Updated Analyses of Trends in Use of Assistive Devices. Appendix A. Full Regression Results

01/07/2013

  TABLE A1. Probit Estimation of the Probability of Any Activities with Devices Only among Community-Residing Elders Receiving Assistance and Using Devices for IADLs or ADLs, 2004  
  Probability of Any Activities with Devices Only
  Marginal Effect     P-Value  
Physical limitations
   Lower body only 0.04 0.640
   Both upper and lower body -0.01 0.937
Cognitive impaired 0.00 0.934
Total # of limitations (0-14) -0.09 0.000**
# of ADLs with equipment (0-6) 0.15 0.000**
Any ADL with help/equipment most of the time 0.20 0.000**
Any home accommodative features present 0.08 0.056*
Any home accommodative features desirable -0.04 0.285
Duration of chronic disability
   1 year to 5 years 0.03 0.648
   5 years or longer 0.04 0.510
Age
   75 - 84 0.10 0.020**
   85 - 94 0.17 0.001**
   95+ 0.16 0.003**
Female 0.02 0.604
Living arrangement
   Lives with spouse -0.20 0.000**
   Lives with others -0.10 0.030
Residential type
   Community residential care 0.08 0.162
   Other setting for older or disabled persons 0.05 0.485
Number of nonresident daughters nearby 0.01 0.652
Education
   High school 0.03 0.510
   Some college 0.04 0.393
Medicaid eligible -0.03 0.451
Annual Income
   $10,000 - <$20,000 0.04 0.373
   $20,000 - <$30,000 0.04 0.422
   $30,000 - <$40,000 0.05 0.482
   $40,000 or more -0.03 0.634
Race/ethnicity
   Black 0.06 0.364
   Hispanic 0.02 0.815
Health conditions/events
   Disabetes 0.04 0.311
   Heart attack/other heart problem in the last 12 months   0.05 0.222
   Paralysis/other nervous system disorder 0.01 0.827
   Asthma/bronchitis in the last 12 months -0.03 0.521
   Pneumonia in the last 12 months 0.02 0.753
   Broken hip or other bone in last 12 months -0.02 0.758
   Stroke in the last 12 months -0.08 0.191
Recent utilization events
   Hospitalization in last 6 months 0.05 0.322
   Home health use in last 6 months -0.07 0.205
   SNF use in last 6 months 0.08 0.370
   Hospice use in last 6 months -0.22 0.067*
Proxy respondent -0.11 0.028**
Survive less than 1 year -0.02 0.775
Region
   Northeast 0.01 0.775
   South -0.02 0.634
   West -0.03 0.532
NOTE: **(*) marginal effect is significantly different from zero at the 5%(10%) level in a two-tailed test.

