This is a supplemental report to the final report of a study jointly funded by ONDCP and ASPE (Medicaid Substance Abuse Treatment Spending: Findings Report). This technical report provides more detail on the methods used to make estimates, and it also describes how MPR would make similar estimates of Medicare funding for substance abuse treatment, if requested to do so. [29 PDF pages]"
As federal and state substance abuse (SA) agencies work to establish priorities and coordinate their efforts, policymakers need reliable national and state estimates of Medicaid and Medicare SA treatment spending and accurate methods for projecting these estimates forward. Spending estimates and projections are essential for both aligning funding with policy objectives and developing realistic budgets to support treatment and prevention. Given these needs the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) contracted with Mathematica Policy Research to conduct this of Medicare and Medicaid SA treatment spending. This study included both methodological and programmatic issues. This technical report addresses two methodological issues:
What methods should be used to develop estimates of Medicare SA treatment spending?
How should estimates of Medicaid SA treatment spending be projected forward when estimates derived from observed data are not available to policymakers?
A separate findings report produced under this project presents the programmatic findings of this study and addresses methodological issues related to estimating Medicaid SA treatment expenditures in Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data.
This report contains two sections. The first section presents an approach for developing estimates of SA treatment spending in the Medicare program. The second section presents methods for trending estimates of Medicaid SA treatment.
I. Proposed Methodology for Producing Medicare Substance Abuse Treatment Expenditures Estimates
In this section, we propose a methodology for developing estimates of Medicare SA treatment spending. The methods parallel the approach used to develop Medicaid spending estimates in this project. In Section A, we provide an overview of Medicare coverage of SA treatment services and the payment approaches Medicare uses to reimburse providers for these services. In Section B, we discuss Part A and B expenditures. In Section C, we propose methods for imputing SA treatment expenditures for Medicare Advantage (MA) managed care beneficiaries, based on fee-for-service (FFS) spending on SA treatment services and encounter data (when those data become available for 2012 and later years). Finally, in Section D, we discuss Part D, prescribed drug expenditures.
A. Overview of Medicare Coverage of SA Treatment
In this section, we first describe the SA treatment services covered under the Medicare program. Then, we describe the approaches Medicare uses to reimburse providers for these services.
1. Service Coverage
Medicare covers a full spectrum of SA treatment services:
Inpatient hospital care--Medicare covers medically necessary inpatient hospital care for SA with the same coinsurance levels (for example, $1,156 deductible for 2012) and length of stay restrictions (up to 90 days in a benefit period, with a one-time 60-day reserve) as other types of hospitals stays. Medicare covers only a total of 190 days spent in a psychiatric hospital for an entire lifetime. Medicare may cover further inpatient mental health care in a general hospital, but not a psychiatric hospital.
Outpatient treatment--Medicare Part B covers outpatient SA treatment. Visits to a doctor or other health professional to diagnose a SA disorder are covered with a 20 percent coinsurance amount. Outpatient treatment of SA is covered with a 40 percent coinsurance in 2012. This coinsurance amount will decrease until 2014, when it will be 20 percent. Partial hospitalization is covered by Medicare if inpatient treatment would be necessary otherwise.
Preventive treatment--In October 2011, Medicare Part B initiated a new preventive benefit related to SA. This comprises an annual screening for alcohol misuse and up to four counseling visits to reduce alcohol misuse. Medicare fully covers these services from providers who accept assignment.
Prescribed drugs--Medicare Part D covers prescribed drugs for SA treatment at the same coverage levels as other prescribed drugs.
It should be noted that Medicare coverage of SA treatment is increasing from 2010 through 2014 including the reduction in coinsurance for outpatient services to 20 percent by 2014. This increase in coverage results from the implementation of mental health parity and the addition of preventive alcohol use screening in 2011. These enhanced benefits are likely to result in a higher use rate and greater expenditures for SA treatment over time.
2. Payment Method
Medicare provides Part A and B services to beneficiaries through the traditional Medicare FFS or MA managed care plans. When beneficiaries elect to enroll in MA, Medicare pays health plans chosen by beneficiaries a monthly premium to manage their care. For beneficiaries covered under the traditional Medicare FFS program, Medicare maintains administrative data on the services received and the associated Medicare payment amounts. However, until 2012, for beneficiaries enrolled in MA, Medicare maintained administrative data only on premium payment amounts but did not require the MA plans to submit data on the services they provided to their enrollees. Thus, through 2011 for individuals enrolled in FFS Medicare, Medicare administrative data can be used to calculate the number of beneficiaries using SA treatment services and expenditures related to these services. However, for individuals covered under MA, Medicare administrative data cannot be used to analyze service use.
