States require PCPs to directly provide or authorize through referral a full range of Medicaid services. Chart O illustrates services commonly provided or authorized by the PCP in the eight case-study states. These states uniformly include primary and preventive services; however, several states allow Medicaid beneficiaries to obtain EPSDT service
28. See Note 2 for source of all 1998 information. 29. California reported using both methods and is, therefore, counted twice in these statistics.
All of the case-study states reported that their PCCM programs produce savings when compared to fee-for-service programs. Some concern was expressed, however, about what impact the BBA requirements for emergency room usage would have on future savings. As discussed in the Evolution of PCCM section, the BBA requires Medicaid agencies to pay hospita
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. Financial Incentives for Performance
As reported in other National Academy for State Health Policy work, 32 states have begun to create financial incentives for good MCO performance. Two case-study states have extended this concept to their PCCM programs. Both use bonus payments to enhance the medical home concept by rewarding PCPs who provide the best access to key primary care ser
The BBA's definition of a PCCM provider 31 does not exclude providers who are capitated for providing services, thus creating a new class of capitated PCCM programs. HCFA(now known as CMS), however, also considers PCPs in capitated PCCM programs to be either PHPs or MCOs (depending on the package of capitated services) and regulates them as such.
Paying a case management fee plus fee-for-service is the dominant payment method among the eight case-study states. Only one, Oklahoma, did not use this reimbursement method, since it pays a capitated rate. (This system is detailed later in this section.) Among the seven case-study states that pay case management fees, $3 per person per month is
Early PCCM programs were implemented when Medicaid reimbursement rates to physicians were extremely low compared to the rates of other payers. Many Medicaid agencies were concerned about retaining sufficient provider participation to offer adequate access to primary and preventive care. As a result, contracted PCPs were not asked to accept any fin
24. Maine used an EQRO in the past; these reviews are now conducted by state staff. 25. The model of rapid cycle quality improvement was developed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. It focuses on the processes of "plan, do, study, and act", and stresses setting aims, establishing measures, and making system changes to remove barriers t
Disease management strategies can be seen as both a form of quality improvement and a type of member services. The system is better served through appropriate utilization of services leading to lower overall costs; the chronically ill person is better served by having systematic health care that is state-of-the-art for his/her particular illness.
Services designed to facilitate membership are essential components of high quality health care. Some member services are offered in all the case-study states - complaint and grievance processes, member help lines run internally or by enrollment brokers, enrollee interpreter/translation services, new member handbooks and materials, and the provisi
The case-study states conduct a variety of activities related to quality monitoring and improvement, many of which have traditionally been associated with MCOs. As Chart L indicates, all eight states conduct member satisfaction surveys (often the CAHPS survey) and/or focus groups. All monitor 24-hour access; most monitor utilization.
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. Chapter 5: Quality Improvement
States are increasingly active in monitoring and encouraging quality improvements in PCCM; many are using methods similar to those used within MCOs or to those used to manage their MCO contractors. Many of the case-study states have developed processes for monitoring quality and for passing this information back to PCPs in order that they can impr
Many states establish both formal and informal mechanisms by which providers have input into the program. They conduct provider satisfaction surveys, hold focus groups, and organize work groups to address specific program issues. Several states have provider advisory committees for their managed care programs as well as other forums for provider i
As PCCM programs have evolved, some states have developed reporting mechanisms to provide participating providers with information about the costs and service utilization of their patients. These reports vary in the level of detail that they provide; some simply provide aggregate information about service utilization of the physician's panel, whil
States also provide support services to PCPs to assist them with their daily practices and contract responsibilities. Most states maintain a hotline that can assist providers with questions about member eligibility, covered services, authorization requirements, and other issues. Field staff help PCPs work with members who may not understand the pr
All case-study states report that provider education is an ongoing process. It does not end with the approval of the contract, nor can it be limited to the physician only; it must include other health professionals and office staff within the practice. Four of the eight case-study states issue periodic newsletters to inform providers about various
Many of the state officials interviewed emphasized that the development of relationships with participating physicians is critical to keeping physicians enrolled and active in the program. Generally, case-study states reported that physicians accept the PCCM system and often prefer it over an MCO network. One of the physicians interviewed said tha
Provider participation is one of the cornerstones of a PCCM program. States with successful PCCM programs have worked hard to gain that participation. The case-study states report that they have learned that the time initially invested in educating physicians and practice office staff during the recruitment process pays off in physician participat
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. Who Can Be a Primary Care Provider?
Generally, PCPs in PCCM programs are those physicians who practice primary care, such as pediatricians, family practitioners, general practitioners, internists, and in some instances, obstetricians and gynecologists. States also contract with providers in those settings where many Medicaid beneficiaries customarily seek care: Federally Qualified H
Emerging Practices in Medicaid Primary Care Case Management Programs. Chapter 4: Primary Care Providers
Primary care providers are the heart of a PCCM program. All eight case-study states emphasized the importance of establishing adequate networks of PCPs and of developing relationships with those providers. As one official noted, states must take providers seriously and know how to support and serve them in order to have a successful PCCM program.