  TABLE A2. Linear Regression Estimation of Weekly Hours of Care among Community-Residing Elders Receiving Assistance and Using Devices for IADLs or ADLs, 2004  
  Total Hours of Care Hours of Informal Care Hours of Formal Care
  Coefficient     P-Value     Coefficient     P-Value     Coefficient     P-Value  
Physical limitations
   Lower body only -2.76 0.456 -0.61 0.836 -2.15 0.461
   Both upper and lower body -0.67 0.862 0.93 0.766 -1.60 0.58
Cognitive impaired 6.28 0.048** 0.05 0.987 6.23 0.000**
Total # of limitations (0-14) 5.06 0.000** 3.48 0.000** 1.59 0.000**
# of ADLs with equipment (0-6) 0.49 0.741 -0.40 0.768 0.89 0.290
# of ADLs with equipment only (0-6) -6.12 0.000** -3.15 0.002** -2.98 0.000**
Any ADL with help/equipment most of the time -2.98 0.310 0.61 0.807 -3.59 0.048**
Any home accommodative features present 4.67 0.025** 0.88 0.666 3.79 0.001**
Any home accommodative features desirable 0.25 0.897 3.04 0.097* -2.80 0.023**
Duration of chronic disability
   1 year to 5 years 3.88 0.229 3.73 0.133 0.15 0.954
   5 years or longer 5.96 0.079* 4.45 0.092* 1.52 0.568
Age
   75 - 84 -2.44 0.371 -2.48 0.372 0.04 0.977
   85 - 94 3.16 0.397 0.66 0.825 2.50 0.276
   95+ -1.37 0.735 -4.82 0.170 3.45 0.223
Female 2.66 0.276 2.22 0.297 0.44 0.778
Living arrangement
   Lives with spouse 4.50 0.122 16.76 0.000** -12.27 0.000**
   Lives with others 2.64 0.275 13.20 0.000** -10.57 0.000**
Residential type
   Community residential care -6.14 0.042** -19.48 0.000** 13.35 0.000**
   Other setting for older or disabled persons 0.34 0.907 1.74 0.541 -1.39 0.356
Number of nonresident daughters nearby 0.84 0.435 0.55 0.524 0.29 0.642
Education
   High school 1.84 0.412 -0.01 0.996 1.85 0.258
   Some college 2.50 0.293 0.84 0.690 1.66 0.297
Medicaid eligible -2.56 0.377 -3.15 0.202 0.59 0.757
Annual Income
   $10,000 - <$20,000 -3.26 0.274 -2.85 0.276 -0.41 0.822
   $20,000 - <$30,000 -4.06 0.238 -2.24 0.484 -1.82 0.377
   $30,000 - <$40,000 -4.78 0.313 -8.43 0.042** 3.65 0.241
   $40,000 or more -1.87 0.690 -4.84 0.183 2.97 0.373
Race/ethnicity
   Black 1.16 0.781 1.43 0.731 -0.27 0.897
   Hispanic 2.26 0.605 -1.54 0.680 3.80 0.158
Health conditions/events
   Disabetes 0.93 0.689 0.97 0.627 -0.04 0.978
   Heart attack/other heart problem in the last 12 months   1.07 0.659 -0.01 0.995 1.08 0.457
   Paralysis/other nervous system disorder -1.94 0.480 0.82 0.743 -2.76 0.116
   Asthma/bronchitis in the last 12 months 0.64 0.787 0.70 0.752 -0.06 0.967
   Pneumonia in the last 12 months 11.16 0.012** 11.26 0.013** -0.10 0.962
   Broken hip or other bone in last 12 months 2.88 0.417 -3.90 0.206 6.78 0.009**
   Stroke in the last 12 months 3.94 0.290 2.55 0.449 1.39 0.533
Recent utilization events
   Hospitalization in last 6 months -1.97 0.507 -1.29 0.684 -0.69 0.723
   Home health use in last 6 months 0.60 0.833 2.26 0.434 -1.66 0.307
   SNF use in last 6 months -0.84 0.864 -1.28 0.788 0.44 0.889
   Hospice use in last 6 months -14.17 0.068* -15.42 0.028** 1.25 0.837
Proxy respondent 3.45 0.140 4.62 0.042** -1.16 0.328
Survive less than 1 year 5.57 0.164 5.60 0.121 -0.03 0.990
Region
   Northeast -3.20 0.250 -8.95 0.002** 5.74 0.002**
   South 1.29 0.575 -0.38 0.864 1.67 0.248
   West 0.61 0.817 -3.83 0.101 4.44 0.028**
Constant -5.48 0.422 -6.72 0.232 1.23 0.816
R-squared   0.360   0.320   0.243
NOTE: Unweighted sample size = 1,831. **(*) coefficient is significantly different from zero at the 5%(10%) level in a two-tailed test.

