Payment for room and board is one of the critical issues for states seeking to expand assisted living for Medicaid beneficiaries. Surveys by national associations have found that care in assisted living facilities may be unaffordable for many low-income individuals. Monthly fees in market rate facilities range from $800 to over $3500--with the majority in the $800-$2000 range. These fees vary by facility design and size of units and encompass amenities in addition to room and board. But assisted living facilities are marketed as a total package and people who are eligible for Medicaid cannot afford these fees.
Medicaid can be used to pay for assisted living services, but cannot pay for room and board. Except in very limited circumstances (such as a weekend stay provided as respite care under an HCBS waiver), the Medicaid beneficiary is responsible for room or board costs, whether paid through pensions, savings, Social Security, or SSI.
States can and do use a number of approaches to ensure that the room and board rate for assisted living does not exceed the income available to Medicaid beneficiaries. These approaches include the following:
States can examine the facility's monthly room and board charges to identify any coverable services--such as laundry assistance, light housekeeping, or food preparation--that can be reimbursed by Medicaid for a beneficiary who requires assistance with these IADLs. Including all coverable services in the state's assisted living service payment reduces the beneficiary's monthly payment solely to room and board and any other charges that Medicaid does not cover.
Some states set only the service rate, leaving determination of the room and board rate to the facility. Florida and Wisconsin are examples of state Medicaid programs that set only the service rate. Beneficiaries choose among the assisted living facilities they can afford. Other states limit the room and board amount that can be charged to Medicaid beneficiaries. One option is to limit these costs to the amount of the Federal SSI payment rate. In the year 2000, that amount is $512 a month, which may be too low to provide a sufficient incentive for assisted living facilities to serve Medicaid beneficiaries.
If the state has a State Supplemental Payment (SSP) program to supplement SSI payments, the assisted living room and board rate can be set at the amount that represents the Federal payment plus state payment. A few states have developed a supplemental payment rate specifically for beneficiaries in assisted living facilities, to provide them with sufficient income to afford the room and board component. Massachusetts has done this, for example, setting a payment standard of $966. The state uses its own funds to raise the Federal SSI payment to an amount sufficient for assisted living residents.
States are also exploring ways to provide assisted living services to residents of subsidized housing. Because subsidized housing is developed with tax credits and other specialized financing mechanisms, the rent component may be much lower than market rate and the resident may receive rental assistance that covers room and board costs. However, housing subsidy programs and Medicaid operate under very different rules. Careful planning and close collaboration is necessary to enable the programs to work together.