Given the scarcity of empirical data showing the effects of P4R and P4P programs on improving quality, safety, or efficiency and showing the effects of design elements that may influence provider behavior, RAND held discussions with a broad cross-section of P4P programs to gather information on the current state-of-the-art of P4P program design an
Together, the economic and management theories that we reviewed suggest that the way in which P4P incentives are structured, or framed, may influence whether they achieve the desired behavioral response. Incentives that are framed as withholdings, paid out in small and frequent payments, and paid out close to the time that care is delivered might
Empirical meta-analyses of studies that examined incentive programs show that such programs have a mixed response; some studies show an impact, and many others show little or even a negative impact (Rothe, 1970; Deci, Koestner, and Ryan, 1999; Cameron, Banko, and Pierce, 2001). Researchers have tried to reconcile the mixed results by theorizing th
Multidimensional output, or multitasking, refers to situations in which the responsibilities of an individual encompass multiple activities or outputs that may require different types of skills to accomplish (Holmstrom and Milgrom, 1991). A hospital’s output includes many different components, such as managing a patient’s chronic illness, the
An individual’s motivation and effort when faced with a goal greatly depend on that individual’s baseline performance. Economists and psychologists have described this phenomenon as a “goal gradient” (Heath, Larrick, and Wu, 1999). If baseline performance is far away from goal performance, the individual exerts little effort, because the g
In economics, the principle of discounting is based on the fact that individuals value having a sum of money now more than sometime in the future, even after accounting for inflation. The concept of discounting and the use of a discount rate are well accepted in both accounting and economics. Studies have found, however, that individuals discount
When given a choice, most people are risk averse; they will choose an option with 100 percent certainty over an option involving an uncertain but likely more valuable outcome. This principle of risk aversion is illustrated in a study in which subjects were given a choice between a one-week vacation that was certain or a three-week vacation they ha
One aspect of prospect theory is the principle of “loss aversion,” which finds that individuals are more sensitive to incentives when they perceive they are losing as opposed to gaining something. This effect has also been described as “losses loom larger than gains.” This behavioral effect has been demonstrated in a series of experiments
P4P incentives are designed to change the behavior of providers and the systems in which they operate in ways that will improve quality or efficiency. Various factors, such as the size of the incentive, are likely to influence a hospital and its physicians’ behavioral responses to a P4P program. For example, a large incentive would likely lead t
The published literature on the use of financial incentives in health care is sparse and provides little information about how specific design features may influence behavioral responses. P4P is common in industries other than health care, and economists and management experts have studied and developed theories on how individuals respond to finan
As of June 2007, there were only nine studies on the impact of hospital P4P programs, one of which was not peer reviewed. All of these studies evaluated programs that targeted the inpatient setting, and none examined P4P interventions in the hospital outpatient setting.
Four studies have analyzed the effects of the PHQID, a three-year CMS-sponsored demonstration project initiated in 2003. The PHQID program allowed for voluntary enrollment (i.e., hospital self-selection into the study) and only included hospitals using the Premier Perspectives data system—two factors that may hinder the ability to generalize the
Two published papers have examined the impact of the BCBS of Michigan Hospital Incentive Program. This program was initiated in 2000 and fully implemented in 2001 between BCBS of Michigan and the 86 hospitals statewide with which it contracts. Under the incentive program:
As of June 2007, few peer-reviewed studies existed on the use of financial incentives to affect quality, patient experience, safety, or the efficient use of resources. While more than 40 hospital-based P4P programs are operating in the U.S., few of them are undergoing formal evaluations to assess their impact.
The nine articles in our review a
Our review of the empirical literature on the effects of P4P included all peer-reviewed published studies describing the impact of a hospital P4P program for either inpatient or outpatient hospital services. We defined outpatient hospital services as any medical or surgical services performed primarily in an outpatient/ambulatory care setting that