What Challenges Are Boys Facing, and What Opportunities Exist To Address Those Challenges? Fact Sheet: Employment*. Endnotes


(1)  Porterfield, S. L., & Winkler, A. E. (2007). Teen time use and parental education: Evidence from the CPS, MTF, and ATUS. Monthly Labor Review, 130, 37–56.


(2)  Warren, J. R., & Cataldi, E. F. (2006). A historical perspective on high school students' paid employment and its association with high school dropout. Sociological Forum, 21, 113–143.

(3)  Morisi, T. L. (2008). Youth enrollment and employment during the school year. Monthly Labor Review, 131, 51–63.

(4)  Morisi, T. L. (2008).

(5)  Sum, A., McLaughlin, J., Khatiwada, I., & Palma, S. (2008). The continued collapse of the nation’s teen job market and the dismal outlook for the 2008 summer labor market for teens: Does anybody care? Boston, MA: Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University.

(6)  U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2000). Report on the youth labor force. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

(7)  U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2000).

(8)  Warren, J. R., & Cataldi, E. F. (2006).

(9)  Apel, R., Paternoster, R., Bushway, S. D., & Brame, R. (2006). A job isn’t just a job: The differential impact of formal versus informal work on adolescent problem behavior. Crime & Delinquency, 52, 333–369.

(10)  Rothstein, D. S. (2007). High school employment and youths' academic achievement. Journal of Human Resources, 42, 194–213.

(11)  Association for Career and Technical Education. (2007). Career and technical education’s role in dropout prevention and recovery. ACTE Issue Brief: Dropout Prevention and Recovery. Alexandria, VA: Author.

(12)  U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2007). Average hours per weekday spent by high school students in various activities. American Time Use Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved March 28, 2008, from http://www.bls.gov/tus/charts/ch8.pdf (PDF format)

(13)  Ringel, J. S., Ellickson, P. L., & Collins, R. L. (2007). High school drug use predicts job-related outcomes at age 29. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 576–589.

(14)  Staff, J., & Uggen, C. (2003). The fruits of good work: Early work experiences and adolescent deviance. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 263–290.

(15)  Warren, J. R., & Cataldi, E. F. (2006).

(16)  Macomber, J. E., Cuccaro-Alamin, S., Duncan, D., Kuehn, D., McDaniel, M., Vericker, et al. (2008). Coming of age: Employment outcomes for youth who age out of foster care through their middle twenties. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

(17)  U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2000).

(18)  Gardecki, R. M. (2001). Racial differences in youth employment. Monthly Labor Review, 124, 51–67.

(19)  U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2000).

(20)  Gardecki, R. M. (2001).

(21)  Pickering, L. E., & Vazsonyi, A. T. (2002). The impact of adolescent employment on family relationships. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 196–218.

(22)  Marsh, H. W. (1991). Employment during high school: Character building or a subversion of academic goals? Sociology of Education, 64, 172–189.

(23)  Staff, J., & Uggen, C. (2003).

(24)  Staff, J., & Uggen, C. (2003).

(25)  Staff, J., & Uggen, C. (2003).

(26)  Marsh, H. W. (1991).

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