In 1996, Congress authorized $50 million annually for five years to promote abstinence education. This funding was established through a new formula grant program authorized under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996. The funding became available to states in 1998 and is administered by the Mater
Many people contributed in important ways to this report. First and foremost, we thank the many abstinence education program grantees who have generously allowed us to visit their programs, meet with staff, and observe their operations.
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
In this study we have addressed a set of issues which have generally not been analyzed previously. We first examined the relationship between adolescent risky behaviors and long-term adult outcomes. Five adolescent behaviors were studied: alcohol use, marijuana use, cocaine use, sexual activity, and delinquency. Multiple outcomes were measured acr
Amato, P. R. (1999). Children of divorced parents as young adults. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Coping With Divorce, Single Parenting, and Remarriage (pp. 147-164). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Amato, P. R. (1996). Explaining the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family , 58, 628-640.
Table C1: Definitions of Early Initiators for each Outcome/Behavior Pairing
Age of alcohol initiation
Age of marijuana initiation
Age of cocaine initiation
Age of sex initiation
Number of crimes/delinquencies
Alcohol abuse or dependence ~ 30
Past-month drug use
Table B1. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Adult Health and Crime Outcomes
Alcohol Abuse or Dependence Odds Ratio [P-value]
Past-month Drug Use Odds Ratio [P-value]
Ever Being in Jail Odds Ratio [P-value]
Number of observations
The outcome variables in this study were assumed to follow different distributions and therefore a variety of regressions were estimated. To demonstrate statistical significance of estimated results consistently and as simply as possible, we chose to show p-values for all estimates, be it odds ratios or marginal effects. P-values range from 0 to 1
The Weibull distribution is one of the distributions used in modeling survival or duration data. The variable of interest in the analysis of duration is the length of time that elapses from the beginning of some event either until its end or until the measurement is taken, which may precede termination. In our study, we apply Weibull regression to
Negative binomial regression is used to model count dependent variables. A count variable, for example, the number of years in poverty, is assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. The Poisson distribution has the feature that its mean equals its variance. Since the variance of a count variable is often empirically larger than its mean, a situatio
Estimation of unordered-choice dependent variables requires a multinomial logistic model (Greene, 2000). It is intended for use when the dependent variable takes on more than two outcomes and the outcomes have no natural ordering. In our study, the family formation variable, "fertility and marital status at the age of 33", takes on six outcomes wi
Logistic regression is used for modeling outcomes that are binary (1/0) variables. A linear probability model has a number of shortcomings in estimating binary dependent variables (Judge et al 1985, Cox and Snell, 1989). Adult outcomes that are binary in our report are alcohol abuse or dependence, past-month drug use, ever being in jail by the age
Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression is used to estimate continuous outcome variables that are normally distributed. In this report, percent time employed between the end of formal schooling and the age of 33 is estimated using OLS regression.
To obtain accurate estimates of the effects of youth risky behaviors and family environment on adult outcomes, different types of regression techniques were utilized for different adult outcomes. Many econometric textbooks provide good discussions of the principles and practice of the regression analyses used in this study, e.g. Greene (2000), Jud