2002 Indicators of Welfare Dependence

Appendix A:
Program Data:

Food Stamp Program

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Contents

The Food Stamp Program, administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service, is the largest food assistance program in the country, reaching more poor individuals over the course of a year than any other public assistance program. Unlike many other public assistance programs, the Food Stamp Program has few categorical requirements for eligibility, such as the presence of children, elderly or disabled individuals in a household. As a result, the program offers assistance to a large and diverse population of needy persons, many of whom are not eligible for other forms of assistance.

The Food Stamp Program was designed primarily to increase the food purchasing power of eligible low-income households to the point where they can buy a nutritionally adequate low-cost diet. Participating households are expected to be able to devote 30 percent of their counted monthly cash income (after adjusting for various deductions) to food purchases. Food stamp benefits then make up the difference between the household’s expected contribution to its food costs and an amount judged to be sufficient to buy an adequate low-cost diet. This amount, the maximum food stamp benefit level, is derived from USDA’s lowest-cost food plan, the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP).

The Federal government is responsible for virtually all of the rules that govern the program, and, with limited variations, these rules are nationally uniform, as are the benefit levels. Nonetheless, States, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands, through their local welfare offices, have primary responsibility for the day-to-day administration of the program. They determine eligibility, calculate benefits, and issue food stamp allotments. The Food Stamp Act provides 100 percent federal funding of food stamp benefits. States and other jurisdictions have responsibility for about half the cost of state and local food stamp agency administration.

In addition to the regular Food Stamp Program, the Food Stamp Act authorizes alternative programs in Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa. The largest of these, the Nutrition Assistance Program in Puerto Rico, had an average of 1.1 million participants in 2000, funded under a federal block grant of $1.27 billion. Unless noted otherwise, the food stamp caseload and expenditure data in this Appendix include costs for the Nutrition Assistance Program in Puerto Rico. Prior to 1982, the regular Food Stamp Program operated in Puerto Rico, under modified eligibility and benefit rules.

The Food Stamp Program has financial, employment/training-related and “categorical” tests for eligibility. The basic food stamp beneficiary unit is the “household.” Generally, individuals living together constitute a single food stamp household if they customarily purchase food and prepare meals together. Members of the same household must apply together, and their income, expenses, and assets normally are aggregated in determining food stamp eligibility and benefits. Except for households composed entirely of TANF, SSI, or general assistance recipients (who generally are automatically eligible for food stamps), monthly cash income is the primary food stamp eligibility determinant. Unless exempt, adult applicants for food stamps must register for work, typically with the welfare agency or a state employment service office. To maintain eligibility, they must accept a suitable job if offered one and fulfill any work, job search, or training requirements established by the administering welfare agencies.

Food stamp benefits are a function of a household’s size, its net monthly income, its assets, and maximum monthly benefit levels. Allotments are not taxable and food stamp purchases may not be charged sales taxes. Receipt of food stamps does not affect eligibility for or benefits provided by other welfare programs, although some programs use food stamp participation as a “trigger” for eligibility and others take into account the general availability of food stamps in deciding what level of benefits to provide.

Recent Legislative and Regulatory Changes

Title IV and Subtitle A of title VIII of the PRWORA contain major and extensive revisions to the Food Stamp Program, including strong work requirements on able-bodied adults without dependent children, restricted benefits for legal immigrants, and a reduction in maximum benefits. These three provisions, and subsequent amendments, are discussed below; their impact on program participation and expenditures begins to appear in food stamp administrative data for 1997, with the fuller impact shown in data for 1998 and beyond.

First, a new work requirement was added for able-bodied adult food stamp recipients without dependents (ABAWDs). Unless exempt, ABAWDs between the ages of 18 and 50 are not eligible for benefits for more than 3 months in every 36-month period unless they are (1) working at least 20 hours a week; (2) participating in and complying with a work program for at least 20 hours a week; or (3) participating in and complying with a workfare program. Under the original legislation, the Department of Agriculture was authorized to waive application of the work requirement to any group of individuals at the request of the state agency, if a determination is made that the area where they reside has an unemployment rate over 10 percent or does not have a sufficient number of jobs to provide them employment. The provision was further moderated under the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-33), which allowed states to exempt up to 15 percent of the ABAWD caseload (beyond those subject to waivers) and which increased funds for the food stamp employment and training program for the creation of job slots for able-bodied adults subject to time limits.

