The adult outcomes have four domains with a total of 10 measures. The health domain includes two measures: alcohol abuse or dependence around age 30; drug use (marijuana or cocaine) in the past month around age 30.
This section describes the creation of variables used in the analysis of this report. We group the variables into four categories: adult outcome variables, youth risky behavior variables, family environment variables, and other explanatory variables of adult outcomes. Because of the longitudinal nature of the data, many variables were constructe
20. An alternative question we could have posed would be whether family environment mitigates the impact of risky behaviors on adult outcomes for early initiators as compared with late initiators. We have chosen not to frame the question this way because we want to examine the effects of family environment given the choice to initiate at early a
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. C. Does Parents' Education Affect the Pathways of Early Initiators?
We have addressed the question of whether adolescent family structure may influence the paths of early initiators and found that intact families are generally the best at helping adolescents avoid most negative consequences of risky behaviors. However, even in intact families, some adolescents will develop adulthood problems while others do not. I
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. B. Does Adolescent Family Structure Affect the Pathways of Early Initiators?
In this section we examine family structure as a measure of family environment. Other literature has examined how family structure may influence the choices made by these youths. However, as before, we take as given the point at which youths initiate into a risky behavior. We frame the question of interest around early initiators. Specifically, do
In the previous chapter, we have shown that in general, adolescent risk taking is associated with diminished adult outcomes. In particular, the earlier one initiates into a risky behavior, the worse the outcomes will be. However, not all youths engaging in risky behaviors fare poorly. Two youths both choosing to initiate early into a risky behavio
13. The one exception is the measure of age when first held a job for at least two years. The fact that this age is higher for those with some college most likely reflects the fact that these individuals were in school longer and began their transition to a steady job later. 14. This does not include pre-marital births which occurred before
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. 5. The Relationship of Parental Alcohol Problems to Adult Outcomes
As noted earlier, parent's alcoholism is unlikely to have positive effects on a child's development. The regressions bear this out strongly. Compared with individuals who do not grow up with an alcoholic parent, a child of an alcoholic parent is 33 percent more likely to have an adult alcohol problem, 21 percent more likely to use drugs as an adul
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. 4. The Relationship of Parents' Education (SES) to Adult Outcomes
Parents' socioeconomic status (SES) can play a major role in a variety of ways. Higher income, higher education, and increased access to resources allow parents to invest more in their children's future. They have more access to information about education, jobs, and other opportunities. Furthermore, higher SES parents likely have better informati
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. 3. The Relationship of Adolescent Family Structure to Adult Outcomes
In the previous section we found that engaging in adolescent risky behaviors generally is associated with diminished adult outcomes; the earlier the initiation, the worse the outcome. In this section we examine the role played by adolescent family structure in the relationship to the adult outcomes. As noted in Chapter II , much of the research
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. 2. The Relationship of Adolescent Risky Behaviors to Adult Outcomes
With ten regressions, examining the impact of five different adolescent risky behaviors with four different age categories each can be daunting. Seeming inconsistencies must be considered in the broad scheme; many of these are due to small cell sizes. We interpret the findings with an eye toward the big picture. To draw conclusions, we look at pat
These cross-tabulations do not hold anything constant, including the effect of the other adolescent behaviors on each adult outcome. The anomalies observed may reflect some other factor correlated with late initiation or delinquent behavior. To hold constant other factors that influence these adult outcomes, we estimate a set of regressions. These
Nearly 14 percent of adults suffer from alcohol abuse or dependence as measured around the age of 30 while about 11 percent are using drugs at that age. The prevalence rate of past-year alcohol use disorder is comparable to that (14 percent) found by Harford and Grant (1994) using 1989 NLSY79 data. Both past-year alcohol use disorder and recent dr
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Chapter V: The Relationship of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment to Adult Outcomes
We turn now to the central focus of this study, relating adolescent risky behaviors and family environment to long-term adult outcomes. Chapter III described the ten outcomes of interest in this study. We first show the distributions of these outcomes by sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment in Table 6.
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Chapter IV: The Relationship Between Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment
Most existing literature on adolescent risky behaviors concentrates on explaining the causes and correlates of the behaviors. A subset of the literature explores the relationship between the behaviors and long-term outcomes. Before we examine the relationship between engaging in adolescent risky behavior and subsequent adult outcomes, we show the
3. For a complete description of the NLSY79 and the entire NLS program, see Bureau of Labor Statistics, NLS Handbook 2000, Washington, DC. 4. The youngest members of the sample may have gotten questions about some risky behaviors in their later adolescent years. For example, the first alcohol questions appeared in 1982 when the respondents wer