Beginning in 2012, MA plans are required to submit encounter data enumerating the services provided to MA enrollees. It is expected that initial submissions may be incomplete or that other data quality issues may exist (for example, non-uniform coding across plans). The quality of the MA data likely will improve over time, but the analysis of the MA encounter data likely will be more resource intensive in the initial years, as it will require assessment of reporting quality and adjustments to allow for incomplete, inconsistent, or inaccurate reporting. Analyses based on the initial encounter data are also likely to be less accurate. Thus, it likely will be necessary to allow time for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to assess encounter data reporting and work with plans to improve such data before undertaking research using them. Thus, in the near future, we recommend that estimates of Medicare SA spending not rely on MA encounter data reporting and instead use FFS data to impute SA spending among MA enrollees.
Medicare prescription drug coverage, known as Medicare Part D, is provided through private companies approved by Medicare. Medicare pays these plans a monthly premium amount for each Medicare beneficiary covered. Utilization of Part D services is recorded in the CMS administrative data. These utilization data can be used to estimate SA related expenditures for prescribed drugs under Part D.
Table 1 displays the number of MA enrollees in each state and the District of Columbia for the last five years. MA enrollment has been increasing at a rate of 9.4 percent annually, with the rate of increase varying across states. Table 2 displays MA enrollment as a share of overall Medicare enrollment by state for 2011. Overall, almost one-quarter of Medicare enrollees are in an MA plan. Since MA enrollees represent a significant share of overall Medicare enrollment, the expenditures estimated for this population will represent a significant share of the overall estimate of SA treatment spending in Medicare.
B. Part a & B FFS Expenditures
Medicare's Chronic Condition Warehouse (CCW) can provide claims data to estimate total Medicare SA treatment spending for traditional Medicare FFS beneficiaries. Data files with 100 percent of FFS beneficiaries are available, as well as sample files. However, use of SA treatment is rare in the population ages 65 and older. Thus, there may be an insufficient sample of users to develop precise estimates in smaller states if a sample file is used. However, the 5 percent sample should provide sufficient precision for national estimates of SA treatment expenditures.
We recommend using the CCW Institutional and Non-Institutional claims files to estimate SA treatment spending in institutional and non-institutional settings, respectively. In parallel to the analysis of Medicaid SA treatment spending, we recommend that SA expenditures be divided into the following six types:
Core--Services included in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) definition of SA treatment.
Fetal exposure--Medical services primarily resulting from fetal exposure to alcohol or drugs. We expect that few of these services will be identified in the Medicare population, however, they are included as a separate category to parallel the Medicaid estimates.
Poisoning--Medical services primarily resulting from poisoning by alcohol or drugs.
Supplemental--Medical services primarily related to medical conditions fully attributable to alcohol or drug use.
Mental health claim with secondary SA diagnosis--Individuals with an SA disorder often have a co-morbid mental health condition. Thus, it will be desirable to identify claims with a primary mental health diagnosis and a secondary SA diagnosis.
Other claim with secondary SA diagnosis--Expenditures on these claims are related primarily to a medical condition other than SA; however, the SA co-morbidity increases the cost of this care to the Medicare program.
SA treatment claims within each of these types will be identified based on diagnosis code. Appendix A, Table A.1 and Table A.2, list diagnosis codes indicating SA treatment. For the first four SA treatment types only the first listed diagnosis on the Medicare claim should be examined. The final column of the Table A.1 and Table A.2 identifies which of these four SA treatment types is associated with each diagnosis code (Core, Fetal, Poisoning, or Supplemental). Claims will be assigned to the fifth group if they have a first listed mental health diagnosis, including any of the codes listed in Table A.3, and a secondary or later diagnosis listed in Table A.1 and Table A.2. All other Medicare claims with a secondary or later diagnosis in Table A.1 and Table A.2 will be classified into the sixth category.
Once claims with an SA diagnosis are identified, the total Medicare payment amount will be summed across the claims to determine the Medicare expenditures for these services.
C. Part C: Medicare Advantage
Because encounter data reporting is not mature for MA enrolled beneficiaries, we propose initially estimating SA treatment expenditures for the MA population based on the average level of expenditures for non-MA enrolled Medicare beneficiaries with similar characteristics. As complete encounter data become available for MA enrollees, the second approach, described below, entailing an estimation of the value of the utilization represented in the encounter data, could be used.
1. Imputation Based on FFS Experience
The following steps can be used to impute SA treatment expenditures for the MA enrolled population:
Step 1: Develop homogenous tiers--The Beneficiary Summary File can be used to divide Medicare enrollees into two groups based on whether they were enrolled in an MA plan at any point in the year. Within each of these two groups beneficiaries then should be divided into tiers based on their personal characteristics, including age, gender, state of resident, Medicare status code (aged, disabled, End Stage Renal Disease), and dual-eligible status.
Step 2: Calculate mean FFS expenditures per enrolled month--Calculate mean SA treatment expenditure per enrolled month among Medicare beneficiaries never enrolled in MA during the year for each tier created in Step 1 for each of the six SA treatment service types listed in Section B above.
Step 3: Calculate total MA enrolled months--For each tier in Step 1, calculate the total number of MA enrolled months.