Separately, title IV of PRWORA made significant changes in the eligibility of noncitizens for food stamp benefits. As first enacted, most qualified aliens, including legal immigrants (illegal aliens were already ineligible) were barred from receiving food stamps until citizenship. Subsequently, the Agriculture Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-185) restored food stamp eligibility to certain groups of qualified aliens who were legally residing in the United States before passage of PRWORA on August 22, 1996. Specifically, the ban on food stamp eligibility was lifted for children, the disabled and people who were 65 on August 22, 1996.

Finally, the 1996 legislation restrained growth in future program expenditures by making changes in the benefit structure for eligible participants, including a reduction in the maximum food stamp allotment. Other provisions of the 1996 act disqualified from eligibility those convicted of drug-related felonies and gave states the option to disqualify individuals, both custodial and noncustodial parents, from food stamps when they do not cooperate with child support agencies or are in arrears in their child support.

Recent regulatory and legislative changes have been made to increase access to food stamps among working poor families. Regulatory changes announced in July 1999 and expanded in November 2000 allow states to reduce reporting requirements and make it easier for working families to report income changes on a semiannual basis. Under the November 2000 regulations, states also have the option of providing a three-month transitional food stamp benefit to most families leaving TANF. In addition, the Agriculture Appropriations Bill for 2001 (P.L. 106-387) provides states with the option of liberalizing the treatment of vehicle assets to align with the states’ TANF rules on vehicle eligibility. These changes were intended to address concerns that some of the decline in food stamp caseloads may be leaving poor families without nutritional assistance as they make the transition from welfare dependence to full self-sufficiency.

Food Stamp Program Data

The following six tables and accompanying figure provide information about the Food Stamp Program, including information about the Nutrition Assistance Program in Puerto Rico:

Food Stamp Caseload Trends (Tables FSP 1-2). Average monthly food stamp participation (including participants in Puerto Rico’s block grant) has continued to fall from its peak of 28.9 million in an average month in 1994 to an average of 18.3 million persons in 2000. Both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of the population, food stamp recipiency is lower than at any point in the past twenty years. See also Table IND 3b and Table IND 4b in Chapter II for further data on the recent decline in food stamp recipiency and participation rates.

Considerable research has demonstrated that the Food Stamp Program is responsive to economic changes, with participation increasing in times of economic downturns and decreasing in times of economic growth (see Figure FSP 1). Economic conditions alone did not explain the caseload growth in the late 1980s and early 1990s, however. A congressionally mandated study in 1990 concluded that a variety of factors contributed to this caseload growth, including expansions in Medicaid eligibility and changes in immigration laws, particularly the legalization of undocumented aliens, as well as a rise in unemployment (McConnell, 1991). Longer spells of participation also contributed to the caseload increase, according to an analysis of longitudinal data from the Survey on Income and Program Participation (Gleason, 1998).

Economic conditions were a significant factor in explaining the drop in food stamp caseload since 1994, according to an Economic Research Service review of recent research (ERS, 2000). Several econometric models suggest that economic variables explain between 25 and 44 percent of the decline in caseload. The full effect of the economy may be even higher, to the extent that some of the unexplained variation in the models reflects local economic conditions not captured in state-level economic variables.

Policy changes, most notably the enactment of the Personal Responsibility Act of 1996, have also contributed to the recent decline in food stamp caseload. The most direct impact was the elimination of eligibility for most legal immigrants and for many childless adults aged 18-50. Participation for these two groups fell sharply between 1994 and 1998 (Genser, 1999). In addition, changes in TANF policy may have affected food stamp participation, although these effects are less certain. Many studies of families leaving TANF cash assistance have found that many of these families leave the Food Stamp Program as well, despite appearing eligible for food stamp benefits. Econometric studies of the effects of specific changes in TANF policy, however, have found that only a small share of the decline in state food stamp caseloads was associated with waivers to AFDC policies. Increased stigma about welfare use and unintentional diversion from the Food Stamp Program may be additional factors affecting food stamp participation. Finally, a study of trends in Food Stamp Program participation rates (USDA, 2000) found that the program is reaching a smaller percentage of eligible individuals in 1998 than it did during the three previous years.

