Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Thirteenth Report to Congress. INDICATOR 1. Degree of Dependence

03/01/2014

Figure IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 2011

Figure IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 2011

Note: Means-tested assistance includes TANF, SSI and SNAP benefits. Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs. Income includes cash income and the value of SNAP benefits.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


  • Figure IND 1a shows the percentage of persons in families with varying degrees of total income that derived from means-tested assistance programs in 2011.
  • The majority of persons (76.9 percent) lived in families that received no income from means-tested assistance programs in 2011.
  • Twenty-three (23.1) percent of all persons lived in families that received means-tested assistance. Five (5.2) percent of persons lived in families that received more than half of their income from means-tested assistance programs. These persons would be considered welfare dependent under the definition of dependence used in this report.15
  • Table IND 1a shows the percentage of persons in families with varying degrees of reliance on income from means-tested assistance programs by selected demographic characteristics. Among racial and ethnic groups, Non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to be welfare dependent (12.3 percent) than were Non-Hispanic Whites (3.3 percent) or Hispanics of any race (7.7 percent).
  • Among age categories, children, particularly from birth to 5 years of age, were more likely to live in families that were welfare dependent than were persons age 16 and older.
  • Among family types, persons living in female-headed families were more likely to be welfare dependent than those in other family categories.
  • Table IND 1b shows trends in welfare dependence between 1993 and 2011. Welfare dependence was highest in 1993 at 5.9 percent. Welfare dependence declined between 1993 and 2000. After 2000, the downward trend in welfare dependence reversed, with dependence increasing from 3.0 percent in 2000 to 5.2 percent in 2011.

Table IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs by Selected Characteristics: 2011

  0%
> 0% and <= 25%
> 25% and<= 50%
> 50% and<= 75%
> 75% and<= 100%
Total > 50%
All Persons 76.9 13.8 4.1 1.7 3.5 5.2
Racial/Ethnic Categories
    Non-Hispanic White 83.7 10.6 2.5 1.0 2.3 3.3
    Non-Hispanic Black 60.3 19.3 8.1 3.9 8.3 12.3
    Hispanic 63.6 21.7 7.1 2.6 5.1 7.7
Age Categories
    Children ages 0-5 62.0 19.9 7.9 3.8 6.4 10.2
    Children ages 6-10 65.2 18.8 7.6 3.1 5.2 8.4
    Children ages 11-15 68.0 18.4 6.5 2.7 4.4 7.1
    Women ages 16-64 76.7 13.7 3.9 1.7 4.1 5.7
    Men ages 16-64 80.8 12.6 2.9 1.1 2.6 3.7
    Adults ages 65 and over 87.1 8.5 2.1 0.8 1.5 2.3
Family Categories
    Persons in married-couple families 85.4 10.4 2.4 0.8 1.1 1.9
    Persons in female-headed families 45.0 26.7 12.2 5.8 10.5 16.2
    Persons in male-headed families 65.1 22.9 6.1 2.1 3.8 5.9
    Unrelated persons 80.0 11.1 2.0 0.9 5.9 6.8

Note: Means-tested assistance includes TANF, SSI and SNAP. Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs. Income includes cash income and the value of SNAP benefits. Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 1b. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 1993-2011

  0%
> 0% and<= 25%
> 25% and <= 50% > 50% and <= 75%
> 75% and<= 100%
Total> 50%
1993 83.4 7.8 3.0 1.8 4.1 5.9
1994 82.8 8.4 3.1 1.8 4.0 5.8
1995 83.2 8.5 3.1 1.8 3.5 5.3
1996 84.0 7.8 3.1 1.9 3.3 5.2
1997 85.3 7.7 2.5 1.5 3.1 4.5
1998 86.5 7.3 2.5 1.3 2.5 3.8
1999 86.7 7.7 2.3 1.1 2.2 3.3
2000 87.5 7.3 2.2 1.0 2.0 3.0
2001 87.4 7.3 2.2 1.0 2.1 3.1
2002 86.8 7.8 2.3 1.0 2.1 3.2
2003 85.9 8.2 2.4 1.1 2.4 3.6
2004 85.0 8.8 2.5 1.1 2.5 3.7
2005 84.7 8.9 2.6 1.1 2.7 3.8
2006 84.4 9.3 2.6 1.1 2.6 3.7
2007 84.1 9.7 2.8 1.1 2.3 3.4
2008 82.9 10.3 2.8 1.1 2.8 4.0
2009 80.1 11.4 3.9 1.5 3.1 4.6
2010 77.3 13.2 4.2 1.7 3.6 5.3
2011 76.9 13.8 4.1 1.7 3.5 5.2

Note: Means-tested assistance includes TANF, SSI and SNAP. Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs. Income includes cash income and the value of SNAP benefits.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Figure IND 1b. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources by Poverty Status: 2011

(In percent)

Figure IND 1b. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources by Poverty Status: 2011

Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of SNAP benefits. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest and dividends. Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


  • Figure IND 1b shows sources of income by poverty status in 2011. There is a clear association between poverty status and receiving income from means-tested assistance programs.
  • Persons in families with incomes below the poverty line received 42.4 percent of their income from earnings and 37.8 percent from means-tested assistance programs. Persons in families with incomes at 200 percent or more of the poverty line received 85.7 percent of their income from earnings and 0.2 percent of their income from means-tested assistance programs.
  • The percentage of family income that comes from earnings is inversely proportional to overall family income relative to the poverty line. For example, the percentage of income received from earnings for persons in families living in deep poverty (below 50 percent of the poverty line) was 21.2 percent compared to 42.4 percent for all poor persons in 2011.
  • Table IND 1c shows sources of income by poverty status for various demographic groups. On average, persons in married-couple families and male heads of household receive higher proportions of their family income from earnings than do female heads of households.
  • Table IND 1d shows the percentage of income from various sources across selected years. The percentage of income received from earnings for persons in families with incomes below the poverty line increased from 40.4 percent in 1995 to 49.5 percent in 2000. In 2011, the rate was 42.4 percent.
  • Over the same time period, the percentage of income from means-tested programs among persons in poor families decreased from 41.3 percent in 1995 to 30.3 percent in 2000. In 2011, the rate was 37.8 percent.