Step 4: Calculate total imputed MA SA expenditures--For each SA service type, multiply the estimated mean FFS expenditure per enrolled month from Step 2 times the total number of MA enrolled months in Step 3 for each tier and sum across the tiers to obtain the total imputed MA SA expenditures for the service type.
This approach adjusts for differences in cost related to beneficiary characteristics observable in the administrative data. However, unobservable characteristics of MA enrollees may influence their treatment use. For example, wellness benefits offered by MA plans may appeal to healthier Medicare beneficiaries. Meanwhile, sicker beneficiaries may be less likely to make the effort to sign up for MA and may desire the broader choice of providers obtainable under traditional Medicare. Adjustment differences in these two groups of beneficiaries not linked to characteristics observable in the administrative data could be assessed by using multiple years of Medicare data and assessing whether MA enrollees had a lower SA treatment use rate prior to enrollment in MA relative to their counterparts who chose to remain in traditional FFS Medicare.
2. Imputation Based on Encounter Data
Once encounter data reporting is mature, encounter claims for SA treatment can be identified based on diagnosis codes in a manner similar to the identification of FFS SA treatment claims, as described in Section B. The encounter claims may not include accurate information on payment amount. If accurate information on the payment amount is not available from the encounter claims, we recommend estimating the price per unit of service based on mean expenditures per unit of service among traditional Medicare beneficiaries receiving the same service types. We also recommend that inpatient and other institutional care be priced per treatment day. Table A.5 can be used to classify outpatient treatment visits into homogeneous service types. The units of service observed in the encounter data then would be multiplied by the unit prices from traditional FFS Medicare and the total expenditures summed across the services types to determine total expenditures.
D. Part D: Prescribed Drug Expenditures
Expenditures for prescribed drugs can be estimated based on the CCW Part D Event file. Prescribed drug expenditures are categorized as core SA treatment services. The Part D Event file includes event records for both traditional Medicare FFS and MA enrollees, as well as the variable product service identification number, which provides the National Drug Code (NDC) of the prescribed drug. Table A.4 lists the NDC codes of pharmaceuticals used to treat SA. Only the first 8 digits of the 11-digit NDC code are used to identify the SA treatment pharmaceuticals. Event records listing these codes should be obtained. The values for the covered D plan paid amount and the non-covered plan paid amount are included in the Part D Event file. However, these values typically cannot be used for research. If they are available to this study then they should be summed to estimate payments under Part D. If they are not available national average payment amounts can be used to value the utilization observed in the Part D Event file.
|TABLE 1. MA Enrollment 2007-2011|
|State||2007||2008||2009||2010||2011||Annual % |
|District of Columbia||6,251||6,423||6,675||7,476||7,567||4.9|
|TABLE 2. MA Enrollment as a Share of Overall Medicare Enrollment, 2011|
|State||Medicare Beneficiaries||MA Enrollees||MA Share (%)|
|District of Columbia||78,860||7,567||9.6|
II. Proposed Methods and Resources Required for Updating Medicaid Estimates with Future Years of Data
ONDCP develops the annual National Drug Control Strategy Budget Summary and so needs an approach for updating the estimates of Medicaid SA treatment spending annually. We recommend direct derivation of the estimates of SA treatment spending from MAX files every 5-7 years or after major policy changes take place, such as implementation of the Affordable Care Act. For the intervening years, we recommend projecting base year estimates forward using the CMS-64 reporting and Medicaid enrollment data. The CMS-64 report summarizes annual Medicaid expenditures for each state. Information from the forms is currently available through FY 2011 for each state by service category. The benefit of using the information from the CMS-64 reports is that the available trends are state and service specific, and are available with only limited lag. One drawback to the CMS-64 data is that they are not broken out by eligibility group. Another limitation is that they are based on date of payment, therefore lump sum adjustments or lags in payment processing can impact trends artificially. Since SA treatment utilization varies by age, gender, and eligibility, we propose using Medicaid enrollment information in combination with the CMS-64 data.
We propose using the following steps to develop projections for each state:
Step 1: Obtain data. The CMS-64 reports, containing cost and service data, can be downloaded from the CMS website.1 Medicaid monthly enrollment data for December and June can be obtained from the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured website.2 Data currently are compiled through June 2011. Projections of SA treatment spending by SA care group and type of SA Spending for FY 2011 are provided in Appendix B. These estimates would be trended forward until updated estimates are directly derived from MAX.
Step 2: Map CMS-64 service categories to the five SA care groups. Map the service categories available in CMS-64 data to the five SA care groups included in the FY 2011 projections (Table B.1) developed from MAX data for the base year of the data (FY 2011 for the first round) and the desired year of the estimates. Map services in two steps. (a) First, group together individual categories from the CMS-64 into broader service groups shown in Table 3. Include relevant C categories, which represent expenses reported for Medicaid expansion Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) populations, and T categories, which account for expenses in those states that qualify to expend 20 percent of their CHIP allotment on the Medicaid program and still receive the enhanced CHIP match rate. Table 3 shows the groups by care setting developed based on the 2011 CMS-64 categories. (b) Next, crosswalk these groups to the five SA care groups included in the FY 2011 projections. Table 4 shows this crosswalk.3
Step 3: Estimate overall Medicaid expenditures. Estimate the overall level of Medicaid spending represented in the CMS-64s for each state in each SA care group in the base year and the most recent year of CMS-64 data available. Also, estimate the overall level of Medicaid spending for the state in the base year and the most recent year of data available.
