Examining Substitution: State Strategies to Limit "Crowd Out" in the Era of Children's Health Insurance Expansions. B. There is a range of substitution estimates reported in the literature.
Previous research has examined substitution in the context of Medicaid expansions. Although most researchers agree that substitution occurs at some level in all social insurance programs, it may be difficult to accurately predict future levels of substitution for new state children's health insurance programs based on the current, disparate resear