Table IND 1c. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources by Poverty Status and Selected Characteristics: 2011

  <50% Poverty <100% of Poverty <200% of Poverty 200%+ of Poverty
All
Persons
All Persons
    TANF, SSI and SNAP 65.4 37.8 14.5 0.2 1.8
    Earnings 21.2 42.4 62.5 85.7 83.2
    Other income 13.5 19.8 23.0 14.1 15.1
Racial/Ethnic Categories
    Non-Hispanic White
        TANF, SSI and SNAP  63.8 36.1 12.0 0.1 0.9
        Earnings 19.7 37.9 56.6 84.6 82.7
        Other income 16.4 26.0 31.5 15.3 16.4
    Non-Hispanic Black
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 69.9 45.4 21.9 0.5 5.0
        Earnings 16.8 33.0 54.2 85.0 78.4
        Other income 13.3 21.6 23.9 14.6 16.6
    Hispanic
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 63.5 34.7 14.2 0.5 4.2
        Earnings 27.3 53.4 74.3 90.8 86.3
        Other income 9.2 11.9 11.5 8.7 9.5
Age Categories
    Children ages 0-5
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 69.7 41.6 18.7 0.2 3.7
        Earnings 19.7 45.8 70.2 94.8 90.2
        Other income 10.6 12.6 11.1 5.0 6.1
    Children ages 6-10
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 68.1 40.4 17.7 0.2 3.2
        Earnings 20.0 46.2 70.1 94.0 90.0
        Other income 11.9 13.4 12.2 5.8 6.9
    Children ages 11-15
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 68.2 38.6 16.1 0.2 2.6
        Earnings 19.2 46.5 69.7 92.6 89.1
        Other income 12.6 14.8 14.2 7.2 8.3
    Women ages 16-64
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 64.7 38.5 15.1 0.2 1.7
        Earnings 21.0 41.9 65.6 89.1 86.8
        Other income 14.3 19.6 19.2 10.7 11.6
    Men ages 16-64
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 58.1 34.0 12.2 0.2 1.2
        Earnings 26.5 45.0 68.3 90.3 88.5
        Other income 15.4 21.0 19.5 9.5 10.4
Family Categories
    Persons in married-couple families
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 57.1 30.4 10.1 0.1 0.9
        Earnings 30.1 54.8 71.5 86.6 85.5
        Other income 12.8 14.8 18.3 13.2 13.6
    Persons in female-headed families
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 72.7 46.9 24.6 1.0 8.8
        Earnings 14.8 34.8 53.8 81.3 72.2
        Other income 12.5 18.3 21.6 17.7 19.0
    Persons in male-headed families
        TANF, SSI and SNAP 64.9 39.2 15.4 0.7 3.2
        Earnings 23.3 40.8 64.2 85.8 82.1
        Other income 11.8 20.0 20.5 13.5 14.7

Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of SNAP benefits. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest and dividends. Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive. Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories. Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 1d. Percentage of Total Income from Various Sources: Selected Years

  < 50% Poverty
<100% ofPoverty
<200% of Poverty 200%+ of Poverty
1995
    AFDC, SSI and Food Stamps 65.9 41.3 14.2 0.3
    Earnings 22.5 40.4 64.8 85.4
    Other income 11.6 18.3 21.0 14.3
1998
    AFDC, SSI and Food Stamps 58.9 32.0 10.6 0.2
    Earnings 27.0 47.9 67.8 85.3
    Other income 14.1 20.1 21.6 14.5
2000
    TANF, SSI and Food Stamps 54.3 30.3 9.8 0.2
    Earnings 30.5 49.5 68.7 86.7
    Other income 15.2 20.3 21.5 13.0
2004
    TANF, SSI and Food Stamps 58.4 31.1 10.4 0.2
    Earnings 25.7 48.2 67.2 86.8
    Other income 15.9 20.7 22.4 13.0
2005
    TANF, SSI and Food Stamps 58.5 32.5 10.4 0.2
    Earnings 25.3 46.6 68.2 86.6
    Other income 16.2 20.8 21.4 13.2
2006
    TANF, SSI and Food Stamps 58.2 31.4 10.4 0.2
    Earnings 27.7 48.3 68.6 86.5
    Other income 14.1 20.3 21.0 13.3
2009
    TANF, SSI and SNAP 62.0 35.8 13.6 0.2
    Earnings 25.2 44.2 62.8 85.8
    Other income 12.8 20.0 23.6 14.0
2010
    TANF, SSI and SNAP 64.6 38.1 14.9 0.2
    Earnings 21.7 41.7 61.7 85.6
    Other income 13.6 20.3 23.4 14.2
2011
    TANF, SSI and SNAP 65.4 37.8 14.5 0.2
    Earnings 21.2 42.4 62.5 85.7
    Other income 13.5 19.8 23.0 14.1

Note: Total income is total annual family income, including the value of SNAP benefits. Other income is non-means-tested, non-earnings income such as child support, alimony, pensions, Social Security benefits, interest and dividends. Poverty status categories are not mutually exclusive.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1996-2011, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.


15 For a discussion on defining welfare dependence, please see “Measuring Welfare Dependence” in Chapter I.

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