When using the waiver program approach, should states add assisted living as a new service to an existing waiver program or implement it under a separate waiver program? From one perspective, adding to an existing waiver program is simple and minimizes reporting and tracking requirements. However, advocates for home and community services may perceive the addition of assisted living to the list of waiver services already covered as increased competition for a limited number of slots available for home services more generally. Coverage under a separate waiver program may be a better approach, not only for this reason but also because it enables a state to test the demand for and cost-effectiveness of assisted living per se. Separate waiver programs designed by a state to expand the total number of people served under waiver programs may also make it easier to reassure facilities in that state that they will have access to a sufficient number of consumers. Since providers receive Medicaid payments based on the number of beneficiaries they serve, facilities may be reluctant to participate in the Medicaid program at all if they are unsure they will have a reliable source of potential residents.