In addition to providing descriptions of child care arrangements, the NHES also shows the amount of out-of-pocket expenses paid by their families. Unlike the expenses shown on some surveys, the amounts shown on the NHES represent the amount the families paid for each child, instead of the total amount the families paid for all children in the ho
Care in Center programs can be provided in a variety of physical locations such as public and private schools, public buildings, places of worship, and in buildings designed primarily for providing care services to children. The NHES showed that when children received care at centers, urban and rural children received this care in similar types
The number of children in care for each adult provider is sometimes used when describing the environments of care arrangements. Figure 5 displays the mean number of children per adult care provider across several types of non-parental arrangements. The NHES results did not show statistical differences for center programs and relatives, but d
Figure 3a presents NHES data for the average number of hours children participated in care each week for three types of non-parental arrangements. The averages include primary and all secondary care arrangements that regularly occurred at least once a week.  Children that received care from multiple arrangements may be in more than one
Figure 2a and Figure 2b present the distribution of children across three types of primary non-parental care arrangements for all children and for those with mothers employed at least part-time. As stated earlier, the definition of center programs used by the NHES included Head Start, pre-kindergarten, day care centers, and other early educa
The NHES shows that rural children age 0 to 5 were about as likely as urban children to receive care from someone other than their parents at least once a week, as shown in Figure 1 .  Examples of non-parental providers include: grandparents, older siblings, day care centers, pre-kindergarten programs, and care from friends, neighbors, a
This section presents findings from the 2005 NHES, ECPP by comparing the characteristics of child care and early education arrangements of children under age 6 that have not yet enrolled in kindergarten in urban and rural areas. Care arrangements that did not occur at least once a week were excluded.  Many of the figures in this section pr
The NHES used telephone interviews to collect data from the parents of a nationally representative sample of children age 6 and under that had not yet enrolled in kindergarten (Hagedorn, Montaquilla, Carver, O’Donnell, & Chapman, 2005). The 2005 version of the ECPP was the fifth such collection effort and focused on non-parental child care
Although the research described in the previous section provides valuable insights into the non-parental child care arrangements of rural children, there is a need for additional analysis. One reason for additional analyses is that two of the most thorough national data collection efforts focusing on child care were conducted over 15 years ago:
Prior literature has compared the economies of urban and rural areas. According to data from the U.S.
This section reviews the results of several research studies.
Recent policy discussions involving ways to improve the well-being of young children and their families have placed increased attention on the importance of child care and early education programs. Research suggests that, although parental influences are important, the quality of non-parental care arrangements has long lasting effects on child d
The author is grateful for the thoughtful feedback on earlier drafts of this paper by Barbara Broman, Nikki Forry, Susan Hauan, Amy Madigan, Melissa Pardue, Kristin Smith, and Bobbie Webber, and would like to thank Jana Liebermann for her assistance in the library at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The views expressed in this pap
Acs, G. (2001). Final Synthesis Report of Findings from ASPE'S'Leavers' Grants. Adams, G., K. Snyder and J. R. Sandfort (2002). Navigating the child care subsidy system: Policies and practices that affect access and retention. Andersson, F., M. Freedman, J. Lane and S. Hauan (2012). "Past Work Experience and Earnings Trajectories of Single Mot
The statistics presented in this report provide a description of the interval of time that families receive child care subsidies and document the calendar months when they are more or less likely to enter and exit the programs. These statistics are useful to researchers and policymakers because the patterns may be related to adult employment and c
Child Care Subsidy Duration and Caseload Dynamics: A Multi-State Examination. Cumulative Months of Participation across a Three-Year Period
Analysis of the ACF-801 data finds that many families receive subsidies sporadically over time and frequently return to the subsidy programs after they exit. These patterns are displayed in Figure 7, which presents the number of cumulative months that families receive child care subsidies over a three-year period. The blue area (i.e., the first
Child Care Subsidy Duration and Caseload Dynamics: A Multi-State Examination. Comparisons of Spell Duration Using Different Methodologies
The scholarly field of early childhood development has yet to fully embrace a specific methodology for measuring child care subsidy duration and this section is intended to provide a series of medians to compare and contrast various approaches. The details of the methodologies are summarized in Table 5. The methodologies vary by whether they requi
Child Care Subsidy Duration and Caseload Dynamics: A Multi-State Examination. Spell Durations and Age of Youngest Child
Table 4 presents median spell durations by age of the youngest subsidized child in each family by state for Fiscal Year 2007. The medians displayed in the table show that typical spell durations were somewhat longer for families with younger children compared to families with older subsidized children. For example, the median spell durations for t
Child Care Subsidy Duration and Caseload Dynamics: A Multi-State Examination. Length of Spell Duration
The amount of time that families receive child care subsidies can be presented in different ways. One possibility is with a Kaplan-Meier survival curve, like that shown in Figure 4.
Figure 3 displays the months that families exited the subsidy programs for Federal Fiscal Years 2007 to 2010. 13 Like spell beginnings, the timing of spell endings is more prevalent during certain months of the calendar year than in others. The caseloads in the table represent the number of families that received child care subsidies before exper