Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Fourteenth Report to Congress. Employment and Work-related Risk Factor 2. Employment Among the Low-skilled

09/22/2015

Figure WORK 2. Percentage of Persons Ages 18 to 65 with No More than a High School Education Who Were Employed at Any Time during Year by Race and Ethnicity: 1968-2012

Figure WORK 2. Percentage of Persons Ages 18 to 65 with No More than a High School Education Who Were Employed at Any Time during Year by Race and Ethnicity: 1968-2012

Note: All data include both full and partial year employment for the given calendar year. Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race. Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only. Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are not shown separately. Hispanic origin was not available until 1975.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969-2013.

  • Figure WORK 2 shows the employment rate of workers ages 18 to 65 with a high school education or less by gender and race and ethnicity between 1968 and 2012. This measure of low skill is based only on educational attainment and does not take into account other skills based on work experience, training or other credentials.
  • Employment rates for women with a high school education or less increased during the 1980s and 1990s. By the 2000s, however, the employment rate for women with no more than a high school education started to decline for all three groups shown. In 2012, the rate was 61.4 percent for Non-Hispanic White women, 55.0 percent for Non-Hispanic Black women, and 54.3 percent for Hispanic women of any race.
  • Beginning in the 1970s, the employment rates for men with a high school education or less declined and the employment rates for Non-Hispanic White and Non-Hispanic Black men with a high school education or less began to diverge. In 2012, 74.6 percent of Non-Hispanic White men as compared to 57.8 percent of Non-Hispanic Black men with a high school education or less were employed.
  • Over the time period, Hispanic men with a high school education or less have had employment rates similar to Non-Hispanic White men. In 2012, 79.7 percent of Hispanic men with a high school education or less were employed compared to 74.6 percent of Non-Hispanic White men.

Table WORK 2.  Percentage of Persons Ages 18 to 65 with No More than a High School Education Who Were Employed by Race and Ethnicity: 1968-2012

 

 

Women

Men

Non-Hispanic White

Non-Hispanic Black

Hispanic

Non-Hispanic

White

Non-Hispanic

 Black

Hispanic

1968

55.8

65.8

NA

92.8

89.9

NA

1969

56.1

64.9

NA

92.1

89.2

NA

1971

55.2

59.4

NA

90.9

86.1

NA

1972

55.6

58.1

NA

91.1

84.3

NA

1975

58.3

57.2

49.7

88.2

78.8

86.2

1977

61.4

57.6

52.2

88.3

78.1

89.2

1979

62.9

58.9

55.0

88.5

78.7

89.4

1980

64.1

57.6

53.7

88.0

75.2

86.8

1981

64.0

57.5

53.0

87.4

74.5

87.6

1982

62.7

56.6

51.1

85.6

71.1

85.3

1983

63.5

55.3

51.7

84.8

70.2

85.2

1984

65.0

58.9

54.0

86.5

71.9

83.9

1985

66.0

59.4

52.9

86.1

74.6

83.9

1986

66.8

61.0

54.0

86.4

74.3

86.5

1987

67.3

59.9

54.0

86.7

73.9

85.6

1988

68.0

61.4

54.6

86.3

74.0

87.8

1989

68.8

61.1

55.8

87.7

75.3

86.6

1990

68.5

60.7

55.0

87.7

75.6

85.4

1991

68.3

61.0

54.6

86.4

73.9

85.0

1992

67.8

57.8

53.3

85.7

71.5

83.7

1993

68.6

60.0

52.2

84.6

71.2

83.5

1994

69.0

60.9

53.3

85.0

69.1

83.2

1995

69.6

60.1

53.9

85.9

70.1

83.3

1996

70.2

64.1

55.4

85.9

70.3

84.0

1997

69.9

66.6

56.9

85.3

72.0

85.0

1998

70.4

67.1

57.1

85.3

71.8

85.5

1999

71.4

68.4

58.8

84.5

72.0

86.4

2000

70.6

67.7

61.0

84.7

72.7

86.4

 2001

69.8

64.8

59.2

83.4

69.9

85.5

 2002

69.5

64.4

57.5

82.5

67.3

85.1

2003

66.9

65.2

56.9

81.1

65.7

84.6

2004

66.3

62.9

56.1

80.8

66.7

84.9

2005

66.3

63.3

56.1

80.7

66.3

85.6

2006

66.5

63.2

56.8

80.6

65.6

86.4

2007

66.1

62.4

56.0

80.3

65.8

85.6

2008

65.6

61.3

57.2

79.0

64.5

83.6

2009

63.4

57.1

55.6

76.7

60.0

80.1

2010

61.2

55.6

53.7

74.4

57.8

78.3

2011

61.0

55.9

54.7

74.4

57.3

78.4

2012

61.4

55.0

54.3

74.6

57.8

79.7

 

Note: All data include both full and partial year employment for the given calendar year.  Persons of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race.  Beginning in 2002, estimates for Whites and Blacks are for persons reporting a single race only.  Due to small sample size, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders are not shown separately.  Hispanic origin was not available until 1975.

Source: Unpublished tabulations from the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969-2013.

 

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