Looking across Figures 1A, 1B, and 1C, there are several instances where the results for FTP seem to stand out. Leavers in FTP were younger than stayers (in contrast to each of the other programs), and they were much more likely to have completed high school (a difference that was the largest among the programs). Yet the leavers and the stayers di
The results for the pooled sample show that leavers are less disadvantaged than stayers, which is consistent with other research. Leavers are more educated, face fewer barriers to work, and have somewhat higher incomes. All the leavers left welfare as part of a welfare-to-work program, but some left under a program with financial incentives, and o
Table 4 uses the survey samples to present data on family income and material hardship, measured at the time of the follow-up surveys. The top panel presents income and poverty in the month before the survey and household composition at the time of the survey. The bottompanel presents several measures of material hardship, experienced either durin
Table 3 presents characteristics of the three groups for the pooled sample. The top panel presents several demographic characteristics, and the bottom panel presents data relating to employment prospects. The first three columns present data for the three groups, and the last two columns show the differences between the groups. Differences that ar
One of the first steps in understanding how leavers are faring and how the caseload has changed is figuring out why the caseload declined so dramatically since the early 1990s. Did most families leave because they found jobs in the expanding economy, or did they leave because of welfare reform? Caseload declines that are driven by the economy sh
Between 1994 and 1999, the welfare caseload fell by almost 50 percent. In other words, about two million fewer families were receiving welfare in 1999 than five years earlier. To some observers, this trend is evidence that welfare reform has been a success. To others, it raises a host of new questions and concerns and suggests that the 1996 law
Long-term welfare leavers face fewer barriers to employment than long-term stayers and generally fare better economically. People who cycle on and off the welfare rolls look more similar to leavers than to stayers.
This report benefited from the input of many people. At ASPE, Susan Hauan provided suggestions on the analysis plan and an earlier draft of the report. At MDRC, Barbara Goldman and Charles Michalopoulos provided helpful comments on an earlier draft. Vanessa Martin provided programming assistance and help with report production.
Between 1994 and 1999, the welfare caseload fell by almost 50 percent. In other words, about two million fewer families were receiving welfare in 1999 than five years earlier. To some observers, this trend is evidence that welfare reform has been a success. To others, it raises a host of new questions and concerns and suggests that the 1996 law wa
Americans living at the bottom of the income distribution often struggle to meet their basic needs on very limited incomes, even with the added assistance of government programs. The following analyses describe the characteristics of the poor population; available income for those at the deepest levels of poverty; and average medical care needs am