0791,807272
Dec1988......4,5414,0892,1551,885270
Dec1989......4,6734,2062,2241,950275
Dec1990......4,8884,4122,3442,058286
Dec1991......5,2004,7302,5122,204308
Dec1992......5,6475,2022,6842,372313
Dec1993......6,0655,6362,8502,536314
Dec1994......6,3775,9652,9502,628322
Dec1995......6,5766,1942,8172,518300
Dec1996......6,6776,3262,7322,421310
Dec1997......6,5656,2123,0292,372657
Dec1998......6,6496,2893,0722,412661

1 Total is a weighted average of the Federal plus State average benefit, the Federal-only average benefit, and State-only average benefit.
Note: The numerators for these averages are given in Table A-21. Averages were computed by DHHS. Data adjusted for inflation using the monthly values of the CPI-U-X1 index.
Source: Number of persons receiving payments obtained from Social Security Administration, Office of SSI, and Office of Budget.

Table A-23. SSI Recipiency Rates, 1974 - 1998

Table A-23. SSI Recipiency Rates, 1974 - 1998 [In percent]

    Elderly Recipients (Persons 65 & Older) as a Percent of
 All Recipients as a Percent Of Total Population 1Child Recipients as a Percent of All Children 1All Persons 65 & Older 1All Elderly Poor 2Pretransfer Elderly Poor 3
Dec 19741.90.110.878.5NA
Dec 19752.00.210.975.6NA
Dec 19761.90.210.272.4NA
Dec 19771.90.39.774.1NA
Dec 19781.90.39.371.5NA
Dec 19791.80.38.861.366.8
Dec 19801.80.48.657.564.7
Dec 19811.70.48.055.063.3
Dec 19821.70.47.453.662.3
Dec 19831.70.47.355.261.9
Dec 19841.70.47.261.266.3
Dec 19851.70.47.158.764.5
Dec 19861.80.46.957.963.4
Dec 19871.80.56.756.564.7
Dec 19881.80.56.657.664.3
Dec 19891.90.56.560.364.6
Dec 19901.90.56.556.363.3
Dec 19912.00.76.555.061.1
Dec 19922.20.96.553.559.8
Dec 19932.31.16.456.363.3
Dec 19942.41.36.457.965.6
Dec 19952.51.46.463.771.4
Dec 19962.51.56.261.069.3
Dec 19972.41.36.060.869.1
Dec 19982.41.35.960.069.1

1 Population numbers used for the denominators are Census resident population estimates adjusted to the December date by averaging the July 1 population of the current year with the July 1 population of the following year; see Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106 and Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to November 1, 1999, Internet release date December 23, 1999 (Available online at http://www.census.gov)..
2 For the number of persons (65 years of age and older living in poverty) used as the denominator, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-207.
3 The pretransfer poverty population used as the denominator is the number of all elderly persons living in elderly-only units whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.
Notes: Numerators for these ratios are from Table A-20. Rates computed by DHHS.
Source: 1994 Green Book and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 1998," Current Population Reports, Series P60-207, and earlier years, (Available online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html).

Table A-24. Total SSI Payments, Federal SSI Payments And State Supplementary Payments Calendar Year 1998

Table A-24. Total SSI Payments, Federal SSI Payments And State Supplementary Payments Calendar Year 1998 (In thousands)

