Child-Staff Ratio Group Size Caregiver Education Caregiver Training Met Not Met Met Not Met Met Not Met Met Not Met TABLE 5. Adjusted Means for Children in Settings That Did or Did Not Meet Specific Child Care Standards: NICHD Study of Early Child Care
Adjusted Mean by No. of Standards Met Linear Trend 0 1 0 2 3 F P TABLE 4. Linear Trends Relating Number of Recommended Standards Met to Child Outcomes: NICHD Study of Early Child Care 24 months No. 15 38
CITATION a N AGE PROCESS QUALITY MEASURE STRUCTURAL QUALITY MEASURE OTHER CHILD CARE MEASURES FAMILY CONTROLS CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES c QUALITY FINDINGS Table 3. LONG-TERM ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CHILD CARE QUALITY AND CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES
Table 2. CONCURRENT ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CHILD CARE QUALITY AND CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES CITATION a N AGE PROCESSQUALITY MEASURE b STRUCTURALQUALITY MEASURE b FAMILY CONTROLS CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES c
CITATION (a) N TYPE OF CARE STRUCTURAL VARIABLES PROCESS VARIABLES (b) ANALYSIS FINDING Table 1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURAL VARIABLES AND PROCESS VARIABLES Arnett (1989) 59 Centers
1) The authors gratefully thank the following for their contributions to this paper: Josephine Chung, Kim Pierce, Scott Scriver, and Elisabeth Boehnen for their research assistance and Dawn Duren, Jan Blakeslee, Elizabeth Evanson for their editorial and typing assistance.
Abbott-Shim, M., and A. Sibley. 1992a. Assessment Profile for Early Childhood Programs . Quality Assist, Inc., 368 Moreland Ave. NE Suite 210, Atlanta, GA. Abbott-Shim, M., and A. Sibley. 1992b. Assessment Profile for Family Day Care . Quality Assist, Inc. 368 Moreland Ave. NE Suite 210, Atlanta, GA. “Access to Child Care for Low-Income Wo
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). Is There an Economic Justification for Public Intervention to Improve the Quality of Child Care, Especially for Children from Lower-Income Families?
Market failure, the presence of externalities, and an argument for equality of opportunity all call for public sector intervention in the child care market. The primary form of market failure is the lack of information for parents regarding quality of care which is tied to the difficulty in measuring quality, the lack of availability of high quali
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). Does the Quality of Child Care Need to Be Improved, and Can It Be Improved?
Two general approaches to measuring child care quality were described in this report. Process quality refers to children’s experiences in child care settings. Some process measures focus specifically on caregivers’ behaviors with children. Others include global ratings that incorporate physical facilities and age-appropriate child activities a
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). Does Child Care Quality Matter?
Our review of the research literature indicates that child care quality “matters” at several levels. In terms of children’s everyday experiences, children appear happier and more cognitively engaged in settings in which caregivers are interacting with them positively and in settings in which child:adult ratios are lower. There also is eviden
We conclude this report by returning to primary questions raised in the report: Does child care quality matter? Does child care quality need to be improved, and can it be improved? Is there an economic justification for public intervention to improve the quality of child care, especially for children from lower-income families? Our answer to each
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). Assessment of the Cost of Improving Quality
As we suggested, analyses that shed light on the developmental benefits of child care characteristics for children is an important element of the answer to our question. A related task involves determining the levels of investment necessary to achieve improved quality. Although this topic has not received the same level of attention in the literat
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). What Might Be Done to Improve the Quality of Child Care?
A wide variety of approaches might be used to improve child care. Figure 7 provides a path model that attempts to identify the various links between interventions and quality, taking into account parents’ resources.
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). Is There a Persuasive Economic Argument to Justify Public Intervention to Improve the Quality of Child Care?
Market failure is defined as a “a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently” (Mankiw, 1998, p. 10). Wherever market failure exists, public sector intervention may improve the performance of that sector of the economy. In the child care sector, market failure stems from two sources: lack of information
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). What Is the Quality of Care in the United States?
The evidence reviewed above indicates that child care quality has meaningful effects on children and their parents. Our next question considers the quality of the care that is available in the United States. One part of this question is a determination of whether high-quality care (of the sort that fosters positive developmental outcomes) is the n
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). Does Child Care Quality Affect Maternal Employment?
In much of the existing literature linking parental employment and child care, the primary issue is the affordability of care and the elasticity of response to child care costs. In this sense one can see the potential for a trade-off between quality of care and labor force participation, in that higher-quality care is likely to be more costly. A p
We now briefly review the findings from a small set of early childhood intervention studies that look at such long-term outcomes as criminal activity, earnings, and the use of cash welfare assistance. The Syracuse Family Development Research Program was a small program that enrolled slightly more than 200 children and followed them for 5 years. It
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). An Economist’s Interpretation of the Link between Child Care Quality and Child Outcomes
The traditional approach of those working in the field of developmental psychology is to use standardized regression coefficients in hierarchical regression models. These seem quite different from the methods employed by economists, but the full model used is a standard OLS regression model, and the standardized coefficients can be converted into
Child Care Quality: Does It Matter and Does It Need to be Improved? (Full Report). Longer-Term Associations between Structural and Caregiver Characteristics and Child Outcomes
Other studies have considered relations between structural and caregiver characteristics in relation to children’s subsequent developmental outcomes (see Table 3 ). Howes (1988), for example, examined structural and caregiver characteristics at 3 years in relation to children’s first-grade adjustment. Quality in 81 centers was defined in term