Figure ECON 1. Percentage of Persons in Poverty, by Age: 1959-2002
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, “Poverty in the United States: 2002,” Current Population Reports, Series P60-222 and data published online at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html.
The rate of receipt reflects an important aspect of dependence by measuring the extent to which various population subgroups rely on the major means-tested programs.
Figure IND 9a. AFDC Recipients as a Percent of the Population
The circumstances that are associated with beginnings or endings of receipt of assistance. reveal an important aspect of dependence that provides critical guidance for policy makers.
Table IND 8a. Percentage of First AFDC Spell Beginnings Associated with Specific Events
Data on multiple program receipt illustrates the nature of means-tested assistance “packages” and one aspect of the depth of dependence.
Figure IND 7. Percentage of Individuals in AFDC Families Receiving Other Assistance, 1994
Source: Table IND 7.
Lifetime welfare receipt often occurs in more than one episode. Indicators that measure the duration of receipt over a lifetime further reflect the depth of dependence.
Figure IND 6. Percentage of AFDC Recipients with Long-Term Receipt, 1982 – 1991
Source: Table IND 6.
One critical aspect of dependence is how long individuals receive means-tested assistance. This indicator provides information on the length of individual spells.
Figure IND 5. Spells of Program Participation, 1993 SIPP Panel
Source: Table IND 5.
This indicator illustrates one aspect of the range of dependence by combining information on receipt of means-tested assistance and hours of employment.
Figure IND 4a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants, 1994
Source: Unpublished data from the SIPP, 1993 panel.
In contrast to the indicator on duration of spells of means-tested assistance (Indicator 5), this indicator of dependence spell duration combines information on spells of receipt of means-tested assistance and paid employment.
Figure IND 3. Duration of AFDC Spells of Individuals in Families Where No One Is in the Labor Force
Whereas other indicators (Indicator 1a) illustrate the depth of dependence in a single year, this indicator reflects changes in the level of dependence over two years.
Figure IND 2. Dependency Status in 1994 of Persons who Received More Than 50 Percent of Income from Assistance in 1993
Figure A-6. SSI Recipients by Age, 1974 – 1998
Source: Social Security Administration, Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics, (Data available online at http://www.ssa.gov/statistics/ores_home.html).
Figure A-5. Characteristics of Food Stamp Recipients
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 1998 (Advance Report) and earlier years.
This indicator captures the degree of dependence by examining total family income and the percentage of total family income from means-tested assistance programs.
Figure IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs for the Total Population, 1994