    State Supplementation
StateTotalTotal FederalFederal SSIFederally AdministeredState Administered
Total$30,216,345$29,408,200$26,404,793$3,003,415$808,137
Alabama651,471650,707650,707764
Alaska45,34332,37132,37112,972
Arizona329,702329,424329,424278
Arkansas340,061340,061340,061
California5,768,5285,768,5283,779,9341,988,594
Colorado301,225231,074231,07470,151
Connecticut296,289202,936202,93693,353
Delaware48,49748,49747,573924
District of Columbia88,84088,84085,8722,968
Florida1,533,5051,515,1211,515,113818,384
Georgia767,111767,108767,1056
Hawaii93,68593,68580,44813,237
Idaho81,92971,20371,20310,726
Illinois1,208,0121,179,6861,179,68628,326
Indiana381,627378,051378,0513,576
Iowa174,163157,371154,4882,88316,792
Kansas148,472148,472148,472
Kentucky724,330707,721707,72116,609
Louisiana740,451739,921739,921530
Maine114,889106,519106,5198,370
Maryland388,378383,379383,364154,999
Massachusetts772,019772,019607,934164,085
Michigan1,069,006975,334947,70227,63293,672
Minnesota315,182261,885261,88553,297
Mississippi527,866527,866527,8588
Missouri484,514459,114459,11425,400
Montana55,29155,29154,484807
Nebraska89,16082,96182,9616,199
Nevada95,12995,12990,5874,542
New Hampshire56,85445,64545,64511,209
New Jersey645,860645,860568,48377,377
New Mexico182,866182,611182,611255
New York3,055,2613,055,2612,521,889533,372
North Carolina826,014716,607716,607109,407
North Dakota32,03430,11830,1181,916
Ohio1,132,4051,132,4051,132,39213
Oklahoma330,169292,899292,89937,270
Oregon226,476206,302206,30220,174
Pennsylvania1,306,1581,306,1581,177,644128,514
Rhode Island117,408117,40896,57620,832
South Carolina433,310419,527419,52713,783
South Dakota51,58049,64749,64161,933
Tennessee670,197670,197670,1961
Texas1,541,6431,541,6431,541,643
Utah86,64786,64786,59255
Vermont50,90050,90041,4889,412
Virginia546,486525,325525,32521,161
Washington453,744453,455425,05528,400289
West Virginia312,599312,599312,599
Wisconsin496,403370,739370,739125,664
Wyoming23,92623,24823,248678
Other: N. Mariana Islands2,7192,7192,719
Unknown6286-280 1

1 Represents recovered State payments not yet credited to the states.
Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 1999.

Table A-25. SSI Recipiency Rates by State And Program Type for 1979 and 1998

Table A-25. SSI Recipiency Rates by State And Program Type for 1979 and 1998 [In percent]  

 Total Recipiency RateRate for Adults 18-64Rate for Adults 65 & Over
 19791998Percent Change 1979-9819791998Percent Change 1979-9819791998Percent Change 1979-98
Total1.92.4311.32.2749.05.9-34
Alabama3.63.861.83.37821.08.7-59
Alaska0.81.3670.51.314414.05.5-61
Arizona1.11.7500.91.6805.03.4-32
Arkansas3.53.511.93.16517.17.6-56
California3.03.262.12.52316.412.7-23
Colorado1.11.4290.81.3756.73.5-48
Connecticut0.81.4910.61.51352.72.5-6
Delaware1.21.6330.91.4545.42.6-52
District of Columbia2.33.8651.93.3748.67.2-16
Florida1.82.4361.12.0726.24.9-22
Georgia2.92.6-91.92.21917.78.3-53
Hawaii1.11.6570.71.3887.65.7-25
Idaho0.81.4800.61.51403.82.1-44
Illinois1.12.1961.02.11234.33.9-9
Indiana0.81.51020.61.61613.31.9-43
Iowa0.91.4600.61.61533.51.9-45
Kansas0.91.4560.61.51313.52.0-42
Kentucky2.54.4721.84.515112.57.9-37
Louisiana3.44.0192.03.67620.19.3-54
Maine2.02.3191.42.5818.63.7-56
Maryland1.21.7460.91.5585.44.2-22
Massachusetts2.22.7211.32.610610.85.8-46
Michigan1.32.2721.12.31125.93.1-47
Minnesota0.81.3660.61.41463.72.6-30
Mississippi4.54.992.44.37626.012.9-50
Missouri1.82.1171.12.1937.93.4-57
Montana0.91.6770.71.71383.82.2-41
Nebraska0.91.3450.61.31083.41.9-44
Nevada0.81.3590.51.21245.93.5-41
New Hampshire0.61.0640.41.01322.51.4-45
New Jersey1.11.8570.91.5744.74.5-4
New Mexico2.02.6331.42.47612.47.6-39
New York2.13.3581.62.8798.39.08
North Carolina2.42.671.62.23713.66.7-51
North Dakota1.01.3350.61.31305.12.6-48
Ohio1.12.21001.02.41414.22.5-39
Oklahoma2.32.2-61.32.15511.64.6-60
Oregon0.91.5740.71.61223.32.6-21
Pennsylvania1.42.3641.12.31085.03.5-30
Rhode Island1.62.6661.12.61446.44.9-24
South Carolina2.72.961.82.53817.07.2-58
South Dakota1.11.8570.71.71405.03.3-34
Tennessee2.93.1101.93.05914.87.0-53
Texas1.92.1101.01.66912.78.2-36
Utah0.61.0750.51.11113.01.9-36
Vermont1.82.1211.32.2668.14.5-44
Virginia1.52.0301.01.6608.55.2-39
Washington1.21.7471.01.8814.83.4-29
West Virginia2.13.9831.94.31338.05.0-37
Wisconsin1.41.7191.01.7786.52.6-61
Wyoming0.41.21840.31.33492.71.7-38