Food Stamp Expenditures. Total program costs, shown in Table FSP 2, have declined in recent years, along with the decline in caseloads. In fiscal year 2000, total program costs (including Puerto Rico) were $18.4 billion, reaching their lowest levels since 1980, after adjusting for inflation. (Average monthly participation in fiscal year 2000 was 18.3 million). Average monthly benefits per person have also declined in recent years after adjusting for inflation. Benefits were $73 per person in fiscal year 2000, considerably lower than the $85 per person benefit (in constant dollars) paid in 1992, but higher than the $70 per person paid in 1987.

Food Stamp Household Characteristics. As shown in Table FSP 3, the proportion of food stamp households with earnings has increased, from about 20 percent for most of the 1980s and early 1990s, to 27 percent in 2000. At the same time, the proportion of households with income from AFDC/TANF has declined, from 42 percent in 1984 to 26 percent in 2000, following the dramatic decline in AFDC/TANF caseloads. Over half of all food stamp households have children, although the proportion has declined somewhat from over 60 percent in most of the 1980s and early 1990s to 54 percent in 2000. The vast majority (89 percent) of households have incomes below the federal poverty guidelines.

Figure FSP 1.
Persons Receiving Food Stamps

Figure FSP 1. Persons Receiving Food Stamps.

Note: Shaded areas are periods of recession as defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, National Data Bank.

Table FSP 1.
Trends in Food Stamp Caseloads, Selected Years 1962 – 2000
Fiscal Year Food Stamp Participants(1) Participants as a Percent of: Child Participants As a Percent of:
Including Territories (2) (in thousands) Excluding Territories (in thousands) Children Excld. Terr. (in thousands) Total Population (3) All Poor Persons (3) Pre-transfer Poverty Population (4) Total Child Population (3) Children in Poverty (3)
1962 6,554 6,554 NA 3.5 17.0 NA NA NA
1965 5,166 5,166 NA 2.7 15.5 NA NA NA
1970 8,277 8,277 NA 4.1 32.6 NA NA NA
1971 13,042 13,042 NA 6.3 51.0 NA NA NA
1972 14,102 14,102 NA 6.7 57.7 NA NA NA
1973 14,641 14,641 NA 6.9 63.7 NA NA NA
1974 14,784 14,765 NA 6.9 63.2 NA NA NA
1975(5) 18,308 17,217 NA 8.0 66.2 NA NA NA
1976 18,240 16,733 9,126 7.7 66.7 NA 13.8 88.8
1977 17,014 15,579 NA 7.1 62.7 NA NA NA
1978 15,988 14,503 NA 6.5 58.9 NA NA NA
1979(6) 17,682 15,976 NA 7.1 60.9 57.1 NA NA
1980 21,082 19,253 9,876 8.5 65.5 60.7 15.5 85.6
1981 22,430 20,654 9,803 9.0 64.6 60.8 15.5 78.4
1982 22,055 20,392 9,591 8.8 59.0 56.3 15.3 70.3
1983 23,195 21,667 10,910 9.3 61.1 58.5 17.4 78.4
1984 22,384 20,796 10,492 8.8 61.7 58.5 16.8 78.2
1985 21,379 19,847 9,906 8.3 60.0 56.6 15.8 76.1
1986 20,909 19,381 9,844 8.1 59.9 56.2 15.7 76.5
1987 20,583 19,072 9,771 7.9 59.2 55.6 15.5 75.4
1988 20,095 18,613 9,351 7.6 58.6 55.2 14.8 75.1
1989 20,266 18,778 9,429 7.6 59.6 55.6 14.9 74.9
1990 21,547 20,038 10,127 8.0 59.7 55.7 15.8 75.4
1991 24,115 22,599 11,952 9.0 63.3 59.3 18.4 83.3
1992 26,886 25,369 13,349 9.9 66.7 64.0 20.2 87.3
1993 28,422 26,952 14,196 10.5 68.6 63.8 21.2 90.3
1994 28,879 27,434 14,391 10.5 72.1 66.8 21.2 94.1
1995 27,989 26,579 13,860 10.1 73.0 67.6 20.2 94.5
1996 26,872 25,494 13,189 9.6 69.8 64.6 19.1 91.2
1997 24,148 22,820 11,847 8.5 64.1 59.9 17.0 83.9
1998 20,970 19,746 10,524 7.3 57.3 53.8 15.1 78.1
1999 19,325 18,146 9,354 6.7 56.3 52.5 13.3 77.2
2000 18,267 17,120 8,765 6.1 55.0 51.7 12.1 75.3
1. Total participants includes all participating states, the District of Columbia, and the territories (including Puerto Rico). The number of child participants includes only the participating states and D.C. (the territories are not included). From 1962 to 1983 the number of participants includes the Family Food Assistance Program (FFAP) which was largely replaced by the Food Stamp Program in 1975. The FFAP participants (as of December) for the seven years shown during the period from 1962 to 1974 were respectively: 6,411; 4,742; 3,977; 3,642; 3,002; 2,441; and 1,406 (all in thousands). From 1975 to 1983 the number of FFAP participants averaged only 88 thousand. The monthly average number of participants for 1970-76 is computed as an average from October of the prior calendar year to September, the span of the fiscal year since 1977.
2. Participation figures in column 1 from 1982 on include enrollment in Puerto Rico’s Nutrition Assistance Program (averaging 1.1 to 1.5 million persons a month under the nutrition assistance grant and higher figures in earlier years under Food Stamps, as shown in Table FSP 5).
3. Includes all participating states and the District of Columbia only — the territories are excluded from both numerator and denominator. Population numbers used as denominators are the resident population — see Current Population Reports, Series P25-1106. For the persons living in poverty used as denominators, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-210.
4. The pretransfer poverty population used as denominator is the number of all persons in families or living alone whose income (cash income plus social insurance plus Social Security but before taxes and means-tested transfers) falls below the appropriate poverty threshold. See Appendix J, Table 20, 1992 Green Book; data for subsequent years are unpublished Congressional Budget Office tabulations.
5. The first fiscal year in which food stamps were available nationwide.
6. The fiscal year in which the food stamp purchase requirement was eliminated, on a phased-in basis.
Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, National Data Bank, the 1996 Green Book, and U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 2000," Current Population Reports, Series P60-214 and earlier years.

