Following the format of last year’s first annual report to Congress, this second chapter presents summary data related to twelve indicators of dependence. These indicators differ from other welfare statistics because of their emphasis on welfare dependence , rather than simple welfare receipt. As discussed in Chapter I, the Advisory Board on We
For purposes of this report, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) has been used the most extensively and is considered the most useful national survey. Its strengths are its longitudinal design, system of monthly accounting, and detail concerning employment, income and participation in federal income-support and related programs.
Changes in dependence may or may not be associated with changes in the level of deprivation, depending on the alternative sources of support found by families who might otherwise be dependent on welfare. To assess the social impacts of any change in dependence, changes in the level of poverty or deprivation also must be considered. One way of meas
Welfare dependence, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less dependent if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which a family depends on welfare might also be considered in assessing their degree of dependency.
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the specific summary measures of welfare dependence proposed by the Advisory Board. It also discusses summary measures of poverty, following the Board’s recommendation that dependence measures not be assessed in isolation from measures of deprivation.
The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 (Pub. L. 103-432) directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop indicators of the extent to which American families depend upon income from welfare programs and to publish annual reports on welfare dependency. These reports are to address questions concerning the extent to which American families
The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. This Annual Report on Welfare Indicators, October 1998 is the second of these annual reports.
The Welfare Indicators Act challenges the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to identify and set forth not only indicators of welfare dependence and welfare duration but also predictors and causes of welfare receipt. However, welfare research has not established clear and definitive causes of welfare dependence. Instead, it has identifie
Figure IND 6. Dependency Status in 1999 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 1998, by Race/Ethnicity
Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1996 panel.