Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Thirteenth Report to Congress. INDICATOR 5. Multiple Program Receipt

03/01/2014

Figure IND 5. Percentage of Recipients Receiving Assistance from Multiple Programs – TANF, SNAP and SSI: 2011

Figure IND 5. Percentage of Recipients Receiving Assistance from Multiple Programs – TANF, SNAP and SSI: 2011

Note: Categories are mutually exclusive. SSI receipt is based on individual receipt; TANF and SNAP receipt are based on the full recipient unit. Recipients are defined as those individuals who receive SSI or live in a family that receives either TANF or SNAP benefits. In practice, individuals typically do not receive both TANF and SSI; hence, no individual receives benefits from all three programs.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


  • Figure IND 5 shows the percentage of those receiving benefits from TANF, SNAP, or SSI or a combination of benefits from these programs in 2011. Eighty-three (83.2) percent of all individuals received no benefits from means tested programs, while 16.8 percent did. Of those who received any benefits from the three programs, three-quarters (75.7 percent) of recipients received only SNAP benefits, 7.8 percent of recipients received both TANF and SNAP benefits, and 9.3 percent of recipients received SSI and SNAP.
  • Table IND 5a shows the percentage of the population receiving assistance from TANF, SNAP, and SSI by demographic characteristics. About five (4.9) percent of children from birth to 5 years lived in families that received both TANF and SNAP.
  • Among family categories, persons in female-headed families were more likely than those living in other types of families to receive support from multiple means-tested assistance programs. Among persons in female-headed families, 43.3 percent received support from any of the three programs, compared to 9.3 percent of those in married-couple families, and 23.8 percent of those in male-headed families.
  • Table IND 5b shows the percentage of the population receiving assistance from multiple means-tested assistance programs between 1993 and 2011. Reliance on both TANF and SNAP has decreased over time. In 1993, 4.8 percent of the population received AFDC and food stamps. In 2011, the percent that received both TANF and SNAP decreased to 1.3 percent. In contrast reliance on SSI and SNAP has increased somewhat from 1.0 percent in 1993 to 1.6 percent of the population in 2011.

Table IND 5a. Percentage of Recipients Receiving Assistance from Multiple Programs by Selected Characteristics: 2011

  Any Receipt One Program Only Two Programs
TANF SNAP SSI TANF & SNAP SNAP& SSI
All Persons 16.8 0.2 12.7 1.0 1.3 1.6
    Racial/Ethnic Categories
        Non-Hispanic White 11.9 0.1 9.3 0.7 0.6 1.2
        Non-Hispanic Black 32.6 0.2 23.9 1.5 3.2 3.7
        Hispanic 24.4 0.4 18.3 1.5 2.7 1.5
    Age Categories
        Children ages 0-5 32.4 0.6 25.6 0.5 4.9 0.8
        Children ages 6-10 29.2 0.5 22.9 0.7 3.8 1.3
        Children ages 11-15 25.8 0.6 19.9 0.8 3.2 1.3
        Women ages 16-64 16.0 0.1 12.3 0.8 1.1 1.7
        Men ages 16-64 12.3 0.1 9.6 0.9 0.3 1.4
        Adults ages 65 and over 9.9 0.0 5.2 2.3 0.0 2.4
    Family Categories
        Persons in married-couple families 9.3 0.1 7.6 0.6 0.4 0.6
        Persons in female-headed families 43.3 0.5 31.8 1.8 6.0 3.1
        Persons in male-headed families 23.8 0.3 18.1 1.9 1.6 1.8
        Unrelated persons 16.7 0.0 11.7 1.3 0.0 3.6

Note: Categories are mutually exclusive. SSI receipt is based on individual receipt; AFDC/TANF and Food Stamps/SNAP receipt are based on the full recipient unit. In practice, individuals do not tend to receive both AFDC/TANF and SSI; hence, no individual receives benefits from all three programs. The percentage of individuals receiving assistance from any one program in an average month (shown here) is lower than the percentage residing in families receiving assistance at some point over the course of a year (shown in Table SUM 1 in Chapter I and Table IND 1a in Chapter II). Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 5b. Percentage of Recipients Receiving Assistance from Multiple Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 1993-2011

  Any Receipt One Program Only Two Programs
AFDC/TANF TANF FS/SNAP SSI AFDC/ TANF & SNAP SNAP & SSI
1993 12.6 0.6 5.2 1.1 4.8 1.0
1994 12.8 0.5 5.3 1.2 4.6 1.1
1995 12.3 0.4 5.0 1.2 4.5 1.1
1996 12.0 0.3 5.3 1.2 4.0 1.1
1997 10.2 0.4 4.3 1.3 3.1 1.0
1998 9.0 0.4 3.9 1.4 2.4 0.9
1999 8.5 0.4 3.8 1.3 2.0 1.0
2000 8.1 0.2 3.8 1.4 1.7 1.0
2001 8.1 0.3 3.9 1.4 1.5 1.0
2002 8.5 0.3 4.5 1.3 1.4 1.0
2003 9.7 0.2 5.5 1.3 1.6 1.0
2004 10.3 0.2 6.1 1.2 1.6 1.1
2005 10.2 0.2 6.2 1.3 1.5 1.2
2006 10.4 0.2 6.5 1.3 1.3 1.2
2007 10.6 0.2 6.8 1.3 1.2 1.2
2008 11.4 0.2 7.7 1.2 1.2 1.2
2009 13.5 0.2 9.6 1.1 1.3 1.4
2010 16.3 0.2 12.2 1.0 1.3 1.5
2011 16.8 0.2 12.7 1.0 1.3 1.6

Note: Categories are mutually exclusive. SSI receipt is based on individual receipt; AFDC/TANF and Food Stamps/SNAP receipt are based on the full recipient unit. In practice, individuals do not tend to receive both AFDC/TANF and SSI; hence, no individual receives benefits from all three programs. The percentage of individuals receiving assistance from any one program in an average month (shown here) is lower than the percentage residing in families receiving assistance at some point over the course of a year (shown in Table SUM 1 in Chapter I and Table IND 1a in Chapter II).

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1994-2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

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