Table FSP 2.
Trends in Food Stamp Expenditures, Selected Years 1975 – 2000
Fiscal Year Total Federal Cost (Benefits + Administration)  Benefits(2) (Federal)
[In millions]
Administration(1) Total Program Cost
[In millions]
Average Monthly Benefit per Person
Current Dollars
[In millions]
2000 Dollars(3)
[In millions]
Federal
[In millions]
State & Local
[In millions]
Current Dollars 2000 Dollars(3)
1975 $5,037 $15,946 $4,798 $238 $180 $5,217 $21.50 $68.10
1976 5,641 16,718 5,276 365 275 5,934 23.50 69.60
1977 5,463 15,072 5,061 402 300 5,775 24.00 66.20
1978 5,546 14,354 5,112 434 325 5,883 25.70 66.50
1979(4) 6,965 16,577 6,450 515 388 7,388 29.90 71.20
1980 9,224 19,736 8,721 503 375 9,633 34.20 73.20
1981 11,308 22,000 10,630 678 504 11,906 39.40 76.70
1982 11,117 20,209 10,408 709 557 11,697 39.00 70.90
1983 12,708 22,094 11,930 778 612 13,343 43.00 74.80
1984 12,446 20,755 11,475 971(5) 805 13,251 42.70 71.20
1985 12,573 20,239 11,530 1,043 871 13,444 45.00 72.40
1986 12,510 19,641 11,397 1,113 935 13,445 45.50 71.40
1987 12,512 19,102 11,317 1,195 996 13,508 45.80 69.90
1988 13,281 19,478 11,991 1,290 1,080 14,361 49.80 73.00
1989 13,904 19,460 12,572 1,332 1,101 15,005 51.80 72.50
1990 16,503 22,004 15,081 1,422 1,174 17,677 58.90 78.50
1991 19,790 25,118 18,274 1,516 1,247 21,037 63.90 81.10
1992 23,535 28,992 21,879 1,656 1,375 24,910 68.60 84.50
1993 24,733 29,576 23,017 1,716 1,572 26,305 68.00 81.30
1994 25,587 29,806 23,798 1,789 1,643 27,230 69.00 80.40
1995 25,776 29,220 23,859 1,917 1,748 27,524 71.30 80.80
1996 25,527 28,152 23,543 1,984 1,842 27,369 73.20 80.70
1997 22,750 24,430 20,692 2,058 1,904 24,654 71.30 76.60
1998 20,224 21,369 18,055 2,169 1,988 22,212 71.10 75.10
1999 19,045 19,747 16,945 2,100 1,874 22,919 72.20 74.90
2000 18,411 18,411 16,211 2,200 1,963 20,374 72.80 72.80
1. Amounts include the federal share of state administrative and employment and training costs (including administrative costs of Puerto Rico's block grant) and certain direct federal administrative costs. They do not generally include approximately $60 million in food-stamp related federal administrative costs budgeted under a separate appropriation account (although estimates prior to 1989 do include estimates of food stamp related federal administrative expenses paid out of other Agriculture Department accounts). State and local costs are estimated based on the known federal shares and represent an estimate of all administrative expenses of participating states (including Puerto Rico).
2. Benefit costs include the Food Stamp Program and Puerto Rico's nutritional assistance program and are based on unpublished data from the USDA, Food and Nutrition Service, National Data Bank (see Table FSP 4).
3. Constant dollar adjustments to 2000 level were made using a CPI-U-X1 fiscal year average price index.
4. The fiscal year in which the food stamp purchase requirement was eliminated, on a phased-in basis.
5. Beginning 1984 USDA took over from DHHS the administrative cost of certifying public assistance households for food stamps.
Note: Total federal cost includes food stamps in Puerto Rico (1975-1981) and funding for Puerto Rico's nutrition assistance grant (1982-present). Average benefit figures, however, do not reflect the lower benefits in Puerto Rico under either the Food Stamp Program from 1975 to 1981 or its nutrition assistance program since 1982.
Source: USDA, Food and Nutrition Service unpublished data from the National Data Bank; and the 2000 Green Book.