Step 4: Calculate spending per enrolled month. Divide the total Medicaid spending for each state in each SA care group and overall by 12 times the number of Medicaid enrolled months in the state in June of the given year. The June months are multiplied by 12 to represent a full year of enrollment.
Step 5: Estimate the trend in spending per enrolled month. Estimate the overall Medicaid expenditure trend for each state for each SA care group and overall from the base period through the most recent year available.4 In rare cases, where trends for a particular service category indicates more than a 35 percent increase or decrease, replace the service category-specific trend with the overall trend in state Medicaid spending.
Step 6: Adjust overall Medicaid general health expenditure trends for the historical difference in growth between SA treatment and general health care spending. Between 1986 and 2005, the estimated trend in Medicaid SA treatment spending based on the SAMHSA Spending Estimates (SSE) was 98 percent of the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA) estimated trend in Medicaid spending. Given that the rate of growth in SA treatment expenditures (as identified in the SSE) historically has fallen below that of general health care expenditures (as identified in the NHEA), multiply the annual trend estimates developed in Step 5 by 0.98.
Step 7: Estimate the trend in adult/disabled enrollment. Medicaid expenditures on SA are concentrated in the adult/disabled populations. Ideally, expenditure trend estimates specific to SA treatment services and Medicaid adults would be developed, however, since the CMS-64s are not developed by eligibility nor demographic group and do not include categories tailored to SA, the method proposed in Steps 1-6 uses the expenditure trends per enrolled month across all Medicaid enrollees in each SA care group as a proxy for trends in SA expenditures which are primarily for adults. Since enrollment information is available by eligibility group in this step the Medicaid enrollment information obtained from the June Kaiser enrollment report should be limited to the adult and disabled populations. Then, the enrollment trend between the base and the most recent year of data available should be calculated.
Step 8: Project the base period MAX estimates to the most recent year of data available. Multiply the base year SA spending in each SA care group by the trend in expenditures per enrolled month for the group, adjusted for the historical difference between the general health and SA expenditure trends (the latter is 98 percent of the former). Then multiply this product by the trend in enrollment for the adult and disabled population for the same period. Estimates for the non-core SA treatment expenditures reported in Table B.2 were not developed by type of care, so they cannot be trended by SA care groups. Instead, trend these estimates based on the overall spending per enrolled month trend for Medicaid times 0.98 times the enrollment trend for the adult and disabled population.
Step 9: Project beyond the observed data. If projections beyond the most recent period of available CMS-64 and Kaiser enrollment data are needed, assess available information on the likely trend in Medicaid expenditures. Although the NHEA projections largely reflect trends in services other than SA treatment, these trends incorporate both anticipated enrollment changes and change in economic conditions. Since the SA treatment expenditure trend is 98 percent of the general health trend in the historical data, 98 percent of the projected increase in Medicaid spending in the NHEA projections could be used to project SA treatment expenditures beyond the period for which observable data is available. Another approach would be to assume that the trend observed in CMS-64 and Kaiser enrollment data for the recent historical period will continue. If there are no economic or policy-related factors that caused shifts in the recent past or are likely to cause a substantial shift in the future trends, then this approach would be reasonable. Under this approach, annualize the trend in expenditures per enrolled month between the base year and most recent year of data available as calculated in Step 5. Multiply the annualized trend by 0.98 reflecting the historical difference between growth in SA treatment spending and overall health care spending. Then annualize the enrollment trend between the base year and the most recent year of data available as calculated in Step 7. Multiply the projection for the most recent period of CMS-64 data available as calculated in Step 8 by the annualized trend in expenditures per enrolled month and the annualized trend in enrollment in the historical data. Repeat this multiplication for each additional year of trend desired.
