This study was undertaken to increase our knowledge of how TANF sanctions are being used to encourage participation in work activities. In contrast to earlier studies that all have been conducted in a single state, we examined the use of TANF sanctions in two local sites in each of three states, affording us the opportunity to examine the use of TANF sanctions in several settings using comparable methodology. Another major contribution of this study is its use of several data sources in each of the study states in order to develop a more comprehensive picture of the use of work-oriented sanctions. While this study expands our knowledge of the use of TANF sanctions, it is important to note that the use of TANF sanctions in these three states does not necessarily represent the experiences of all states. Illinois, New Jersey and South Carolina were selected for this study because of the availability of data, collected for other purposes, that could be used to answer questions about the use of TANF sanctions In this chapter, we present our major findings for each research question and then suggest areas for additional research that would further our understanding of the use of TANF sanctions.