Measures of Material Hardship:
Final Report

Prepared for:
Julia Isaacs
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Prepared by:
Tammy Ouellette, Nancy Burstein, David Long, and Erik Beecroft

April 2004
Contract #: 282-98-0006 (TO#31)

This report is available on the Internet at:
http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/material-hardship04/

How to Obtain a Printed Copy

Contents

Executive Summary (in PDF format)

Research Brief (in PDF format)

Chapter 1: Introduction (in PDF format)

Chapter 2: Defining and Measuring Material Hardship (in PDF format)

Chapter 3: Material Hardship Indexes (in PDF format)

Chapter 4: Measuring Material Hardship in the SIPP (in PDF format)

Chapter 5: Unanswered Questions for Future Research (in PDF format)

References

Appendix A: Summary: Roundtable Meeting on Measuring Material Hardship. A-1 (in PDF format)

Appendix B: Summary of Basic Needs Questions Included in SIPP Survey. B-1 (in PDF format)

Appendix C: Questions Included in the 1996 SIPP that were used in Analyses presented in Chapter 4. C-1 (in PDF format)

Appendix D: Additional SIPP Analyses. D-1 (in PDF format)

Exhibits

Exhibit 2.1  Definitions Used to Describe Material Hardship in US Research
Exhibit 2.2  Domains Measured in Several US Surveys and Studies
Exhibit 2.3  Suggested Criteria for Developing Material Hardship and Well-Being Measures
Exhibit 2.4  Bauman (2002a) Summary of Advantages and Disadvantages of Indexes, Scales, and Separate Indicators
Exhibit 2.5  Examples of Summary Measures Based on Logic and Judgment
Exhibit 2.6  Examples of Summary Measures Based on Statistical Approaches

Exhibit 3.1  Summary of Material Hardship Studies
Exhibit 3.2  Questions Used to Construct Food Insecurity Indicators
Exhibit 3.3  Questions Used to Construct Housing Security Indicators
Exhibit 3.4  Questions Used to Construct Medical Care and Health Insurance Indicators
Exhibit 3.5  Questions Used to Construct Utility-related Hardship Indicators
Exhibit 3.6  Questions Used to Construct Housing Quality Indicators

Exhibit 4.1  1996 SIPP Topical Modules
Exhibit 4.2  Material Hardship Measures Included in Analysis
Exhibit 4.3  Availability of Basic Needs and Food Security, by Income and Assets
Exhibit 4.4  Availability of Basic Needs and Food Security, by Urban versus. Rural and Income
Exhibit 4.5  Availability of Basic Needs and Food Security, by Household Composition and Income
Exhibit 4.6  Housing Safety and Overcrowding, by Income and Assets
Exhibit 4.7  Housing Safety and Overcrowding, by Urban versus Rural and Income
Exhibit 4.8  Housing Safety and Overcrowding, by Household Composition and Income
Exhibit 4.9  Availability of Durable Goods, by Income and Assets
Exhibit 4.10  Availability of Durable Goods by Urban versus Rural and Income
Exhibit 4.11  Availability of Durable Goods by Household Composition and Income
Exhibit 4.12  Joint Frequency of Basic Needs and Food Security Measures
Exhibit 4.13  Joint Frequency of Basic Needs and Food Security Measures for Households Under 100% FPL
Exhibit 4.14  Joint Frequency Selected Durable Goods and Housing Safety Measures, by Basic Needs and Food Security
Exhibit 4.15  Joint Frequency of Selected Durables and Housing Safety Measures, by Basic Needs and Food Security, Households Under 100% FPL
Exhibit 4.16  Joint Frequency of Housing Safety Issues and Overcrowding
Exhibit 4.17  Joint Frequency of Housing Safety Issues and Overcrowding, Households Under 100% FPL


How to Obtain a Printed Copy

To obtain a printed copy of this report, send the title and your mailing information to:

Human Services Policy, Room 404E
Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Av, SW
Washington, DC 20201

Fax:  (202) 690-6562

You may also print the report yourself by printing the “printer friendly”, PDF version of the full report (4MB) or each section in the Table of Contents.


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Last updated: 05/06/05