|TABLE 3. Mapping CMS-64 Categories into Groups, 2011|
|C-Inp. Hosp. Services -- DSH |
C-Inp. Hosp. Serv. -- Reg. Payments
C-Inpatient Mental Health -- DSH
C-Inpatient Mental Health -- Reg. Payment
Critical Access Hospitals
Inpatient Hospital -- GME Payments
Inpatient Hospital -- Reg. Payments
|Inpatient Hospital -- DSH |
Inpatient Hospital -- Sup. Payments
T-Critical Access Hospitals
T-Inp Hosp -- DSH
T-Inp Hosp -- GME Payments
T-Inp Hosp -- Reg. Payments
T-Inp Hosp -- Sup. Payments
|C-Other Services |
Other Care Services
|T-Other Care Services|
|C-Drug Rebate -- National |
C-Drug Rebate -- State
Drug Rebate Offset
Drug Rebate Offset -- State Sidebar Agreement
|Prescribed Drugs |
T-Drug Rebate Offset -- National
T-Drug Rebate Offset -- State Sidebar Agreement
|Increased ACA OFFSET -- MCO |
MCO -- National Agreement
MCO -- State Sidebar Agreement
MCO -- Natl Agreement
Medicaid -- MCO
Prepaid Ambulatory Health Plan
Prepaid Inpatient Health Plan
|T-Increased ACA OFFSET -- MCO |
T-MCO -- National Agreement
T-MCO -- State Sidebar Agreement
T-Medicaid -- MCO
T-Prepaid Ambulatory Health Plan
T-Prepaid Inpatient Health Plan
|Outpatient Care Group|
|C-Clinic Services |
Clinic Services C-Outpatient Hospital Services
C-Outpatient Mental Health
Diagnostic Screen & Preventive Services
Federally Qualified Health Center Outpatient Hospital Service -- Reg. Payments
Outpatient Hosp Service -- Sup. Payments
Phys & Surgical Service -- Reg. Payments
Phys & Surgical Service -- Sup. Payments
T- Diagnostic Screening and Preventive Services
T-Federally Qualified Health Center
T-Outpatient Hospital Services -- Reg. Payments
|T-Outpatient Hospital Services -- Sup. Payments |
T-Physician & Surgical Services -- Reg. Payments
T-Physician & Surgical Services -- Sup. Payments
T-Rehabilitative Services (non-school-based)
T-Rehabilitative Services (non-school-based)
Mental Health Facility -- DSH
Mental Health Facility Services -- Reg. Payments
T-Mental Health Facility -- DSH
T-Mental Health Facility Services -- Reg. Payments
Case management -- Statewide
Targeted Case Management Services -- Com. Case-Man.
T-Case Management -- Statewide
T-Targeted Case Management Service -- Com. Case-Man.
T-Emergency Hospital Services
Emergency Hospital Services
|TABLE 4. Crosswalk of CMS-64 Groups to Study Categories|
|Study Category||CMS-64 Group Used for Trend|
|Inpatient Hospital Residential Treatment |
Outpatient Care Prescribed Drugs
Managed Care (Imputed Expenditures)
|Inpatient Group |
Other Care Services Group
Outpatient Services Group
Prescribed Drugs Group
Managed Care Group
Note that we found some differences between the CMS-64 categories for 2008 and 2011. Some new categories were added to the CMS-64 in 2010 and 2011 that were not included in the CMS-64 in prior years. If the CMS categories change again in the future, it will be necessary to map the categories in the CMS-64 in the base and estimate year as closely as possible so that trends can be developed.
Estimate the trend as Tt = (St/Sb)(1/(t-b)) . Where T is the trend, S is Medicaid spending per enrolled month from Step 4, t is current year, and b is base year.
Appendix A: Diagnosis Codes
|TABLE A.1. Alcohol Abuse Diagnosis Codes|
|ICD-9-CM||Description||Category of Service|
|2911||Alcohol amnestic syndrome||Core|
|2912||Alcoholic dementia NEC||Core|
|2914||Pathologic alcohol intoxication||Core|
|2918||Alcoholic psychosis NEC||Core|
|2919||Alcoholic psychosis NOS||Core|
|303||Alcohol dependence syndrome||Core|
|3030||Acute alcohol intoxication||Core|
|3039||Alcohol dependency NEC/NOS||Core|
|9800||Toxic effects of ethyl alcohol||Poisoning|
|9801||Toxic effects of methyl alcohol||Poisoning|
|E8600||Accidental poisoning by alcoholic beverages||Poisoning|
|E8601||Accidental poisoning by ethyl alcohol||Poisoning|
|E8602||Accidental poisoning by methyl alcohol||Poisoning|
|E8609||Accidental poisoning by unspecified alcohol||Poisoning|
|7903||Excessive blood level of alcohol||Poisoning|
|5710||Alcoholic fatty liver||Supplemental|
|5711||Acute alcoholic hepatitis||Supplemental|
|5712||Alcoholic cirrhosis of liver||Supplemental|
|5713||Alcoholic liver damage, unspecified||Supplemental|
|6554||Suspected damage to fetus from alcohol addiction||Fetus|
|76071||Fetal alcohol syndrome||Fetus|
|TABLE A.2. Drug Abuse Diagnosis Codes|
|ICD-9-CM||Description||Category of Service|
|2920||Drug withdrawal syndrome||Core|
|2922||Pathologic drug intoxication||Core|
|2928||Other drug mental disease||Core|
|2929||Drug mental disorder NOS||Core|
|3040||Opioid type dependence||Core|
|3046||Drug dependence NEC||Core|
|3047||Opioid/other drug dependence||Core|
|3048||Combinations of drug dependence NEC||Core|
|3049||Drug dependence NOS||Core|
|305||Non-dependent drug abuse||Core|