Note: Recipiency rates for 1998 are the ratios of the number of SSI recipients (in the respective age groups) as of the month of December to the population in the respective age group as of the month of July; calculations by DHHS. The 1979 rates are based on the average number of recipients during the year.
Source: Social Security Administration and U.S. Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Table A-26. SSI Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1975 – 1998

Table A-26. SSI Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1975 – 1998 [In percent]

 197519801985199019921994 21996 21998 2
Total 12.01.81.71.92.12.42.52.4
Alabama4.03.43.33.33.43.83.93.8
Alaska0.80.80.70.80.91.11.21.3
Arizona1.21.11.01.21.41.71.71.7
Arkansas4.13.43.13.23.53.83.83.5
California3.13.02.62.93.13.23.33.2
Colorado1.41.00.91.11.31.51.51.4
Connecticut0.80.80.81.01.11.31.41.4
Delaware1.21.21.21.21.31.51.61.6
District of Columbia2.22.42.52.73.03.53.73.8
Florida1.91.81.61.71.92.32.42.4
Georgia3.32.82.62.52.62.82.72.6
Hawaii1.11.11.11.31.31.51.61.6
Idaho1.10.80.81.01.21.41.51.4
Illinois1.21.11.21.61.82.22.32.1
Indiana0.80.80.91.11.31.51.61.5
Iowa1.00.91.01.21.31.41.51.4
Kansas1.10.90.91.01.11.41.51.4
Kentucky2.82.62.73.13.44.14.44.4
Louisiana3.93.22.93.23.54.14.24.0
Maine2.31.91.91.92.02.42.22.3
Maryland1.21.11.21.31.41.61.71.7
Massachusetts2.32.21.92.02.22.62.72.7
Michigan1.31.21.41.51.72.22.22.2
Minnesota1.00.80.80.91.11.31.41.3
Mississippi5.24.44.34.44.75.25.24.9
Missouri2.11.71.61.71.82.12.22.1
Montana1.10.90.91.31.41.61.61.6
Nebraska1.10.90.91.01.11.31.31.3
Nevada1.00.80.91.01.01.31.41.3
New Hampshire0.70.60.60.60.70.80.91.0
New Jersey1.11.21.21.41.51.81.81.8
New Mexico2.31.91.82.12.32.62.72.6
New York2.22.12.02.32.63.13.33.3
North Carolina2.72.42.22.22.42.62.72.6
North Dakota1.31.01.01.21.31.41.41.3
Ohio1.21.11.21.41.62.12.32.2
Oklahoma3.02.21.81.92.02.22.32.2
Oregon1.10.81.01.11.21.51.51.5
Pennsylvania1.21.41.41.61.82.12.22.3
Rhode Island1.71.61.61.71.92.32.62.6
South Carolina2.82.72.62.62.73.03.02.9
South Dakota1.31.21.21.51.61.81.91.8
Tennessee3.22.82.72.93.13.43.43.1
Texas2.21.81.61.71.92.12.22.1
Utah0.80.50.50.70.81.01.11.0
Vermont1.91.71.81.82.02.22.22.1
Virginia1.51.51.51.51.71.92.02.0
Washington1.51.11.11.31.41.61.71.7
West Virginia2.42.12.22.62.93.53.83.9
Wisconsin1.41.41.51.81.92.21.81.7
Wyoming0.70.40.50.80.91.21.21.2

1 The number of SSI recipients used to calculate the total recipiency rate includes a certain number of recipients whose State is unknown. For 1975, 1985, 1992, and 1998, the numbers of unknown (in thousands) were 256, 14, 71, and 3 respectively.
2 For 1975-92 the percentages are calculated as the average number of monthly SSI recipients over the total population of each State in July of that year. For 1994-1998 the number of recipients is from the month of December; calculations by DHHS.
Source: Social Security Administration and Bureau of the Census, (Resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).

