Work Histories and Employment Outcomes of Single Mothers. Endnotes

01/31/2012

[1]  Longitudinal data on changes in marital status are not available, thus we are not able to distinguish single mothers who remain single from single mothers who marry at some point during the five-year outcome period.  We were able to conduct a supplementary analysis on marital status changes between the base year (1996 or 1997) and 2000 using data from the 2000 Decennial Census and found that those single mothers who married had lower employment intensities and earnings compared to those who remained single.

[2]  Single mothers enrolled in school at the time of the survey are excluded from the sample.

[3]  Income quintiles are based on the Census Bureau’s official poverty thresholds.  This approach adjusts income for family size, and has the effect that a larger family with a certain family income would be ranked as being more disadvantaged than a smaller family with the same income.

[4]  Women enrolled in school at the time of the survey are excluded from the sample.

[5]  For comparison purposes, all earnings estimates are adjusted to 1998 dollars.

[6]  For comparison purposes, all earnings estimates are adjusted to 1998 dollars.

[7]  Low-income single mothers cannot have very large earnings in the base year, since this would result in family incomes above the lowest two earnings quintiles.  At the same time there are no such implicit restrictions on earnings before or after the base year.  Thus, the earnings pattern of this group can partly be due to a “regression-to-the-mean” effect.

[8]  Earnings quintiles are defined by year based on earnings among all workers including men and women, not just among the women in our sample.  Those not employed or earning less than $1,000 a year are excluded from the calculation.

[9]  All models control for age, race, educational attainment, and disability or health problems.

[10]  Earnings progression is measured as a transition from no employment or employment with annual earnings in the bottom two earnings quintiles in the base year to annual earnings in the upper three earnings quintiles in all years of the outcome period.  All earnings estimates are adjusted to 1998 dollars.

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