Receipt of assistance from government programs was pervasive among WtW enrollees one year after program entry.(58) Only in Milwaukee were fewer than half of enrollees and their households receiving some form of government assistance (Exhibit V.2), which is further evidence of their limited options for assistance. In other sites, rates of receipt of such assistance ranged from 65 percent in Baltimore County to 87 percent in Chicago and Philadelphia. Among enrollees whose households were receiving some form of government assistance one year after enrollment, the average monthly amount ranged from about $550 to $750, except in the two JHU sites, where it was $508 and $441, respectively (Appendix Exhibit B.16).
Food stamps were the most common type of government assistance for WtW enrollees in every site one year after program entry, with rates of receipt as high as 82 percent (Appendix Exhibit B.16). TANF was the second most common form of government assistance in nine sites; in Baltimore County and Milwaukee the rate of receipt of Supplemental Security Income or Social Security Disability Insurance exceeded that of TANF. In every site, very small percentages 8 percent or less of enrollees received assistance from each of the other programs considered in this evaluation.(59)
In all of the study sites except Baltimore County, Milwaukee, and Nashville, WtW enrollees were far less likely to be receiving TANF one year later than they were at the time of enrollment.(60) Recipiency rates in many of the sites were roughly 50 percent lower at the end of the follow-up period than at the beginning (Exhibit V.3). While the WtW programs may have contributed to these differences, other factors may also have been instrumental. Consequently, we again caution the reader not to interpret the differences as impacts of the programs.