Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Fourteenth Report to Congress. INDICATOR 9. Long Term Receipt

09/22/2015

Figure IND 9.  Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients by Years of Receipt in the 1999 – 2008 Period

Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients by Years of Receipt in the 1999 – 2008 Period
Note: The base for the percentages consists of mothers who received at least $1 of AFDC/TANF in any year in the ten-year period.  Child recipients are defined by age in the first year of the 10-year period. This indicator measures years of recipiency over the specified ten-year time periods and does not take into account years of recipiency that may have occurred before or after each ten-year period. 

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, public release data files, 1999-2008. 

  • Figure IND 9 shows the percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients by years of receipt between 1999 and 2008.  Among all persons receiving AFDC/TANF at some point within the ten-year period, 71.5 percent received assistance in only one or two of these years. In contrast, 1.1 percent received assistance in 9 or 10 of the years.
  • Table IND 9 shows the percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients with varying years of receipt across four ten-year time periods by demographic characteristics.  Long spells of welfare receipt were more common in earlier time periods than they were in later time periods.  For example, for the 1969 – 1978 time period, 12.8 percent of AFDC recipients received benefits in at least 9 of the 10 years as compared to 1.1 percent of TANF recipients for the 1999 - 2008 time period. 
  • Among child recipients, for the 1969 – 1978  time period, 17.3 percent of children birth to age 5 lived in families that received AFDC/TANF in 9 – 10 years as compared to 2.4 percent for the 1999 - 2008 time period. 
  • Short spells of TANF receipt were more prevalent in the 1999 - 2008 period compared to earlier periods.  Between 1999 - 2008, 71.5 percent of TANF recipients received benefits in only one or two years compared to 47.9 percent in the 1989 to 1998 period, 44.6 percent in the 1979 – 1988 period, and 43.6 percent in the 1969 – 1978 period.
  • Among racial groups, the percentage of Non-Hispanic Black recipients receiving TANF benefits for 9 – 10 years has decreased from a high of 18.4 percent in the 1979 – 1988 period to a low of 2.9 percent in the 1999 – 2008 period.  For the 1999 – 2008 period, the data show that there were no Non-Hispanic White recipients receiving TANF for 9 – 10 years as compared to 10.2 percent in the 1969-1978 period.

 

Table IND 9. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients across Four Ten-Year Time Periods by Years of Receipt and Selected Characteristics

All Persons

All Recipients

Child Recipients Ages 0-5

 

1969-1978

1979-1988

1989-1998

1999-2008

1969-1978

1979-1988

1989-1998

1999-2008

Years received AFDC/TANF

  1-2 years

43.6

44.6

47.9

71.5

33.3

36.8

40.4

73.0

  3-5 years

23.1

25.0

31.5

20.5

28.3

25.0

27.1

18.4

  6-8 years

20.5

17.3

12.4

6.9

21.1

18.4

17.3

6.2

  9-10 years

12.8

13.1

8.2

1.1

17.3

19.8

15.2

2.4

Non-Hispanic Whites

All Recipients

Child Recipients Ages 0-5

 

1969-1978

1979-1988

1989-1998

1999-2008

1969-1978

1979-1988

1989-1998

1999-2008

Years received AFDC/TANF

  1-2 years

51.0

54.0

51.3

76.4

41.4

47.4

50.9

78.2

  3-5 years

21.1

21.2

36.8

18.0

29.1

23.3

31.3

15.2

  6-8 years

17.7

15.1

7.4

5.6

16.8

15.5

8.7

5.2

  9-10 years

10.2

9.7

4.5

0.0

12.7

13.8

9.1

1.4

Non-Hispanic Blacks

All Recipients

Child Recipients Ages 0-5

 

1969-1978

1979-1988

1989-1998

1999-2008

1969-1978

1979-1988

1989-1998

1999-2008

Years received AFDC/TANF

  1-2 years

30.2

31.2

44.1

62.6

19.4

20.8

33.0

60.0

  3-5 years

26.1

29.1

25.4

25.5

28.8

27.7

23.3

25.1

  6-8 years

26.2

21.3

18.0

9.0

28.3

23.0

24.4

9.1

  9-10 years

17.5

18.4

12.5

2.9

23.5

28.5

19.3

5.8

Note: The base for the percentages consists of mothers who received at least $1 of AFDC/TANF in any year in the ten-year period.  Child recipients are defined by age in the first year of the 10-year period. This indicator measures years of recipiency over the specified ten-year time periods and does not take into account years of recipiency that may have occurred before or after each ten-year period. 

Due to small sample size, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the estimates for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, public release data files, 1969-2008,

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