|3059||Drug abuse NEC/NOS||Core|
|6483||Drug dependence in pregnancy||Fetus|
|357.6||Polyneuropathy due to drugs||Supplemental|
|6555||Suspected damage to fetus from drugs||Fetus|
|76072||Fetus affected by narcotics||Fetus|
|76073||Fetus affected by hallucinogenic agents||Fetus|
|76075||Fetus affected by cocaine||Fetus|
|7795||Drug withdrawal symptoms in newborns||Fetus|
|965||Poisoning related to narcotics||Poisoning|
|967||Poisoning by sedatives and hypnotics||Poisoning|
|968||Poisoning by central nervous system muscle tone depressants||Poisoning|
|969||Poisoning by psychotropic agents||Poisoning|
|970||Poisoning by central nervous system stimulants||Poisoning|
|E850-E858||Accidental poisoning by drugs, medicaments, and biologicals||Poisoning|
|E863||Accidental poisoning by agricultural and horticultural chemical and pharmaceutical preparations other than plant food and fertilizer||Poisoning|
|E950.0-E950.6||Suicide and self-inflicted injury by drugs or medicinal substances||Poisoning|
|TABLE A.3. MH Diagnosis Codes|
|2954||Acute schizophrenic episode||Schizophrenia|
|296||Affective psychoses||Other affective disorder|
|2960||Manic disorder, single episode||Bipolar I|
|2961||Manic disorder, recurrent episode||Bipolar I|
|2962x (x = 3 or 4)||Depressive psychosis, single episode, severe||Major depression, severe|
|2962x (x ne 3 or 4)||Depressive psychosis, single episode, non-severe||Major depression, non-severe|
|2963x (x = 3 or 4)||Depressive psychosis, recurrent episode, severe||Major depression, severe|
|2963x (x ne 3 or 4)||Depressive psychosis, recurrent episode, non-severe||Major depression, non-severe|
|2964||Bipolar affective, manic||Bipolar I|
|2965||Bipolar affective, depressive||Bipolar I|
|2966||Bipolar affective, mixed||Bipolar I|
|2967||Bipolar affective NOS||Bipolar I|
|2968||Manic-depressive NEC/NOS||Other or unspecified bipolar|
|2969||Affective psychoses NEC/NOS||Other affective disorder|
|297||Paranoid states||Delusional disorder|
|2970||Paranoid state, simple||Delusional disorder|
|2973||Shared paranoid disorder||Delusional disorder|
|2978||Paranoid states NEC||Delusional disorder|
|2979||Paranoid state NOS||Delusional disorder|
|298||Other non-organic psychoses||Other MH diagnosis|
|2980||Reactive depressive psychosis||Other MH diagnosis|
|2981||Excitative-type psychosis||Other MH diagnosis|
|2982||Reactive confusion||Other MH diagnosis|
|2983||Acute paranoid reaction||Other MH diagnosis|
|2984||Psychogenic paranoid psychosis||Other MH diagnosis|
|2988||Reactive psychosis NEC/NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|2989||Psychosis NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|299||Psychoses of childhood||Other MH diagnosis|
|2990||Infantile autism||Other MH diagnosis|
|2991||Disintegrative psychosis||Other MH diagnosis|
|2998||Early childhood psychoses NEC||Other MH diagnosis|
|2999||Early childhood psychosis NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|300||Neurotic disorders||Anxiety disorder|
|3000||Anxiety states||Anxiety disorder|
|3002||Phobic disorders||Anxiety disorder|
|3003||Obsessive-compulsive disorder||Anxiety disorder|
|3004||Neurotic depression||Anxiety disorder|
|3006||Depersonalization syndrome||Anxiety disorder|
|3008||Neurotic disorders NEC||Anxiety disorder|
|3009||Neurotic disorder NOS||Anxiety disorder|
|301||Personality disorders||Other personality disorder|
|3010||Paranoid personality||Other personality disorder|
|3011||Affective personality||Other personality disorder|
|3012||Schizoid personality||Other personality disorder|
|3013||Explosive personality||Other personality disorder|
|3014||Compulsive personality||Other personality disorder|
|3015||Histrionic personality||Other personality disorder|
|3016||Dependent personality||Other personality disorder|
|3017||Antisocial personality||Antisocial personality disorder|
|3018||Other personality disorder||Other personality disorder|
|3019||Personality disorder NOS||Other personality disorder|
|302||Sexual disorders||Other MH diagnosis|
|3020||Egodystonic homosexuality||Other MH diagnosis|
|3021||Zoophilia||Other MH diagnosis|
|3022||Pedophilia||Other MH diagnosis|
|3023||Transvestism||Other MH diagnosis|
|3024||Exhibitionism||Other MH diagnosis|
|3025||Transsexualism||Other MH diagnosis|
|3026||Psychosexual identity disorder||Other MH diagnosis|
|3027||Psychosexual dysfunction||Other MH diagnosis|
|3028||Psychosexual disorder NEC||Other MH diagnosis|
