American Indian tribes and Alaska Native villages have embraced the goals, objectives, and programs associated with welfare reform, but the lack of jobs limits the success of tribal programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Welfare-to-Work (WtW). The lack of jobs is one of the biggest problems in Indian country. Recognizi
National Evaluation of the Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Unemployment Insurance as a Potential Safety Net for TANF Leavers: Evidence from Five States
Content Data and Sample Key Findings Conclusions Endnotes
Contents Key Questions and Findings Conclusions Lessons Concerning Program Design and Implementation Endnotes
Contents Characterizing the Low-Wage Labor Market Policy Interventions Affecting Low-Wage Labor Markets Barriers to Entering the Low-Wage Labor Market Opportunities for Advancement and Benefits in the Low-Wage Labor Market Conclusions and Policy Implications
Contents Research Question and Methods Core Results Implications Directions for Future Research
Contents Three general program models for delivering services to the hard-to-employ were implemented in programs in the study sites. WtW grantees focus on the most disadvantaged, as specified in congressionally established provisions, but most programs have faced difficulties enrolling eligible individuals.
The Welfare-to-Work (WtW) grants program is one of several major federally funded initiatives to help welfare recipients and other low-income parents move into employment. In 1997, the Balanced Budget Act authorized the U.S. Department of Labor to award $3 billion in WtW grants to states and local organizations. These grants were intended to suppo
Study to Examine UI Eligibility Among Former TANF Recipients: Evidence from New Jersey, Final Report
Contents Key Findings Conclusions Endnotes
This paper presents an analysis of workers who persistently have low earnings in the labor market over a period of three or more years. Some of these workers manage to escape from this low-earning status over subsequent years, while many do not. Using data from the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) program at the U.S. Census Bureau,
Contents Making the Decision to Operate Tribal TANF Developing a Sound TANF Plan Ensuring Smooth Program Implementation and Operations Lessons Learned and Implications
In this issue brief, the authors explore the provisions of the Affordable Care Act that may enable Americans with mental illness to obtain the mental health treatment and support services they need to continue working or get back to work.
The increasing labor supply of single mothers in the US labor market in the 1990s is well documented, but due to data deficiencies it generally has been difficult to track the progress in the labor market of this group.
The paper addresses four areas of work-family policy with particular relevance for the wellbeing of low-income working parents and their families: (1) unpaid family and medical leave, (2) paid parental or family leave (extended leave), (3) paid sick leave (short-term leave), and (4) workplace flexibility or initiatives to expand employees’ contr
This report examines progress toward self-sufficiency through earnings progression and related changes in income and work supports among low-wage single mothers and other families with low-wage workers in the early 2000s. Low-wage workers experienced significant wage gains during the 1990s, but has wage growth continued? What has helped working si
Under current federal income tax rules, low-income noncustodial parents are ineligible for the EITC benefits available to low-income families with children, even when they support their children through full payment of child support. While the EITC and child support have successfully removed many low-income working families from poverty, the combi
Refugee Economic Self-Sufficiency: An Exploratory Study of Approaches Used in Office of Refugee Resettlement Programs
The purpose of this exploratory study was to learn what factors and approaches utilized by Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) programs contribute to refugee economic self-sufficiency. The issue of whether these approaches were applicable to mainstream welfare-to-work programs was also addressed. Methods used to obtain information included a lite
This report analyzes whether former TANF recipients who lose their jobs apply for and receive unemployment insurance (UI) benefits and it describes the role of UI in TANF leavers' well-being and the types of employment deficits that might prevent their access to UI. This study uses newly available data linking information on both TANF and UI rece
Coming of Age: Employment Outcomes for Youth Who Age Out of Foster Care Through Their Middle Twenties
A primary task for youth in transitioning to adulthood is sustaining employment to be self-sufficient. Studies of former youth who age out of foster care find that they generally experience unstable employment patterns and earn very low incomes between ages 18 and 20. However, less is known about whether these youths' initial patterns of employm
This report examines the employment patterns and income progression of single mothers and their families for two years after they exit poverty. The study found that 30 percent of single mothers were poor but then left poverty. Work effort was high among single mothers who left poverty: on average they worked for three-quarters of the subsequent tw
This report provides a technical assessment of the utility of data from the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, specifically the form 5500 data, to examine the receipt of employer provided health care when merged with data from the Census Bureau's Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics data program.