Appendix B: Additional Non-Marital Birth Data

Table B-1. Percentage of Births that are to Unmarried Women Within Age Groups by Race

 WhiteBlack
 Under Age 15Age 15 - 17Age 18 - 19All TeensAll WomenUnder Age 15Age 15 - 17Age 18 – 19All TeensAll Women
194044.4NANA7.21.9NANANANANA
194144.9NANA7.01.9NANANANANA
194240.5NANA6.41.7NANANANANA
194345.2NANA6.51.6NANANANANA
194441.3NANA8.42.0NANANANANA
194550.7NANA10.02.4NANANANANA
194652.4NANA8.42.1NANANANANA
194745.1NANA6.61.8NANANANANA
194839.910.34.66.31.8NANANANANA
194940.410.04.56.11.7NANANANANA
195041.910.24.86.41.7NANANANANA
195134.99.74.45.91.6NANANANANA
195240.49.64.46.01.6NANANANANA
195343.19.64.56.11.7NANANANANA
195436.810.24.96.51.8NANANANANA
195542.110.24.96.61.9NANANANANA
195642.610.24.86.51.9NANANANANA
195741.510.44.76.52.0NANANANANA
195845.310.84.96.82.1NANANANANA
195946.711.45.27.22.2NANANANANA
196047.511.75.47.42.3NANANANANA
196149.912.46.07.92.5NANANANANA
196248.313.46.18.22.8NANANANANA
196350.315.17.09.43.1NANANANANA
196452.316.07.610.43.4NANANANANA
196557.317.39.111.74.0NANANANANA
196652.519.59.912.64.4NANANANANA
196761.621.011.214.24.9NANANANANA
196861.023.412.716.15.3NANANANANA
196957.024.012.916.65.591.772.148.360.034.9
197057.925.213.517.55.793.576.052.164.037.6
197160.525.213.217.45.695.079.656.068.140.5
197259.026.413.718.56.096.481.059.070.743.9
197365.227.614.319.66.496.482.660.472.145.7
197465.329.415.020.86.597.484.863.874.747.1
197571.033.017.223.57.398.487.467.677.848.8
197669.335.718.825.47.799.189.770.980.550.3
197772.838.921.027.88.298.890.674.682.651.7
197873.140.122.529.18.797.290.976.583.553.2
197975.042.424.330.89.499.492.978.985.754.7
198075.445.427.133.611.298.693.179.986.256.1
198176.548.028.735.511.898.993.981.387.256.9
198277.750.130.337.212.398.494.282.487.957.7
198379.953.132.739.812.998.595.184.489.459.2
198480.855.435.142.213.698.695.385.490.060.3
198582.458.038.245.314.798.895.686.290.661.2
198683.661.341.748.815.999.095.786.991.162.4
198784.664.644.451.816.999.196.187.691.763.4
198886.566.247.354.118.098.996.488.592.364.7
198984.767.249.555.719.298.496.189.092.359.2
199083.667.950.856.820.498.595.689.492.259.8
199175.569.753.259.021.898.195.789.892.560.3
199276.270.654.960.622.697.695.690.492.868.1
199383.271.757.262.723.698.195.790.893.168.7
199490.477.561.968.025.499.197.893.495.570.4
199588.877.462.168.025.399.197.793.295.369.9
199690.178.863.369.225.799.197.993.695.669.8
199792.281.665.371.425.899.498.393.895.869.2
199894.082.766.572.426.399.598.393.995.769.0

Notes: Births to unmarried women in the United States for 1940 - 1979 are estimated from data for registration areas in which marital status of the mother was reported; see sources below. Beginning in 1980, births to unmarried women in the United States are based on data from states reporting marital status directly and data from non-reporting states for which marital status was inferred from other information on the birth certificate; see sources below. Data for 1998 are preliminary.
Sources: Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, "Births to Unmarried Mothers: United States, 1980 - 1992," Vital and Health Statistics, Series 21, No. 53, 1995; Ventura, S.J., Martin, J.A., Curtin, S.C., Mathews, T.J., National Center for Health Statistics, "Births: Final Data for 1997," National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(18), 1999; and Martin, J.A., Smith, B.L, Mathews, T.J., Ventura, S.J., National Center for Health Statistics, "Births and Deaths: Preliminary Data for 1998," National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47(25), 1999.

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