|3029||Psychosexual disorder NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|306||Psychophysiologic disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3060||Psychogenic musculoskeletal disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3061||Psychogenic respiratory disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3062||Psychogenic cardiovascular disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3063||Psychogenic skin disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3064||Psychogenic GI disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3065||Psychogenic GU disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3066||Psychogenic endocrine disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3067||Psychogenic sensory disease||Other MH diagnosis|
|3068||Psychogenic disorder NEC||Other MH diagnosis|
|3069||Psychogenic disorder NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|307||Special symptom NEC||Other MH diagnosis|
|3070||Stammering and stuttering||Other MH diagnosis|
|3071||Anorexia nervosa||Other MH diagnosis|
|3072||Tics||Other MH diagnosis|
|3073||Stereotyped movements||Other MH diagnosis|
|3074||Non-organic sleep disorder||Other MH diagnosis|
|3075||Eating disorders NEC/NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|3076||Enuresis||Other MH diagnosis|
|3077||Encopresis||Other MH diagnosis|
|3078||Psychalgia||Other MH diagnosis|
|3079||Special symptom NEC/NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|308||Acute reaction to stress||Acute reaction to stress|
|3080||Stress reaction, emotional||Acute reaction to stress|
|3081||Stress reaction, fugue||Acute reaction to stress|
|3082||Stress reaction, psychomotor||Acute reaction to stress|
|3083||Acute stress reaction NEC||Acute reaction to stress|
|3084||Stress reaction, mixed disorder||Acute reaction to stress|
|3089||Acute stress reaction NOS||Acute reaction to stress|
|309||Adjustment reaction||Adjustment reaction|
|3090||Brief depressive reaction||Adjustment reaction|
|3091||Prolonged depressive reaction||Adjustment reaction|
|3092||Adjustment reaction/other emotion||Adjustment reaction|
|3093||Adjustment reaction -- conduct disorder||Adjustment reaction|
|3094||Adjustment reaction -- emotion/conduct||Adjustment reaction|
|3098||Other adjustment reaction||Adjustment reaction|
|3099||Adjustment reaction NOS||Adjustment reaction|
|310||Non-psychotic brain syndrome||Other MH diagnosis|
|3100||Frontal lobe syndrome||Other MH diagnosis|
|3101||Organic personality syndrome||Other MH diagnosis|
|3102||Postconcussion syndrome||Other MH diagnosis|
|3108||Non-psychotic brain syndrome NEC||Other MH diagnosis|
|3109||Non-psychotic brain syndrome NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|311||Depressive disorder NEC||Other depressive disorder|
|312||Conduct disturbance NEC||Conduct disorder|
|3120||Unsocialized aggression||Conduct disorder|
|3121||Unsocialized, unaggressive||Conduct disorder|
|3122||Socialized conduct disorder||Conduct disorder|
|3123||Impulse control disorder NEC||Conduct disorder|
|3124||Mixed disturbance conduct/emotion||Conduct disorder|
|3128||Other conduct disturbance||Conduct disorder|
|3129||Conduct disturbance NOS||Conduct disorder|
|313||Emotional disorder child/adolescent||Other MH diagnosis|
|3130||Overanxious disorder||Other MH diagnosis|
|3131||Misery and unhappiness disorder||Other MH diagnosis|
|3132||Sensitivity and withdrawal||Other MH diagnosis|
|3133||Relationship problems||Other MH diagnosis|
|3138||Other emotional disturbance, child||Other MH diagnosis|
|3139||Emotional disturbance, child, NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|314||Hyperkinetic syndrome||Other MH diagnosis|
|3140||Attention deficit disorder||Other MH diagnosis|
|3141||Hyperkinetic with developmental delay||Other MH diagnosis|
|3142||Hyperkinetic conduct disorder||Other MH diagnosis|
|3148||Other hyperkinetic syndrome||Other MH diagnosis|
|3149||Hyperkinetic syndrome NOS||Other MH diagnosis|
|6484||Mental disorders in pregnancy||Other MH diagnosis|
|V402||Mental problems NEC||MH V-code|
|V403||Behavioral problems NEC||MH V-code|
|V409||Mental/behavior problems NOS||MH V-code|
|V61||Other family circumstances||MH V-code|
|V610||Family disruption||MH V-code|
|V611||Marital problems||MH V-code|
|V612||Parentchild problems||MH V-code|
|V613||Problem with aged parent||MH V-code|
|V614||Health problem in family||MH V-code|
|V616||Illegitimate pregnancy||MH V-code|
|V617||Unwanted pregnancy NEC||MH V-code|
|V618||Family circumstances NEC||MH V-code|
|V619||Family circumstance NOS||MH V-code|
|V663||Mental disorder convalescence||MH V-code|
|V673||Psychiatric followup||MH V-code|
|V701||Psychiatric exam -- authority required||MH V-code|
|V702||General psychiatric exam NEC||MH V-code|
|V710||Observation for mental conditions||MH V-code|
|E950.7-E950.9, E951-E959||Suicide and self-inflicted injury by cause other than drugs or medicinal substances||Suicide and self-inflicted injury|
|MH = Mental Health. |
ne = not equal.
