Contents Site-Specific Analyses Cross-Site Analysis: The Changing Urban Context Cross-Site Analysis: Health Trends and Study Hypotheses Conclusions
The Strong Cities, Strong Communities Initiative (SC2) is a new interagency approach to partnering with cities for economic growth launched by the White House Domestic Policy Council in 2011. The SC2 initiative represents a new model of collaboration between federal and local government to improve how the federal government invests in and offers t
Evaluation of the Strong Cities, Strong Communities (SC2) Teams Pilot: Federal Role in Revitalizing Distressed Cities: Interagency Collaboration and Local Partnerships
The federal government has historically invested significant resources in the nation’s distressed cities. However, the benefits of these investments have often not been fully realized. Many of the most distressed cities have lacked the capacity to effectively use these resources and, in some cases, the segmented nature of the resources coming
Evaluation of the Strong Cities, Strong Communities (SC2) Teams Pilot: Building a More Responsive Federal Workforce: Lessons from the SC2 Pilot
In 2011, the U.S. federal government launched the Strong Cities, Strong Communities Initiative, a new model of federal-local collaboration designed to (i) improve how the federal government invests in cities, (ii) offer technical assistance to support local priorities, and (iii) help to coordinate funds at the local, state, and federal level. A co
This project focuses on the development, analysis, and use of neighborhood health indicators pertaining to children and youth. Using data provided by five data intermediary organizations (located in large cities) that participate in the Neighborhood Indicators Partnership (NNIP), Urban Institute conducted a cross-site analysis and provided technic
Table 1. Distribution of Indicator Values (ZCTA-level) for Areas of Concentrated Poverty
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. The characteristics of communities with concentrated poverty vary across demographic and spatial dimensions.
Research associates several factors with higher concentrations of poverty: economic change from the production of goods to information processing; migration patterns of the non-poor; racial and economic segregation; discriminatory and segregating housing policies; increasing immigration; the rise in births to unwed mothers; and the decline in mult
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. In the average metropolitan concentrated poverty area, one in three adults older than 25 did not graduate from high school or earn a GED.
Compared to the national average, adults in these areas were twice as likely to not graduate from high school and almost three times less likely to have a bachelor’s degree, on average. These areas are home to less than four percent of the Nation’s population over the age of 24. However, over eight percent of the population older than 24 that
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. Adult joblessness is pervasive in concentrated poverty communities.
In the average metropolitan concentrated poverty area, only 45 percent of the working-age population (age 16 and older) is employed, or looked at differently, the modal adult is jobless (i.e., unemployed or not in the labor force). The national employment-to-population ratio for the same time period (2007-2011) was 59 percent. Among all poor indiv
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. Children in metropolitan high poverty communities are more than twice as likely to be raised by a single mother than the average child.
More than half of the households with children (53 percent) in metropolitan concentrated poverty areas are headed by single females. This compares to 26 percent of all U.S. households and 60 percent of households living in poverty. Although these zips codes are home to just over four percent of the Nation’s households with children, more than ei
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. One in nine of all teen births in the United States are to young women who live in metropolitan areas of concentrated poverty.
In the average metropolitan concentrated poverty ZCTA, the teen birth rate is 2.25 times higher than the national rate of 27 births per thousand females ages 15 to 19. 6 The teen birth rate in high poverty ZCTAs was 63 for every 1,000 young women ages 15 to 19, and in every region it was at least twice the national level, on average. In one quart
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. In over one-third of households in areas of concentrated poverty, English is not the primary language spoken at home.
One in three individuals in areas of concentrated poverty lives in a household in which English is not spoken at home – and half of those individuals speak English less than “very well”. 5 Concentrated poverty ZCTAs in the West have the highest saturations of both non-English speaking households and those with limited English proficiency.
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. High poverty metropolitan ZCTAs are most likely to be majority black or Hispanic.
Areas of poverty concentration tend to be very racially segregated with over three- quarters of residents in areas with majority minority populations belonging to the racial group that makes up the largest share of the population. Just over 46 percent of concentrated metropolitan poor areas are majority black; 32 percent are majority Hispanic, and
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. Racial and ethnic minorities are overrepresented in the concentrated poverty population, and concentrated poor communities in metropolitan areas are often highly segregated.
Less than one-third of the U.S. population is black or Hispanic, yet four out of every five people living in metropolitan concentrated poverty communities are black or Hispanic. Although only 12.2 percent of the U.S. population and 19.6 percent of the poverty population is black, nearly 40 percent of people living in areas of concentrated poverty
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. Areas of concentrated poverty look different from less-impoverished areas across several indicators of individual and community well-being that are analyzed in this brief.
Data for this analysis comes from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2007-2011 American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimates. The Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is the primary unit of analysis and data were obtained for each of the focal ZCTAs across a number of demographic, social, and economic variables. We examine indicators of racial segregation,
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. Researchers most often define concentrated poverty as a significantly high proportion of areas residents living below the poverty level.
The concentrated poverty literature typically uses Census tracts as the geographical boundaries for studying high poverty communities. The Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is, on average, a larger boundary, reflective in most cases of actual zip code boundaries, in which several Census tracts may exist. Census tract boundaries are determined based
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. Residents of high poverty neighborhoods experience the negative effects of their surroundings, not just those who are impoverished.
It is well established that living in areas of highly concentrated poverty inhibits opportunity and mobility of poor residents, beyond the obstacles their individual economic circumstances already impose, and it limits the surrounding area’s economic potential and social cohesion I . The outcomes associated with living in areas of concentrated p