Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Fourteenth Report to Congress. INDICATOR 2. Receipt of Means-Tested Assistance and Labor Force Attachment

09/22/2015

Figure IND 2.  Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program: 2012

Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program: 2012

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month.  Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week.  Part-time labor force participation includes those who usually worked less than 35 hours per week. “Looking for work” includes individuals who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work.  This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.   Also note that lower family employment rates are reported in TANF administrative data, which are limited to the employment of family members in the TANF assistance unit and employment reported to welfare agencies (see Table TANF 7 in Appendix A).

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2012, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

  • Figure IND 2 shows the percentage of recipients in families with labor force participants by program in 2012.  Of recipients across the three programs, SNAP recipients were most likely to live in families with labor force participants (64.7 percent), including 37.3 percent in families with at least one full-time worker.  This was followed by TANF recipients where 56.7 percent lived in families with labor force participants, including 23.5 percent of TANF recipients living with a full-time worker.
  • In 2012, SSI recipients were more likely to live in families with no labor force participants (60.9 percent) than were TANF recipients (43.3 percent) or SNAP recipients (35.3 percent).    
  • Table IND 2a shows the percentage of recipients in families with labor force participants by program and demographic characteristics.  Among TANF, SNAP, and SSI recipients, Hispanics were more likely than other groups to live in families with at least one full-time worker (27.8, 48.6 and 32.9 percent, respectively, for each program).
  • Table IND 2b shows additional information on the percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients living in families with labor force participants over time.

Table IND 2a. Percentage of Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants by Program and Selected Characteristics: 2012

 

 

At least one in labor force, no one full time

 

 

 

No one in labor force

At least one looking,
no one working

At least one part-time,
no one full- time

Total with at least one in labor force, no one full-time

At least
one
full-time worker

TANF

All Persons

43.3

14.6

18.6

33.2

23.5

 

  Non-Hispanic White

42.4

15.0

19.5

34.4

23.2

 

  Non-Hispanic Black

47.8

19.2

14.9

34.0

18.2

 

  Hispanic

40.1

10.3

21.7

32.0

27.8

 

  Children ages 0-5

42.6

13.9

16.9

30.8

26.7

 

  Children ages 6-10

45.0

13.1

18.2

31.3

23.7

 

  Children ages 11-15

43.4

13.6

21.5

35.1

21.6

 

  Women ages 16-64

43.3

16.5

19.4

35.9

20.8

 

  Men ages 16-64

41.8

16.8

16.9

33.7

24.5

 

  Adults ages 65 and over

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

 

  Persons in married-couple families

24.6

11.8

18.9

30.7

44.7

 

  Persons in female-headed families

49.1

15.7

18.7

34.5

16.4

 

  Persons in male-headed families

43.4

12.5

16.0

28.5

28.0

 

  Unrelated persons

68.6

6.7

19.5

26.2

5.2

SNAP

All Persons

35.3

11.0

16.5

27.4

37.3

 

  Non-Hispanic White

39.3

10.6

16.6

27.2

33.5

 

  Non-Hispanic Black

36.9

14.0

16.7

30.6

32.5

 

  Hispanic

26.8

8.5

16.1

24.6

48.6

 

  Children ages 0-5

24.2

9.8

18.2

28.0

47.8

 

  Children ages 6-10

24.3

9.7

18.0

27.7

48.0

 

  Children ages 11-15

24.7

10.6

18.8

29.3

46.0

 

  Women ages 16-64

37.1

11.5

17.6

29.1

33.7

 

  Men ages 16-64

36.7

14.0

15.3

29.2

34.1

 

  Adults ages 65 and over

81.6

4.0

5.2

9.2

9.2

 

  Persons in married-couple families

20.4

9.0

15.7

24.7

54.9

 

  Persons in female-headed families

34.5

11.6

20.1

31.7

33.9

 

  Persons in male-headed families

28.6

14.2

15.2

29.4

42.0

 

  Unrelated persons

69.9

12.0

10.2

22.1

7.9

SSI

All Persons

60.9

5.5

8.1

13.6

25.5

 

  Non-Hispanic White

65.8

5.1

7.5

12.6

21.6

 

  Non-Hispanic Black

66.2

6.2

7.3

13.5

20.3

 

  Hispanic

52.0

5.1

10.0

15.1

32.9

 

  Children ages 0-5

33.0

10.7

7.3

18.0

48.9

 

  Children ages 6-10

40.3

12.6

8.8

21.5

38.2

 

  Children ages 11-15

41.4

8.3

15.6

23.9

34.7

 

  Women ages 16-64

67.9

5.4

7.2

12.5

19.5

 

  Men ages 16-64

63.3

5.0

8.2

13.1

23.5

 

  Adults ages 65 and over

61.7

3.5

7.7

11.2

27.1

 

  Persons in married-couple families

35.5

5.9

11.4

17.2

47.3

 

  Persons in female-headed families

52.7

8.1

10.6

18.7

28.6

 

  Persons in male-headed families

46.8

8.6

8.4

17.1

36.1

 

  Unrelated persons

93.9

2.1

3.0

5.1

1.0

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month.  Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week.  Part-time labor force participation includes those who usually worked less than 35 hours per week.  “Looking for work” includes individuals who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work.  This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.  Spouses are not present in the female-headed and male-headed family categories.

Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race.  Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Persons who reported more than one race are included in the total for all persons but are not shown under any race category.  Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are included in the total for all persons but are not shown separately.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2012, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

Table IND 2b. Percentage of AFDC/TANF Recipients in Families with Labor Force Participants: 1993-2012

 

 

In the Labor Force

 

No One in LF

Total

At Least One in LF, No One FT

At Least One

FT Worker

1993

57.0

43.0

24.2

18.8

1994

54.8

45.2

24.8

20.4

1995

50.6

49.4

24.3

25.1

1996

50.1

49.9

25.6

24.3

1997

47.6

52.4

28.0

24.4

1998

44.3

55.7

25.8

29.9

1999

40.8

59.2

24.1

35.1

2000

41.2

58.8

24.1

34.7

2001

38.7

61.3

26.0

35.3

2002

39.8

60.1

25.8

34.3

2003

47.4

52.6

24.1

28.5

2004

48.0

51.9

23.8

28.1

2005

47.7

52.3

25.4

26.9

2006

46.6

53.4

21.2

32.2

2007

46.4

53.6

23.4

30.2

2008

45.6

54.4

27.2

27.2

2009

43.3

56.7

30.7

26.0

2010

43.5

56.5

31.4

25.1

2011

41.0

59.0

35.2

23.8

2012

43.3

56.7

33.2

23.5

Note: Recipients are limited to those individuals or family members directly receiving benefits in a month.  Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week.  Part-time labor force participation includes part-time workers and those who are unemployed, laid off and/or looking for work.  This indicator measures, on an average monthly basis, the combination of individual benefit receipt and labor force participation by any family member in the same month.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1994 - 2012, analyzed using the TRIM3 microsimulation model.

View full report

Preview
Download

"FINAL Fourteenth Report - FINAL 9 22 15.pdf" (pdf, 3.14Mb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®