Given the nature of typological formulations and their history in clinical decision-making, an important conceptual issue is the possible functions of a typology for the management of homeless families. The major uses of clinical typologies that have been proposed in these various literatures are the following:
The concept of treatment or service matching refers to decision rules designed to facilitate matching to optimal treatment modality, service intensity, and ancillary services. An important consideration in the development of a typology of homeless families is the kinds of services that the typology might relate to in terms of treatment, preventi
Characteristics and Dynamics of Homeless Families with Children. Definition of Terms and Important Concepts
A number of important terms and concepts have been introduced in the introductory sections of this chapter that should now be more formally defined.
Based on the literature on subtyping of homeless individuals and families, there is some evidence to suggest that most of the attempts to classify this population, either according to a priori domains or according to multivariate statistical techniques, have identified two broad types of homelessness that can be arranged on a single continuum rang
While homeless families have been a topic of concern prior to 1980, studies of homeless families started only in the 1980s. Early studies of homeless families are reviewed by McChesney (1995).
Characteristics and Dynamics of Homeless Families with Children. Typologies of the Homeless Environment
The European Homelessness organization FEANTSA (The European Federation of National Organizations Working with the Homeless) recently presented a European Typology of Homelessness and Housing Exclusion (ETHOS) with four main conceptual categories (Roofless, Houseless, Insecure Housing, and Inadequate Housing) and a large number of operational subc
Characteristics and Dynamics of Homeless Families with Children. Typologies Based on Trajectories of Homelessness
In the 1980s a series of national and local studies were undertaken to enumerate homeless people. Although these studies had considerable methodological difficulties, they revealed the great variety of sites used by homeless people. Some classifications of homeless persons were proposed according to where homeless people spend their nights.
Characteristics and Dynamics of Homeless Families with Children. Typologies Based on Features of Homeless Persons
The first approaches to typologies of homeless persons were based on differing features of certain groups of homeless people, developed in part to describe the population and in part to ascribe a causal relation of these features to homelessness. Such studies, published from 1912 to the 1980s, have been reviewed by Louisa Stark (1992). Nearly all
The chapter begins with a review of the relevant scientific and clinical issues guided by the following questions: What is the purpose of typological classification? How can current knowledge about the epidemiology of homeless families contribute to the development of a typology? What are the existing typologies and risk factors relevant to typo
Despite the general conviction that homelessness is a unitary phenomenon, there is ample evidence that persons without permanent living arrangements differ significantly among themselves (Culhane and Metraux, 1999). Recognition of this heterogeneity has led to attempts to classify subgroups of homeless persons (herein referred to as subtypes) ac
1 This estimate is children who are part of families and does not include unaccompanied adolescents. 2 This is a period (e.g., 12-month) prevalence estimate for a homelessness episode of any duration. A point prevalence estimate (e.g., the number of children homeless on any given night) would be a substantially smaller number.
Achenbach, T.A. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile . Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry. Achenbach, T.A., and Rescorla, LA. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA Preschool-age Forms and Profiles . Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families. Achen
In summary, the literature on homeless children conducted over the past 18 years has focused on trying to understand if, how, and to what extent homelessness has an impact on children. Studies involving both homeless and low-income housed children have consistently found evidence for a poverty-related impact on children; that is finding that both
As previously characterized, the emphasis on research to date involving homeless children has been to discern the nature and extent of impact that homelessness can have on children. Referring back to Figure 1-1, studies have tried to identify and quantify, to some extent, a homelessness-specific effect on children above and beyond a poverty-relate
Characteristics and Dynamics of Homeless Families with Children. Overlapping Issues of At-risk Groups
Homeless children, because of their impoverished circumstances and residential instability share commonalities with another at-risk group of children, namely dependents of migrant farm workers. Mostly Latino of Mexican and Central American heritage, migrant farm workers provide a low-cost source of labor for American farmers who seasonally require
There is sparse data concerning some issues on homeless and low-income children. One issue is to better understand homelessness in the context of other adversities that children living in poverty frequently encounter. As mentioned previously, in comparing homelessness to other stressors that children living in poverty may encounter, homelessness i
Characteristics and Dynamics of Homeless Families with Children. Part III: Future Directions for Research
Research conducted to date on homeless children has illuminated the knowledge on current needs and the impact of homelessness. Additional studies of homeless and housed children along the lines of previous investigations may do little to clarify the inconsistencies in findings. If future research is conducted that specifically addresses the questi
Characteristics and Dynamics of Homeless Families with Children. Similarities Between Homeless and Low-income Housed Children
As stated at the beginning of this section, it seems easier to discern a poverty-related effect in studies of homeless and low-income children than a homelessness-specific effect. A simple explanation is that both groups tend to differ far more from children in the general population, in terms of exposure to risk factors detrimental to various mea