Table FSP 3.
Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, 1980 - 2000

[In percent]
  Year(1)
1980 1984 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 1999 2000
With Gross Monthly Income:
  • Below the Federal Poverty Levels.
87 93 92 92 92 90 91 90 89 89
  • Between the Poverty Levels and 130 Percent of the Poverty Levels.
10 6 8 8 8 9 8 9 10 10
  • Above 130 Percent of Poverty
2 1 * * * 1 1 1 1 1
With Earnings 19 19 20 19 21 21 23 26 27 27
With Public Assistance Income(2) 65 71 72 73 66 69 67 65 63 63
  • With AFDC/TANF Income.
NA 42 42 43 40 38 37 31 27 26
  • With SSI Income
18 18 20 19 19 23 24 28 30 32
With Children 60 61 61 61 62 61 60 58 56 54
  • And Female Heads of Household
NA 47 50 51 51 51 50 47 46 44
    • With No Spouse Present
NA NA 39 37 44 43 43 41 40 38
With Elderly Members(3) 23 22 19 18 15 16 16 18 20 21
  • With Elderly Female Heads of Household(3)
NA 16 14 11 9 11 NA NA NA NA
Average Household Size 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3
1. Data were gathered in August in the years 1980-84 and during the summer in the years from 1986 to 1994. Reports from 1995 to the present are based on fiscal year averages.

2. Public assistance income includes AFDC, SSI, and general assistance.

3. Elderly members and heads of household include those of age 60 or older.

* Less than 0.5 percent.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 2000 and earlier years.

Table FSP 4.
Value of Food Stamps Issued by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1975 – 2000

