State laws regarding child abuse reporting, foster care and termination of parental rights set a tone for the consideration of substance abuse as a factor in child protection decisions. Mandatory child abuse reporting laws identify who must report suspected child abuse or neglect and under what circumstances. Most State child abuse and neglect
Families involved with the child welfare and substance abuse treatment systems, and who are often involved with other service providers as well, face a variety of time constraints that may be at odds with one another and that may frustrate interagency cooperation. These time lines have been referred to as "the four clocks" (Young et al, 1998) an
Substance abuse and child welfare agencies have different views of what represents a successful outcome and what they seek to achieve. Most substance abuse treatment outcome studies focus on the extent to which treatment results in decreased alcohol and drug use, decreased criminal behavior, and decreased need for and utilization of health care
For many substance abuse treatment programs, the adult is the primary client and the one around whom services revolve. The adult's relationship with the drug is the focus of the clinical intervention, and everything else in the client's life is of secondary importance. While family relationships and other life issues are assessed, they are not
Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground. Chapter 6. The Context of Collaboration and Overcoming Barriers to Quality Service
It becomes obvious to observers of interactions between service providers in the child welfare and substance abuse treatment fields that in most instances, agencies do not work well together and that truly collaborative relationships are rare. This chapter will explore why this is so often the case. Substance abuse treatment agencies and child
Given the multi-problem nature of these clients and their families, it is no wonder that programs serving them find it difficult to meet their needs. Indeed, most evaluations of programs serving parenting substance abusers report that it is difficult to identify these women, it is difficult to engage them in services, and it is difficult to reta
No less complex than the problems of substance abusing parents are their children's needs. A large research literature exists from epidemiological, family, adoption and twin studies concerning the genetic and environmental risks that put these children at higher risk for a variety of problems (Kumpfer, 1987; Tarter & Messich, 1997; Johnson a
Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground. Effective Parenting and Family Interventions for Substance Abusers
Over the past twenty years, a number of behavioral parent training, family skills training, family therapy and family support programs have been found effective in improving behavioral and emotional outcomes for both parents and children (Ashery et al, 1999; Kumpfer & Alder, in press) and with children from diverse cultures (Kumpfer & Alva
The complexity of these families often makes it difficult for child protective services workers to determine the extent to which substance abuse presents a risk to children. Again, it is important to recognize that not all those who abuse or are dependent on alcohol or other drugs abuse or neglect their children, and that danger to a child may o
Particularly among women, mental illness and substance abuse are often intertwined. Over one third of females with problem drug use have experienced a major depressive episode in the past year, and 45 percent have experienced at least one of several mental health problems including panic attacks and anxiety disorders. These rates are more than
Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground. Chapter 5. The Complexity of Child and Family Needs
Families involved with the child welfare system are among the most troubled in our society. The child welfare system serves as the final safety net, when no other public or private institution has been able to address a family's problems successfully. It is expected to meet the family's needs and assure a permanent, safe environment for the ch
Figures regarding the extent to which abusive and neglectful families also have substance abuse problems, and vice versa, are complex and confusing. While specific studies vary considerably for methodological and other reasons, the bottom line is that a very significant portion of the child welfare caseload involves families with substance abuse
The child welfare system most commonly perceives substance abuse as causing abuse or neglect of children. However, research is also beginning to show that child abuse, particularly sexual abuse, is a common precursor of substance abuse (Dembo et al, 1997; National Research Council, 1993). The early initiation of substance use is a risk factor
Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground. How are families with child maltreatment problems different from other substance abuse treatment clients?
Data from SAMHSA's evaluation of grant initiatives to provide residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant women and women with children indicate that female substance abuse treatment clients who have ever had children removed from the home by child protective services tend to be older than other clients, have more children, and have more ot
Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground. How are families with substance abuse problems different from other child welfare clients?
Few studies directly compare child welfare clients with substance abuse problems to other child welfare clients. Analyses of the Children's Bureau's National Study of Protective, Preventive and Reunification Services conducted expressly for this report found significant differences between child welfare clients with substance abuse problems and
Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground. How many families with substance abuse problems have contact with the child welfare system?
As discussed above, there are approximately 1.3 million parents with problem levels of illicit drug use (and many more alcoholic parents) who are living with children younger than age 18. These figures do not include children in foster care (because children in foster care are not living in their parents' households and are thus not picked up in
Most lay persons equate child welfare with foster care, although only a small minority of families with substantiated or indicated child abuse or neglect complaints have children placed in foster care -- 16 percent in 1996 (HHS/CB, 1998d). The remainder either are served while remaining at home, or child welfare workers have determined that no s
If a child and family is to be monitored by or receive services from the child welfare system following an investigation, the child welfare agency opens a child welfare case with the family. About half the children with open child welfare cases are in foster care, while the other half receive services while remaining in their parents' care (HHS/
In 1996, child protective services (CPS) agencies received more than 2 million reports of alleged child abuse and neglect involving more than 3 million children. CPS staff conducted approximately 1.6 million investigations of these reports and found evidence to substantiate that more than 970,000 children had been victims of child abuse and negl
Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground. How many of the families involved with the child welfare system have substance abuse problems?
For decades child welfare staff have recognized that substance abuse is common in the families they serve (Fanshel, 1975). Studies have long shown that parents with substance abuse problems are more likely than other parents to maltreat their children (Famularo et al, 1986; Jaudes et al, 1995; Kelleher et al, 1994). The wide variety of figures