The majority of families with children have at least one parent who is employed. In 2002, forty-four percent of families with children had two employed parents either full- or part-time; 25 percent had one employed and one nonemployed parent; and 3 percent had two nonemployed parents. Twenty-one percent of families with children had one employed s
Overall, 60 percent of children from non-intact families had some contact with their nonresident fathers and 78 percent had contact with their nonresident mothers in 1997. Children living with a parent with higher levels of education were more likely to have had contact with their nonresident parent. Seventy-four percent of children whose resident
In two-parent families, children under age 13 spent an average of 1 hour and 46 minutes engaged in activities with their fathers and 2 hours and 21 minutes doing so with their mothers on a daily basis in 1997. This was substantially more time than children in single-parent families spent with their fathers (25 minutes) and mothers (1 hour and 16 m
Indicators of Child, Family, and Community Connections. Parental awareness of adolescents' friends and activities
Mothers are more likely than fathers to be aware of their adolescents' close friends, as well as their activities, regardless of family structure. Data for 2000 indicate that mothers were slightly more likely to be aware of their adolescent's friends and activities when they resided with the biological father of the child (57 percent) than when th
Overall, in 1999, the majority of adolescents reported positive relationships with their resident parents (more than 60 percent). Positive relationships between adolescents and their parents, both mothers and fathers, were more common when both resident parents were the biological parents of the child than when there was a single biological parent
Indicators of Child, Family, and Community Connections. Parental warmth and affection with younger children
The majority of parents with children under the age of 13 demonstrate some expression of warmth and affection to their child daily, such as hugging or showing them physical affection, telling them that they love them, and telling them that they appreciate something that they did. Mothers are more likely than fathers to report showing their childre
Birth rates among unmarried teens rose from 27.6 in 1980 to 45.8 in 1994, and have since declined to 35.4 in 2002. Among unmarried females ages 15 to 17 the birth rate increased from 20.6 in 1980 to 31.7 in 1994, and then declined to back to 1980 levels to 20.8 by 2002. Among unmarried young women ages 18 and 19, the birth rate increased from 39.0
Fifty-six percent of families with resident children ages 24 and under lived within 50 miles of a grandparent in 1992-1993. Families with younger children are more likely than families with older children to live near a grandparent. While 63 percent of families with children ages 0 to 5 lived near a grandparent in 1992-1993, 57 percent of famili
Among families with children between the ages of 2 and 17, twenty-two percent experienced a change in the composition of their family between 1999 and 2001. Family structure change refers to any entrance or exit of related and non-related adults and children from the family, including the birth of a child. It also includes changes in marital statu
The percentage of children under age 18 living with two married parents declined between 1980 and 2002, from 77 percent to 69 percent. Despite this long-term decrease, however, the percentage of children living with two married parents has been relatively stable since 1995.
Adam, E.K. (2002). Cortisol activity in the everyday lives of working parents. In B. Schneider and L. Waite (Eds.), Families Working: Time Apart, Time Together . Amato, P. (2000). The consequences of divorce for adults and children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, (4), 1269-88. Benson, P., Scales, P., Sesma, A, & Roehlkepartain,
In sum, indicators of the social context of families have a wealth of theory and research upon which to draw within each domain of family interaction. An indicator chartbook based upon this research for each of these domains follows as a starting point for consideration. All of the indicators presented have a source of data from which indicators c
Families have social capital, or access to resources and beneficial relationships through their personal or organizational networks (Coleman, 1988; Putnam, 1995). These networks prove critical for meeting a variety of individual’s personal and social needs.
While many measures of youth development are embedded in the discussions above, it is worth mentioning some important independent ways in which youth connect to their social environment.
Family engagement with religion can be conceptualized as a special case of connection to community, when characterized by family participation in religious services or membership in a religious organization. However, the observance of a religious or spiritual practice transcends any one community, and ties family members to a sense of higher purpo
Families connect to their communities in many ways. Parental involvement in their children school is one of the key ways in which parents interact with a community-based institution, as well as their children peers and their parents. Parental involvement can be measured as participation in general school meetings, attending conferences with teache
Measures of the interaction of families with the world of work need to extend beyond traditional measures of employment to the status of family-friendly workplace policies and the availability of quality child care for parents during their working hours.