[Millions of dollars]
State 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1998 1999 2000
Alabama $108 $246 $318 $328 $441 $357 $346 $344
Alaska 7 27 25 25 50 50 49 46
Arizona 45 97 121 239 414 253 233 240
Arkansas 78 122 126 155 212 206 210 206
California 374 530 639 968 2,473 2,020 1,796 1,639
Colorado 48 71 94 156 217 157 145 127
Connecticut 38 59 62 72 169 161 150 138
Delaware 8 21 22 25 47 34 32 31
Dist. of Columbia 32 41 40 43 92 85 82 77
Florida 236 421 368 609 1,307 845 813 773
Georgia 144 264 290 382 700 538 514 489
Guam 3 15 18 15 24 34 31 36
Hawaii 26 60 93 81 177 178 180 166
Idaho 12 29 36 40 59 47 45 46
Illinois 259 394 713 835 1,056 844 767 777
Indiana 64 154 242 226 382 263 255 268
Iowa 29 54 107 109 142 109 103 100
Kansas 13 38 64 96 144 83 80 83
Kentucky 138 211 332 334 413 345 337 337
Louisiana 149 243 365 549 629 467 463 448
Maine 36 60 62 63 112 100 89 81
Maryland 79 140 171 203 365 282 237 199
Massachusetts 104 171 173 207 315 222 205 182
Michigan 132 263 541 663 806 588 515 457
Minnesota 43 62 105 165 240 181 172 165
Mississippi 115 199 264 352 383 254 232 226
Missouri 85 142 212 312 488 345 348 358
Montana 11 18 31 41 57 52 52 51
Nebraska 12 25 44 59 77 68 66 61
Nevada 11 15 22 41 91 63 56 57
New Hampshire 14 22 15 20 44 30 31 28
New Jersey 136 226 260 289 506 384 346 304
New Mexico 49 81 88 117 196 144 144 140
New York 233 726 938 1,086 2,065 1,505 1,464 1,361
North Carolina 139 234 237 282 495 421 435 403
North Dakota 5 9 16 25 32 25 26 25
Ohio 268 382 697 861 1,017 613 535 520
Oklahoma 40 73 134 186 315 231 221 208
Oregon 58 80 142 168 254 198 190 198
Pennsylvania 190 373 547 661 1,006 764 704 656
Puerto Rico 366 828 786 894 1,095 1,166 1,190 1,226
Rhode Island 19 31 35 42 82 57 61 59
South Carolina 126 181 194 240 297 264 251 249
South Dakota 8 18 26 35 40 37 37 37
Tennessee 126 282 280 372 554 437 425 415
Texas 319 514 701 1,429 2,246 1,425 1,255 1,215
Utah 13 22 40 71 90 75 73 68
Vermont 10 18 20 22 46 34 34 32
Virgin Islands 9 19 23 18 28 22 22 21
Virginia 70 158 189 247 450 307 282 263
Washington 71 90 140 229 417 308 260 241
West Virginia 57 87 159 192 253 224 208 185
Wisconsin 33 68 148 180 220 130 124 129
Wyoming 3 6 15 21 28 21 19 19
United States $4,798 $8,721 $11,530 $15,081 $23,859 $18,055 $16,945 $16,211
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the Food Stamp National Data Bank.

Table FSP 5.
Average Number of Food Stamp Recipients by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 2000

[In thousands]

