The Welfare-to-Work Grants Program: Enrollee Outcomes One Year After Program Entry. What Kinds of Jobs Did Enrollees Obtain?


WtW enrollees who were employed one year after program entry were most frequently in office and administrative support or sales occupations. Office and administrative support was the most common occupational category for enrollees in all but the Milwaukee and West Virginia sites, the latter being the most rural of the 11 study sites (Appendix Exhibit B.10). Nearly half of employed enrollees in Phoenix were in this occupational group, as were about a fourth in many of the other sites. Wholesale and retail sales occupations were also common in most sites, typically accounting for 10 to 20 percent of employed enrollees. The predominantly male enrollees in Milwaukee were concentrated in occupations, such as production and transportation, that were distinctly different from those favored by the mostly female enrollees in the other study sites.

About half or more of the principal jobs held by employed enrollees in 10 of the study sites were in service industries  primarily business, health, and social services (Appendix Exhibit B.11). Reflecting differences between the sexes, Milwaukee was the exceptional site, wherein jobs in manufacturing and transportation/utilities were held by nearly a third of the employed enrollees, as compared with about a tenth of enrollees most of in the other sites. The industries in which WtW enrollees worked likely reflect both the industrial base of the local economies and the job placement strategies of the WtW programs. For example, in Boston  a major market for the provision of health care, and a site in which the WtW program partnered with several local health care providers to train and hire WtW enrollees  the principal jobs held by 29 percent of employed enrollees were in the health services industry.

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