Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Thirteenth Report to Congress. INDICATOR 2. Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

03/01/2014

 

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program: 2011

(In percent)

Figure IND 2. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program: 2011

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes those who usually worked less than 35 hours per week. “Looking for work” includes individuals who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month. Also note that lower family employment rates are reported in TANF administrative data, which are limited to the employment of family members in the TANF assistance unit and employment reported to welfare agencies (see Table TANF 7 in Appendix A).

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


  • Figure IND 2 shows the percentage of recipients in families with labor force participants by program. In 2011, SSI recipients were more likely to live in families with no labor force participants (60.8 percent) than were TANF recipients (41.0 percent) or SNAP recipients (36.9 percent). Sixty-three (63.1) percent of SNAP recipients lived in families with someone in the labor force, including 34.3 percent in families with at least one full-time worker.
  • Table IND 2a shows the percentage of recipients in families with labor force participants by program and demographic characteristics. Among all three programs, Hispanics were more likely to live in families with at least one full-time worker (31.7 percent) than were Non-Hispanic Blacks (13.9 percent) or Non-Hispanics Whites (22.7 percent).
  • Among SNAP recipients, 46.3 percent of persons in married-couple families lived with at least one full-time worker compared to 27.6 percent of persons in female-headed families, and 40.8 percent of persons in male-headed families.
  • Table IND 2b shows the percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients living in families with labor force participants by year. The percentage of recipients living in families with at least one labor force participant increased from 43.0 percent in 1993 to 61.3 in 2001 and was 59.0 percent in 2011.

Table IND 2a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program and Selected Characteristics: 2011

  At least one in labor force, no one full time
No one in labor force At least one looking, no one working At least one part-time, no one full- time Total with at least one in labor force, no one full-time At least one full-time worker
TANF All Persons 41.0 17.6 17.6 35.2 23.8
Non-Hispanic White 44.4 17.1 15.8 32.9 22.7
Non-Hispanic Black 46.2 22.6 17.3 39.9 13.9
Hispanic 34.2 13.7 20.4 34.2 31.7
Children ages 0-5 40.6 17.2 17.6 34.9 24.5
Children ages 6-10 45.8 16.3 15.6 31.9 22.3
Children ages 11-15 38.8 16.8 18.8 35.6 25.7
Women ages 16-64 41.3 18.6 17.1 35.7 22.9
Men ages 16-64 35.1 20.3 20.4 40.7 24.2
Adults ages 65 and over 15.5 0.0 84.5 84.5 0.0
Persons in married-couple families 22.0 16.1 19.6 35.7 42.3
Persons in female-headed families 47.7 17.9 17.4 35.3 17.1
Persons in male-headed families 35.4 19.6 14.0 33.5 31.1
Unrelated persons 75.9 22.2 0.9 23.1 1.0
SNAP All Persons 36.9 12.7 16.1 28.8 34.3
Non-Hispanic White 40.4 12.9 16.1 29.0 30.6
Non-Hispanic Black 39.9 15.2 16.2 31.4 28.6
Hispanic 28.1 9.6 16.8 26.4 45.5
Children ages 0-5 25.7 11.2 18.1 29.3 45.0
Children ages 6-10 25.4 11.9 18.4 30.3 44.3
Children ages 11-15 26.6 10.7 17.8 28.5 44.9
Women ages 16-64 39.0 13.2 17.6 30.9 30.1
Men ages 16-64 38.8 16.5 14.2 30.7 30.5
Adults ages 65 and over 84.2 4.2 4.0 8.2 7.6
Persons in married-couple families 22.6 10.9 15.8 26.7 50.7
Persons in female-headed families 35.6 12.9 19.9 32.8 31.6
Persons in male-headed families 28.9 16.1 14.1 30.2 40.9
Unrelated persons 71.0 14.0 8.5 22.5 6.5
SSI All Persons 60.8 5.6 8.6 14.2 25.0
Non-Hispanic White 64.5 4.4 8.4 12.8 22.8
Non-Hispanic Black 66.1 7.0 8.6 15.5 18.4
Hispanic 52.7 5.5 9.0 14.5 32.8
Children ages 0-5 33.8 11.0 11.6 22.6 43.6
Children ages 6-10 41.7 10.8 13.5 24.3 34.0
Children ages 11-15 44.1 10.4 10.2 20.7 35.2
Women ages 16-64 66.1 5.7 8.3 14.0 19.9
Men ages 16-64 64.1 4.8 9.3 14.1 21.9
Adults ages 65 and over 62.0 3.2 6.4 9.6 28.4
Persons in married-couple families 36.9 5.8 11.0 16.8 46.3
Persons in female-headed families 51.3 9.2 11.9 21.1 27.6
Persons in male-headed families 42.2 6.5 10.5 17.0 40.8
Unrelated persons 94.0 1.8 3.1 5.0 1.1

 

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes those who usually worked less than 35 hours per week. “Looking for work” includes individuals who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month. Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 2b. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: 1993-2011

  No One in LF At Least One in LF, No One FT
At Least One
FT Worker
1993 57.0 24.2 18.8
1994 54.8 24.8 20.4
1995 50.6 24.3 25.1
1996 50.1 25.6 24.3
1997 47.6 28.0 24.4
1998 44.3 25.8 29.9
1999 40.8 24.1 35.1
2000 41.2 24.1 34.7
2001 38.7 26.0 35.3
2002 39.8 25.8 34.3
2003 47.4 24.1 28.5
2004 48.0 23.8 28.1
2005 47.7 25.4 26.9
2006 46.6 21.2 32.2
2007 46.4 23.4 30.2
2008 45.6 27.2 27.2
2009 43.3 30.7 26.0
2010 43.5 31.4 25.1
2011 41.0 35.2 23.8

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work. This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1994 - 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

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