State

  Percent Change
1977 1981 1985 1989 1994 1996 1998 2000 1989-94 1994-00
Alabama 316 605 588 436 545 509 427 396 25 -27
Alaska 11 32 22 26 46 46 42 38 76 -18
Arizona 140 210 206 264 512 427 296 259 94 -49
Arkansas 213 305 253 227 283 274 256 247 24 -13
California 1,345 1,605 1,615 1,776 3,155 3,143 2,259 1,832 78 -42
Colorado 147 175 170 211 268 244 191 156 27 -42
Connecticut 178 175 145 114 223 223 196 165 96 -26
Delaware 26 56 40 30 59 58 46 32 99 -46
Dist. of Columbia 98 101 72 58 91 93 85 81 55 -11
Florida 728 957 630 668 1,474 1,371 991 882 121 -40
Georgia 459 654 567 485 830 793 632 559 71 -33
Guam 22 25 20 13 15 18 25 22 21 46
Hawaii 108 104 99 78 115 130 122 118 47 3
Idaho 33 64 59 61 82 80 62 58 34 -29
Illinois 922 984 1,110 990 1,189 1,105 923 779 20 -34
Indiana 196 405 406 285 518 390 313 300 82 -42
Iowa 108 163 203 168 196 177 141 123 16 -37
Kansas 62 108 119 128 192 172 119 117 50 -39
Kentucky 394 519 560 447 522 486 412 403 17 -23
Louisiana 425 574 644 725 756 670 537 500 4 -34
Maine 101 140 114 84 136 131 115 102 61 -25
Maryland 255 346 287 249 390 375 323 219 57 -44
Massachusetts 579 437 337 314 442 374 293 232 40 -48
Michigan 635 942 985 874 1,031 935 772 603 18 -42
Minnesota 158 202 228 245 318 295 220 196 30 -38
Mississippi 333 514 495 493 511 457 329 276 4 -46
Missouri 221 378 362 404 593 554 411 423 47 -29
Montana 27 47 58 56 71 71 62 59 28 -17
Nebraska 40 75 94 92 111 102 95 82 20 -26
Nevada 18 37 32 41 97 97 72 61 134 -37
New Hampshire 44 54 28 22 62 53 40 36 182 -41
New Jersey 493 608 464 353 545 540 425 345 54 -37
New Mexico 118 183 157 151 244 235 175 169 62 -31
New York 1,646 1,851 1,834 1,463 2,154 2,099 1,627 1,439 47 -33
North Carolina 428 605 474 390 630 631 528 488 61 -22
North Dakota 15 29 33 39 45 40 34 32 17 -30
Ohio 803 976 1,133 1,068 1,245 1,045 734 610 17 -51
Oklahoma 158 206 263 261 376 354 288 253 44 -33
Oregon 153 232 228 213 286 288 238 234 34 -18
Pennsylvania 843 1,071 1,032 916 1,208 1,124 907 777 32 -36
Puerto Rico 1,472 1,805 1,480 1,460 1,410 1,330 1,181 1,109 -3 -21
Rhode Island 79 88 69 57 94 91 72 74 65 -21
South Carolina 280 443 373 272 385 358 333 295 42 -23
South Dakota 26 46 48 50 53 49 45 43 6 -20
Tennessee 392 677 518 500 735 638 538 496 47 -32
Texas 823 1,226 1,263 1,634 2,726 2,372 1,636 1,333 67 -51
Utah 36 65 75 95 128 110 92 82 34 -36
Vermont 46 48 44 34 65 56 46 41 90 -37
Virgin Islands 25 34 32 16 20 31 17 16 23 -21
Virginia 240 432 360 333 547 538 397 336 65 -39
Washington 212 271 281 321 468 478 364 295 46 -37
West Virginia 199 252 278 259 321 300 269 227 24 -29
Wisconsin 175 269 363 291 330 283 193 193 13 -41
Wyoming 9 15 27 27 34 33 25 22 25 -34
United States 17,014 22,430 21,379 20,266 28,879 26,872 20,970 18,267 42 -33
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the National Data Bank.

Table FSP 6.
Food Stamp Recipiency Rates by State, Selected Fiscal Years 1977 – 2000

[In percent]

