Adam, E.K. (2002). Cortisol activity in the everyday lives of working parents. In B. Schneider and L. Waite (Eds.), Families Working: Time Apart, Time Together . Amato, P. (2000). The consequences of divorce for adults and children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, (4), 1269-88. Benson, P., Scales, P., Sesma, A, & Roehlkepartain,
In sum, indicators of the social context of families have a wealth of theory and research upon which to draw within each domain of family interaction. An indicator chartbook based upon this research for each of these domains follows as a starting point for consideration. All of the indicators presented have a source of data from which indicators c
Families have social capital, or access to resources and beneficial relationships through their personal or organizational networks (Coleman, 1988; Putnam, 1995). These networks prove critical for meeting a variety of individual’s personal and social needs.
While many measures of youth development are embedded in the discussions above, it is worth mentioning some important independent ways in which youth connect to their social environment.
Family engagement with religion can be conceptualized as a special case of connection to community, when characterized by family participation in religious services or membership in a religious organization. However, the observance of a religious or spiritual practice transcends any one community, and ties family members to a sense of higher purpo
Families connect to their communities in many ways. Parental involvement in their children school is one of the key ways in which parents interact with a community-based institution, as well as their children peers and their parents. Parental involvement can be measured as participation in general school meetings, attending conferences with teache
Measures of the interaction of families with the world of work need to extend beyond traditional measures of employment to the status of family-friendly workplace policies and the availability of quality child care for parents during their working hours.
Research studies consistently find that family factors influence children's development (e.g., National Research Council, & Institute of Medicine, 2000; Collins, Maccoby, Steinberg, & Hetherington, 2000; Miller, 1998; Kirby, 1999). Considerable research indicates that parents are very important to children's development and that the types
Family Formation . A nuclear family is formed with a first birth to a couple. Indicators of this first step in the process of family formation need to take into consideration current trends in marital status at birth, as well as the intendedness of the pregnancy. Both have important implications for the stability of the union as well as the quali
Indicators of Child, Family, and Community Connections. IV. Elements in the Ecological Model of the Social Context of Families
This framework begins by addressing the various types of family structure and transitions between structures, and then considers critical aspects of how families function as a unit. The interaction of family members with the world of work, including child care considerations, and the involvement of parents in school will be addressed. Important as
Indicators of the social context of families will need to be developed with consideration of the life cycle stages of the family, determined by the presence and ages of the children in the family. The stages that we recommend include a) conception and the prenatal period and, b) families with preschool-aged children (ages 0-5), c) families with el
This framework is based on an ecological model of human development, in which individual development occurs within concentric circles of environmental influence, which include the family, the school, peer, neighborhood, community and nation (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). “The ecological model environment is conceived as a set of nested structures, each
Indicators of the social context of families can be developed from a framework based upon current research and theory on families and their interaction with their social environment. First, we present the theory underlying the conceptual framework, and second, the stages in the life cycle of the family that should be considered in indicator develo
Indicators Availability of Trend Measures Trend in ASPE Chartbook Trends Published Trends Can Be Calculated Using Existing Data Trend Data Not Available Family Structure Family Structure X
While the indicators in this chartbook make important strides in describing the social context of families, gaps remain in our ability to measure and report on the domains listed above. In some cases currently available data are insufficient to measure an important concept. In other cases data may be available but additional conceptual work is nee
As noted above, the data presented in this chartbook come from many different sources. These include both well-known data sets such as the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) as well as lesser-known sources such as Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey. The data sources used for each indicator are list
This chartbook has been prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and with the assistance of a panel of experts. Its purpose is to present examples of indicators of the social context of families that can be developed from currently available data, as well as
We would like to especially acknowledge the Expert Panel for their thoughtful review and valuable comments throughout this project. The Expert Panel guided the selection of both the indicators and paper topics. Members of the Expert Panel included:
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Contract No. HHS-100-01-0011 Produced by Laura Lippman, Project Director