|TABLE A.4. Prescription Drug Codes|
|Drug Name||NDC Code|
|Naltrexone HCl (Revia)||51285-275, 0555-0902, 52152-105, 185-39, 406-1170, 16590-897, 16729-81, 47335-326, 60793-430, 60793-431, 60793-433, 60793-434, 60793-435, 60793-437|
|Vivitrol||63459-300, 65757-300, 65757-301|
|Disulfiram (Antabuse)||51285-523, 51285-524, 64980-171, 64980-172, 65473-706|
|Opiate and Heroin Addition Medications|
|Suboxone||12496-1202, 12496-1208, 54868-5707, 54868-5750, 63629-4028, 63629-4034|
|Naltrexone HCl (Revia)||See above|
|Nalmefene Hydrochloride (Revex)||10019-315, 10019-311, 11098-311|
|Other Drug Abuse Medications|
|Naloxone Hydrochloride (Narcan)||63481-365, 63481-368, 63481-359, 0409-1212, 0409-1215, 0409-1219, 63481-358, 63481-3771, 52584-469, 52584-782, 16590-556, 63739-463, 54868-2062,54868-6259, 60429-570, 68387-531, 548-1469, 548-3369, 43063-142, 43386-680, 52584-212, 52584-215, 409-1782|
|SOURCE: FDA's NDC database. |
NOTE: NDCs are for the listed drug and for any generic equivalent.
|TABLE A.5. Classification of SA/MH Treatment Services by Type|
|Types of SA Treatment Services||SA-Specific Codes||Other Behavioral Health Codes*||Other Types of Identifiers|
|Emergency room care||NA||NA||OT file claim with place of service code = 23|
|Inpatient care||H0008, H0009|
|Residential treatment||H0010, H0011||H0017, H0018, H0019, S5145, S5146, T2048|
|Intensive treatment program||H0015, S9475, H2036,||S9480, S9485, H0035, T2034|
|Treatment program service||H2035, S0201||H2012|
|Individual/group psychotherapy||90804, 90805, 90807, 90808, 90809, 90810, 90811, 90812, 90813, 90814, 90815, 90816, 90817, 90818, 90819, 90821, 90822, 90823, 90824, 90826, 90827, 90828, 90829, 90875, 90876, 90846, 90847, 90849, 90853, 90857, G0410, G0411|
|Other assessment/ screening/ intervention/ evaluation/ prevention/ treatment planning||H0001, H0003, H0022, H0028, H0049, H0050, H0007, H0048, H0026, G0396, G0397, T1007, 99408||H0030, H2011, S9484, 90801, S9083, H0002, H1011, 96150, 96151, 90802, H0031, T1001, H1000, 90889, 90801, 90885, 96101, 96102, 96103, 96100, 96125, 99456, S9446, H1003, H0023, H0032, 00100, G8405 G8404, 96115, 96116, 96117, T2010, T2011, T1023, 96105, 96111, 96110, 96125|
|Other medication management||H0020, J0592, J1230, J3490, J2315, J8499, S0109||90862, H0034, H2010, H0033, M0064, T1502|
|Other counseling/ therapy||H0005, T1006||H0004, 90806, 90845, 90870, 90871, 90880, 96152, 99510, H2032, G0176, 96153, 96154, 96155|
|Other case management or community supports||H0006, T1007, T1012, T1009||T1016, T1017, H0037, H2015, H2016, H2021, G0177, S5110, H5111, T1027, H2014, H2017, H2018, H2027, H0025, H2023, H2024, H2025, H2026, H2019, H2020, S0280, S0281, 90882, H0039, H0040, T1024, H1004, H0036, H2022, S9482, H2033 H0038, T2040, T2041, G0409|
|Detoxification||H0012, H0013, H0014|
|Housing (including halfway house)||H2034||H0043, H0044|
|Other||H0016, H0047, T1010, T1011, T1013, T2025, H2037||90899|
|* These behavioral health codes will be classified as SA treatments when they are associated with a primary SA diagnosis. |
NA = not available.
Appendix B. FY 2011 SA Treatment Spending
|TABLE B.1. FY 2011 SA Treatment Spending by SA Care Group |
(in $ thousand)
|State||Inpatient Hospital||Residential Treatment||Outpatient Care||Prescribed Drugs||Managed Care||Total|
|District of Columbia||2,940||0||1,533||493||11,458||16,424|
|* Expenditures for Maine were imputed because only prescribed drug claims data were available in MAX 2008 for Maine. Imputations are only available overall. SA care group estimates were not developed.|
|TABLE B.2. FY 2011 Non-Core SA Treatment Spending |
(in $ thousand)
|State||Fetal Exposure or Poisoning||Other Conditions||MH Expenditures with Secondary SA Diagnosis||Non-MH Expenditures with Secondary SA Diagnosis|
|District of Columbia||421||1,993||20,697||66,679|