This report examines progress toward self-sufficiency through earnings progression and related changes in income and work supports among low-wage single mothers and other families with low-wage workers in the early 2000s. Low-wage workers experienced significant wage gains during the 1990s, but has wage growth continued? What has helped working si
This report uses information from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2005 and 2006 the years when the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (DRA) was passed and first being implemented to provide a snapshot of the different types of disabilities among recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), how disability prevale
Role of Religiosity in the Lives of the Low-Income Population: A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence
This report is a comprehensive literature review and descriptive synthesis of the state of the research on the influence of religiosity and spirituality in the lives of the US low-income population. Findings are presented in six main areas: marriage and relationships, parenting, youth, mental and physical health, substance use, and crime and viole
Under current federal income tax rules, low-income noncustodial parents are ineligible for the EITC benefits available to low-income families with children, even when they support their children through full payment of child support. While the EITC and child support have successfully removed many low-income working families from poverty, the combi
Maximizing the Value of Philanthropic Efforts through Planned Partnerships between the U.S. Government and Private Foundations
This report presents findings from a study that examined how the US government and private philanthropic foundations develop and sometimes coordinate health and social services initiatives domestically and internationally. The report summarizes results of a literature review, case studies of nine public and private philanthropic initiatives, and
This report reviews the definitions and measures of assets and asset poverty in existing theoretical and empirical studies and suggests ways to make them more relevant for future research and policy development. In doing so, the report establishes a conceptual foundation for an emerging field of inquiry that focuses on the role of assets in social
Effects of Holding Assets on Social and Economic Outcomes of Families: A Review of Theory and Evidence
This report provides a conceptual framework on the effects of asset holding and reviews the empirical literature based on this framework. The report distills the main findings on how assets influence economic, social, psychological, and child well-being and provides empirical support for the benefits of asset building. [39 PDF pages]
This report provides a conceptual framework that describes how asset accumulation unfolds over an individual's lifetime and how the effects of such accumulation can best be understood within the context of the life course. The report identifies five factors that are important in understanding the low levels of asset accumulation among low-income
This Issue Brief presents an estimate of the number of children who meet the eligibility requirements for child care assistance under the Child Care and Development Fund. The estimates are produced by the Transfer Income Model (TRIM) developed by the Urban Institute under contract to ASPE. The Brief also provides estimates of the number of childre
This report synthesizes current research and other available information on the assets and liabilities of low-income households into a variety of portraits. These data allow practitioners and researchers to begin to form a comprehensive representation of the balance sheets of low-income households. [78 PDF pages]
This report identifies three data sets as the most reliable and informative data sources for understanding low-income households' assets and liabilities: the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The report also details the limitations of these data
This report examines the effects of a comprehensive set of 13 welfare, food stamp, individual development account (IDA), earned income tax credit (EITC), and minimum wage program rules on the asset holdings of low-education, single mothers and families. (Low-education was used as a proxy for low-income and address fluctuations in income over time.
Programs to help the hard to employ move into jobs and become self-sufficient have become increasingly important in the context of time-limited public assistance under the welfare reforms of 1996. The Welfare-to-Work (WtW) grants program provided states and local areas with flexible funding for programs to help the hard to employ move into employm
Public Assistance Use Among Two-Parent Families: An Analysis of TANF and Food Stamp Program Eligibility and Participation
This study examines eligibility and participation among married and single parents in TANF and Food Stamp Programs. Results show that even among eligible families below 200% of poverty, married parents are less likely to participate in TANF and Food Stamps compared to single parents. These differences persist after controlling for a variety of fam
This paper adds a longitudinal perspective to the analysis of marriage and economic well-being and uses several techniques to control for the selectivity into marriage.
How Do Marriage, Cohabitation, and Single Parenthood Affect the Material Hardships of Families with Children
This paper builds on the prior work by replicating and expanding the analysis of material hardship, including the role of help from family and friends.
This report summarizes what is known about the measurement of material hardship and its application to research with low-income families with children. It discusses challenges in defining and measuring material hardship, reviews how such measures have been in recent research, and presents analyses of data from the Survey of Income and Program Part
Core Performance Indicators for Homeless-Serving Programs Administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
This report explores the feasibility of developing a core set of performance measures across four HHS programs that focus on service delivery to homeless persons. The report also explores the extent to which mainstream service-delivery programs supported by HHS, i.e., those not specifically targeted to homelessness, could generate performance meas