Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Thirteenth Report to Congress. INDICATOR 6. Dependence Transitions

03/01/2014

Figure IND 6. Dependency Status in 2010 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2009 by Race and Ethnicity

(In percent)

Figure IND 6. Dependency Status in 2010 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2009 by Race and Ethnicity

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI. While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income. Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2008 panel.


  • Figure IND 6 shows the 2010 dependency status of persons who were welfare dependent in 2009 by race and ethnicity. Welfare dependence is defined as receiving more than half of one’s total family income in the year from TANF, SNAP, and/or SSI. For further discussion of defining welfare dependency, see Chapter I.
  • Of recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total family income from TANF, SNAP and/or SSI in 2010, approximately three-quarters across three racial and ethnic groups (73.4 percent of Non-Hispanic Whites, 76.9 percent of Non-Hispanic Blacks, and 77.0 percent of Hispanics) also were welfare dependent in 2009.
  • Table IND 6a shows the 2010 dependency status of persons who were welfare dependent in 2009 by demographic groups. Substantial majorities within all groups who were dependent on welfare programs in 2009 remained so in 2010. Women and men ages 16 – 64 had comparable dependence rates.
  • Table IND 6b shows the dependency status of all persons who received more than 50 percent of their family income from means-tested assistance programs in the previous year. Most recipients of means-tested assistance programs who derived more than half of their family income from welfare programs have been likely to do so from one year to the next.

Table IND 6a. Dependency Status in 2010 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2009 by Selected Characteristics

Persons Receiving More than 50 Percent of Income from Assistance in 2010
Total
(thousands)
Percentage of Persons Receiving
No aid
in 2010
Up to 50%
in 2010
Over 50%
in 2010
All Persons 8,344 1.7 22.4 75.9
    Racial/Ethnic Categories
        Non-Hispanic White 3,190 2.5 24.2 73.4
        Non-Hispanic Black 2,717 2 22.9 76.9
        Hispanic 1,894 1.7 21.3 77.0
    Age Categories
        Children ages 0-5 1031 2.9 24.5 72.6
        Children ages 6-10 1109 1.4 24.7 73.9
        Children ages 11-15 772 0.6 16.3 83.1
        Women ages 16-64 3155 1.1 23.7 75.2
        Men ages 16-64 1717 2.8 21.5 75.7
        Adults ages 65 and over 542 1.7 17.6 80.7

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI. While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income. Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Individual age categories do not add to total because of a small number of people not reporting age.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2008 panel.

Table IND 6b. Dependency Status of All Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in Previous Year

 
Total
(thousands)
Percentage of Persons Receiving
No aid in
second year
Up to 50% in
second year
Over 50% in second year
Transitions from:
1993 to 1994 14,810 1.6 18.6 79.8
1994 to 1995 13,986 2.7 18.8 78.5
1997 to 1998 9,672 3.1 28.8 68.1
1998 to 1999 8,163 2.9 27.1 70.0
2001 to 2002 6,258 1.5 29.2 69.3
2002 to 2003 6,023 2.6 25.8 71.6
2004 to 2005 7,682 4.1 31.7 64.2
2005 to 2006 7,339 2.4 24.2 73.5
2006 to 2007 6,969 2.4 20.9 76.7
2009 to 2010 8,344 1.7 22.4 75.9

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI. Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs. While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income in all years and veterans’ pension benefits are included in means-tested assistance income for receipt and dependence estimates prior to 2001. Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, some transitions between 1994 and 1995 were based on twelve-month periods that do not correspond exactly to calendar years.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels.

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