State

  Percent Change
1977 1981 1985 1989 1994 1996 1998 2000 1989-94 1994-00
Alabama 8.4 15.4 14.8 10.8 12.9 11.9 9.8 8.9 19 -31
Alaska 2.7 7.7 4.1 4.8 7.6 7.6 6.9 6.0 60 -22
Arizona 5.8 7.5 6.5 7.3 12.3 9.6 6.3 5.0 69 -59
Arkansas 9.7 13.3 10.9 9.7 11.5 10.9 10.1 9.2 19 -20
California 6.0 6.6 6.1 6.1 10.1 9.9 6.9 5.4 66 -47
Colorado 5.5 5.9 5.3 6.5 7.3 6.4 4.8 3.6 14 -51
Connecticut 5.8 5.6 4.5 3.5 6.8 6.8 6.0 4.8 97 -29
Delaware 4.5 9.3 6.5 4.5 8.4 8.0 6.1 4.1 85 -51
Dist. of Columbia 14.5 15.9 11.4 9.4 16.0 17.2 16.4 14.1 71 -12
Florida 8.2 9.4 5.5 5.3 10.6 9.5 6.6 5.5 100 -48
Georgia 8.8 11.7 9.5 7.6 11.8 10.8 8.3 6.8 56 -42
Hawaii 11.8 10.6 9.5 7.1 9.8 11.0 10.3 9.7 37 -0
Idaho 3.8 6.7 5.9 6.1 7.2 6.7 5.1 4.5 17 -38
Illinois 8.1 8.6 9.7 8.7 10.1 9.3 7.6 6.3 16 -38
Indiana 3.6 7.4 7.4 5.2 9.0 6.7 5.3 4.9 75 -45
Iowa 3.7 5.6 7.2 6.1 6.9 6.2 4.9 4.2 14 -39
Kansas 2.7 4.5 4.9 5.2 7.5 6.6 4.5 4.3 44 -42
Kentucky 11.0 14.2 15.2 12.1 13.7 12.3 10.5 10.0 13 -27
Louisiana 10.6 13.4 14.6 17.0 17.6 15.4 12.3 11.2 3 -36
Maine 9.2 12.4 9.8 6.9 11.0 10.6 9.2 8.0 59 -27
Maryland 6.1 8.1 6.5 5.3 7.8 7.4 6.3 4.1 49 -47
Massachusetts 10.1 7.6 5.7 5.2 7.3 6.1 4.8 3.6 40 -50
Michigan 6.9 10.2 10.8 9.4 10.8 9.6 7.9 6.1 14 -44
Minnesota 4.0 4.9 5.5 5.7 7.0 6.3 4.6 4.0 23 -43
Mississippi 13.5 20.3 19.1 19.1 19.2 16.9 12.0 9.7 0 -49
Missouri 4.5 7.7 7.2 7.9 11.2 10.3 7.6 7.6 42 -33
Montana 3.6 5.9 7.1 7.0 8.3 8.1 7.1 6.6 20 -21
Nebraska 2.6 4.7 5.9 5.9 6.8 6.2 5.7 4.8 17 -30
Nevada 2.7 4.4 3.4 3.6 6.6 6.0 4.1 3.0 83 -55
New Hampshire 5.1 5.8 2.8 2.0 5.4 4.6 3.3 2.9 174 -46
New Jersey 6.7 8.2 6.1 4.6 6.9 6.8 5.2 4.1 51 -41
New Mexico 9.7 13.7 10.9 10.0 14.7 13.8 10.1 9.3 47 -37
New York 9.2 10.5 10.3 8.1 11.9 11.6 9.0 7.6 46 -36
North Carolina 7.5 10.2 7.6 5.9 8.9 8.6 7.0 6.0 50 -32
North Dakota 2.4 4.4 4.9 6.0 7.1 6.2 5.3 5.0 19 -30
Ohio 7.5 9.1 10.6 9.9 11.2 9.4 6.5 5.4 14 -52
Oklahoma 5.5 6.7 8.0 8.3 11.6 10.7 8.6 7.3 40 -37
Oregon 6.3 8.7 8.5 7.6 9.3 9.0 7.3 6.8 21 -26
Pennsylvania 7.1 9.0 8.8 7.7 10.0 9.3 7.6 6.3 30 -37
Rhode Island 8.3 9.3 7.2 5.7 9.4 9.2 7.3 7.1 66 -25
South Carolina 9.4 13.9 11.3 7.9 10.5 9.6 8.7 7.3 34 -30
South Dakota 3.8 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.3 6.6 6.2 5.7 2 -23
Tennessee 8.9 14.6 11.0 10.3 14.2 12.0 9.9 8.7 38 -39
Texas 6.2 8.3 7.8 9.7 14.8 12.5 8.3 6.4 53 -57
Utah 2.7 4.3 4.6 5.6 6.6 5.4 4.4 3.7 19 -45
Vermont 9.4 9.4 8.2 6.1 11.1 9.6 7.7 6.7 83 -40
Virginia 4.6 7.9 6.3 5.4 8.4 8.1 5.8 4.7 54 -43
Washington 5.6 6.4 6.4 6.8 8.8 8.6 6.4 5.0 30 -43
West Virginia 10.4 12.9 14.6 14.3 17.7 16.5 14.9 12.6 23 -29
Wisconsin 3.8 5.7 7.6 6.0 6.5 5.5 3.7 3.6 8 -44
Wyoming 2.1 3.0 5.4 6.0 7.2 6.9 5.3 4.5 20 -37
United States 7.1 9.0 8.3 7.6 10.5 9.6 7.3 6.1 39 -42
Note: Recipiency rate refers to the average monthly number of food stamp recipients in each state during the particular fiscal year expressed as a percent of the total resident population as of July 1 of that year. The numerator is from Table A-18.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, unpublished data from the National Data Bank and U.S. Bureau of the Census (resident population by state available online at http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/state/).


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