Six of the eight case-study states contract with private entities to perform enrollment functions for PCCM. Alabama and North Carolina retain that function within their state and county governments. In each of the six states, the enrollment broker provides services for MCO enrollment as well. Maine's enrollment broker is also responsible for provi
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. Chapter 3: Organizational Structure and Administration
Several of the case-study states have made significant changes in the administration of their PCCM programs, creating organizational arrangements that more closely resemble contracted managed care networks. Whether state-administered or through contract agreements, these states have identified distinct functions for administration, such as enrollm
3. Deborah A. Freund, Medicaid Reform: Four Studies of Case Management (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1984). 4. Maren D. Anderson, Peter D. Fox, "Lessons Learned from Medicaid Managed Care Approaches," Health Affairs 6, no. 1 (Spring 1987): 71-88. 5. See Note 2. 6. Originally, prior authorizations were typically requi
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. Components and Innovations in Current PCCM Programs
The bulk of this paper focuses on current innovations in eight states' PCCM programs. The areas with the most frequent activities are described first.
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. Internal Drivers for Evolving PCCM Programs
As PCCM programs have matured, states have turned their focus from simply expanding access to developing methods for better management of their providers. States have learned many network management principles from MCOs, and are increasingly seeking to use these principles in managing their PCCM programs. Ensuring that Medicaid beneficiaries recei
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. Changes in the MCO Marketplace
A study of 15 states with the greatest number of Medicaid managed care members found annual MCO withdrawal rates of 18 percent in 1997 and 15 percent in 1998, compared with 7 to 8 percent each year from 1994 to 1996. 20 In 1998, on average, one commercial MCO entered the Medicaid market for every six MCOs that exited; in 1997, the ratio was close
The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 included provisions specifically affecting PCCM programs. For example, states can now require Medicaid beneficiaries to enroll in managed care, including PCCM programs, by amending their state plans rather than seeking a waiver. The only populations excluded from this state plan option are certain children with spec
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. External Drivers for Evolving PCCM Programs
Both external and internal factors have driven the evolution of states' PCCM programs. The most significant external factors are the Balanced Budget Act and the changing marketplace for risk-based MCOs.
States are increasingly monitoring quality of care in PCCM programs using multiple strategies.
Allowable PCCM primary care providers (PCPs) are typically those who can provide the full range of Medicaid primary care services.
States are increasingly mandating enrollment in PCCM for their Medicaid beneficiaries. As Chart C illustrates, in 1990, 63 percent of the 19 states with PCCM programs (a total of 12 states) mandated enrollment; 47 percent (nine states) made enrollment voluntary. (These add up to over 100 percent, as states may use both mandatory and voluntary enro
Since 1990, states have primarily used PCCM programs to enroll people in the following Medicaid categories of eligibility: AFDC/TANF, poverty level pregnant women, and poverty level children. Medicaid use of PCCM programs for these populations has been fairly stable and very high. Also relatively stable is the use of PCCM for institutionalized pop
As of 1998, 13 percent of all Medicaid beneficiaries (4.1 million people) were served through PCCM providers in 29 states. 15 Although the number of states has fallen from a high of 33 in 1994 (see Chart A), the number of beneficiaries since that time has risen (from 2.4 million in 1994). 16
PCCM programs have been successful in increasing the access of Medicaid beneficiaries to primary care physicians and creating medical homes, but the impact on costs is more mixed. In certain studies, access and utilization of primary care were noticeably improved, due largely to these provider-patient relationships.
In typical PCCM programs, the PCP is paid a monthly case management fee for each enrolled Medicaid beneficiary, in addition to fee-for-service reimbursement for all non-emergency primary care services that he/she provides. In return, the PCP is responsible for providing primary care and for prior authorizations to hospitals and specialty care prov
States began enrolling beneficiaries in their PCCM programs by the mid-1980s. In 1986, seven states had implemented PCCM programs, 4 and by 1990, 19 states had such programs. 5 Several factors motivated decisions to implement PCCM programs.
The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1981 allowed state Medicaid programs to implement both PCCM and risk-based managed care programs, pending HCFA(now known as CMS) waiver approval. HCFA(now known as CMS) approval required that the state satisfy two requirements.
1. HCFA(now known as CMS), letter from Sally K. Richardson, Director, Center for Medicaid and State Operations, PCCM Services Without Waiver , Jan. 21, 1998. 2. Neva Kaye, Cynthia Pernice, Helen Pelletier (Editor), Medicaid Managed Care: A Guide for