Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Fourteenth Report to Congress. INDICATOR 6. Dependence Transitions

09/22/2015

Figure IND 6.  Dependency Status in 2012 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2011 by Race and Ethnicity

Dependency Status in 2012 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2011 by Race and Ethnicity

Note:  Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI.  While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income.  Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race.  Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source:  Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2008 panel.

  • Figure IND 6 shows the 2012 dependency status of persons who were welfare dependent in 2011 by race and ethnicity.  Welfare dependence is defined as receiving more than half of one’s total family income in the year from TANF, SNAP, and/or SSI.  For further discussion of defining welfare dependency, see Chapter I. 
  • Of recipients who received more than 50 percent of their total family income from TANF, SNAP and/or SSI in 2011, approximately three-quarters across three racial and ethnic groups (71.3 percent of Non-Hispanic Whites, 72.6 percent of Non-Hispanic Blacks, and 73.1 percent of Hispanics) also were welfare dependent in 2012.
  • Table IND 6a shows the 2012 dependency status of persons who were welfare dependent in 2011 by demographic groups.  Women ages 16 – 64 had a higher dependency rate (76.2 percent) than men (70.4 percent), and children less than 5 years old also had a higher dependency rate (70.5 percent) than those ages 11 – 15 (66.7 percent).  
  • Table IND 6b shows the dependency status of all persons who received more than 50 percent of their family income from means-tested assistance programs in the previous year.  While most remain dependent from one year to the next, this has lessened some with a 7.4 percentage point decrease in remaining dependent from the previous year to the current year from 1994 to 2012. 

Table IND 6a.  Dependency Status in 2012 of Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in 2011 by Selected Characteristics

 

 

 

Percentage of Persons Receiving

Persons Receiving More than 50 Percent of Income from Assistance in 2011

Total

(thousands)

No aid

 in 2012

Up to 50%

 in 2012

Over 50%

in 2012

All Persons

9,834

1.2

26.5

72.4

  Racial/Ethnic Categories

    Non-Hispanic White

3,619

1.8

26.9

71.3

    Non-Hispanic Black

3,410

0.2

27.3

72.6

    Hispanic

2,011

1.2

25.7

73.1

  Age Categories

    Children ages 0-5

1,278

2.1

27.4

70.5

    Children ages 6-10

1,068

1.1

33.4

65.6

    Children ages 11-15

1,015

0.0

33.3

66.7

    Women ages 16-64

3,665

0.5

23.3

76.2

    Men ages 16-64

2,266

2.2

27.4

70.4

    Adults ages 65 and over

488

0.6

13.9

85.4

Note:  Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI.  While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income.  Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race.  Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Individual age categories do not add to total because of a small number of people not reporting age.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2008 panel.

Table IND 6b. Dependency Status of All Persons Who Received More than 50 Percent of Income from Means-Tested Assistance in Previous Year

 

 

Percentage of Persons Receiving

 

Total

(thousands)

   No aid in

second year

Up to 50% in

second year

Over 50% in second year

Transitions from:

1993 to 1994

14,810

1.6

18.6

79.8

1994 to 1995

13,986

2.7

18.8

78.5

1997 to 1998

9,672

3.1

28.8

68.1

1998 to 1999

8,163

2.9

27.1

70.0

2001 to 2002

6,258

1.5

29.2

69.3

2002 to 2003

6,023

2.6

25.8

71.6

2004 to 2005

7,682

4.1

31.7

64.2

2005 to 2006

7,339

2.4

24.2

73.5

2006 to 2007

6,969

2.4

20.9

76.7

2009 to 2010

8,344

1.7

22.4

75.9

2010 to 2011

9,481

2.2

25.5

72.3

2011 to 2012

9,834

1.2

26.5

72.4

Note: Means-tested assistance is defined as AFDC/TANF, Food Stamps/SNAP, and SSI.  Individuals are defined as dependent if they reside in families with more than 50 percent of total annual family income from these means-tested programs.  While only affecting a small number of cases, General Assistance income is included within AFDC/TANF income in all years and veterans’ pension benefits are included in means-tested assistance income for receipt and dependence estimates prior to 2001.  Because full calendar year data for 1995 were not available for all SIPP respondents, some transitions between 1994 and 1995 were based on twelve-month periods that do not correspond exactly to calendar years.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 panels.

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