POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
IN THE UNITED STATES:

Research Findings on Evaluations of
Positive Youth Development Programs

by
Richard F. Catalano, Ph.D.
M. Lisa Berglund, Ph.D.
Jeanne A.M. Ryan, M.S.C.I.S.
Heather S. Lonczak, M.A.
J. David Hawkins, Ph.D.

Social Development Research Group
University of Washington
School of Social Work
Seattle, Washington

November 13, 1998

Funded by and submitted to:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
and National Institute for Child Health and Human Development


Table of Contents

PREFACE
The Positive Youth Development (PYD) Project
Advisors to the Project
Structure of the Report
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CHAPTER ONE:  Origins of the Positive Youth Development (PYD) Field
Introduction
Practitioner, Policy, and Prevention Science Perspectives
Practitioner and Policy Perspectives
Prevention Science Perspectives
The Convergence of Approaches
Current Challenges for Positive Youth Development
CHAPTER TWO:  Defining and Evaluating Positive Youth Development
Positive Youth Development Constructs
Promotes Bonding
Fosters Resilience
Promotes Competencies
Social
Emotional
Cognitive
Behavioral
Moral
Fosters Self Determination
Fosters Spirituality
Fosters Self Efficacy
Fosters Clear and Positive Identity
Fosters Belief in the Future
Provides Recognition for Positive Behavior
Provides Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement
Fosters Prosocial Norms
Criteria for Program Inclusion
Inclusion Criteria for Reviewing Positive Youth Development Programs
Social Domains
Inclusion Criteria for Reviewing Evaluations
CHAPTER THREE:  Empirical Evidence on Positive Youth Development Programs and Evaluations
Introduction
Chapter Organization by Numbers of Social Domains
Summary of the Criteria Used to Rule Out Evaluations
Effective Programs in One Social Domain
Summary of Positive Youth Development Programs Set in Communities
Programs in One Social Domain:  Community
Summary of Positive Youth Development Programs Set in Schools
Programs in One Social Domain:  Schools
Effective Health Promotion Programs in Schools
Effective Competence Promotion Programs in Schools
Effective Programs in Two Social Domains
Summary of Family and School-Based Positive Youth Development Programs
Programs in Two Social Domains:  Family + School
Summary of School and Community-Based Positive Youth Development Programs
Programs in Two Social Domains:  School + Community
Effective Programs in Three Social Domains
Summary of Family, School, and Community-Based Positive Youth Development Programs
Programs in Three Social Domains:  Family + School + Community
Programs in Three Social Domains:  Family + Church + Community
Programs in Three Social Domains:  School + Workplace + Community
CHAPTER FOUR:  Summary and Conclusions
Evaluations Excluded from the Effective Interventions
Characteristics of Effective Positive Youth Development Programs
Social Domains
Positive Youth Development Constructs
Positive Youth Development Strategies
Measurement of Positive and Problem Behavior Outcomes
Curriculum
Program Frequency and Duration
Program Implementation and Assurance of Implementation Quality
Ethnographic Data
Age
Methodological Issues
Overall Quality of Evaluation Research Design
Experimental Research Studies of Positive Youth Development Programs
Quasi-Experimental Research Studies of Positive Youth Development Programs
Unit of Analysis vs. Unit of Assignment
Statistical Reporting
Attrition Issues
Sufficient Sample Size and Power
Conclusions
Future Directions
APPENDICES
A:  Prevalence of 30 Day Alcohol Use by Number of Risk and Protective Factors
B:  Prevalence of 30 Day Marijuana Use by Number of Risk and Protective Factors
C:  Prevalence of Arrest Rate in the Past Year by Number of Risk and Protective Factors
D:  Prevalence of Academic Achievement by Number of Risk and Protective Factors
E:  Prevalence of High Social Competence by Number of Risk and Protective Factors
F:  Decision Rules
G:  Effective Programs in One Social Domain
H:  Effective Programs in Two Social Domains
I:  Effective Programs in Three Social Domains
J:  Characteristics of Positive Youth Development Programs
K:  Basis of Program/Evaluation Exclusion from Category of Effective Interventions
References


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