  TABLE A3. Linear Regression Estimation of Weekly Hours of Care among Community-Residing Elders Using Devices Alone for at Least One Activity, 2004  
  Total Hours of Care Hours of Informal Care Hours of Formal Care
  Coefficient     P-Value     Coefficient     P-Value     Coefficient     P-Value  
Physical limitations
   Lower body only -0.67 0.881 2.97 0.28 -3.64 0.414
   Both upper and lower body -0.51 0.906 30.03 0.235 -3.54 0.421
Cognitive impaired 6.26 0.042** 2.25 0.411 4.00 0.029**
Total # of limitations (0-14) 4.23 0.000** 2.80 0.000** 1.43 0.000**
# of ADLs with equipment (0-6) 0.53 0.779 -0.85 0.633 1.37 0.098*
# of ADLs with equipment only (0-6) -4.92 0.021** -2.70 0.158 -2.21 0.030**
Any ADL with help/equipment most of the time -3.18 0.403 0.79 0.782 -3.97 0.168
Any home accommodative features present 4.85 0.051* 1.10 0.605 3.75 0.014**
Any home accommodative features desirable 0.00 1.000 2.64 0.103 -2.64 0.019**
Duration of chronic disability
   1 year to 5 years 2.14 0.444 2.97 0.179 -0.83 0.663
   5 years or longer 2.25 0.464 3.83 0.130 -1.58 0.372
Age
   75 - 84 -2.61 0.354 -3.76 0.166 1.15 0.315
   85 - 94 -1.42 0.697 -2.93 0.311 1.51 0.561
   95+ -5.01 0.228 -5.68 0.102 0.67 0.808
Female 0.99 0.724 2.95 0.175 -1.96 0.340
Living arrangement
   Lives with spouse 8.61 0.003** 12.63 0.000** -4.02 0.048**
   Lives with others 3.13 0.261 8.57 0.000** -5.44 0.003**
Residential type
   Community residential care -5.42 0.035** -11.97 0.000** 6.55 0.001**
   Other setting for older or disabled persons -0.72 0.807 0.81 0.766 -1.53 0.244
Number of nonresident daughters nearby -0.90 0.473 0.19 0.862 -1.09 0.073*
Education
   High school 0.56 0.812 0.27 0.898 0.29 0.872
   Some college 1.76 0.496 1.26 0.576 0.50 0.756
Medicaid eligible 4.41 0.086 -0.60 0.794 5.01 0.010**
Annual Income
   $10,000 - <$20,000 -0.80 0.786 -0.79 0.742 -0.02 0.994
   $20,000 - <$30,000 -1.77 0.594 -0.91 0.738 -0.85 0.692
   $30,000 - <$40,000 3.32 0.515 1.28 0.790 2.03 0.441
   $40,000 or more -2.68 0.595 -3.39 0.362 0.71 0.876
Race/ethnicity
   Black -0.29 0.952 2.08 0.674 -2.38 0.242
   Hispanic 6.56 0.272 7.30 0.192 -0.74 0.722
Health conditions/events
   Disabetes 0.61 0.805 -0.24 0.911 0.85 0.551
   Heart attack/other heart problem in the last 12 months   -2.25 0.336 -0.38 0.855 -1.87 0.095*
   Paralysis/other nervous system disorder -0.12 0.974 3.04 0.380 -3.16 0.043**
   Asthma/bronchitis in the last 12 months -2.29 0.340 -1.88 0.391 -0.41 0.748
   Pneumonia in the last 12 months 13.61 0.050** 10.50 0.087* 3.11 0.417
   Broken hip or other bone in last 12 months -3.71 0.225 -3.40 0.208 -0.31 0.843
   Stroke in the last 12 months -0.11 0.978 0.10 0.976 -0.21 0.919
Recent utilization events
   Hospitalization in last 6 months -4.36 0.086* -3.58 0.131 -0.78 0.676
   Home health use in last 6 months 3.72 0.261 1.85 0.502 1.86 0.431
   SNF use in last 6 months -0.34 0.941 3.27 0.416 -3.61 0.158
   Hospice use in last 6 months -6.49 0.396 -7.23 0.303 0.74 0.886
Proxy respondent 4.08 0.157 4.75 0.091* -0.67 0.601
Survive less than 1 year 4.85 0.274 4.46 0.256 0.39 0.895
Region
   Northeast 0.42 0.881 -0.74 0.766 1.16 0.522
   South 6.09 0.029** 5.28 0.019** 0.80 0.606
   West 4.32 0.076* 0.37 0.863 3.95 0.007**
Constant -3.18 0.733 -8.96 0.149 5.78 0.517
R-squared   0.284   0.277   0.200
NOTE: Unweighted sample size = 1,831. **(*) coefficient is significantly different from zero at the 5%(10%) level in a two-tailed test.

  TABLE A4. Probit Estimation of the Probability of Unmet Need for Help among Community-Residing Elders Receiving Assistance and Using Devices for IADLs or ADLs, 2004  
  Any Unmet Need for Help Unmet Need for ADL Help Unmet Need for IADL Help
  Marginal Effect     P-Value     Marginal Effect     P-Value     Marginal Effect     P-Value  
Physical limitations
   Lower body only 0.07 0.230 0.00 0.993 0.13 0.028**
   Both upper and lower body 0.14 0.022** 0.08 0.131 0.16 0.005**
Cognitive impaired -0.01 0.860 0.00 0.891 0.00 0.956
Total # of limitations (0-14) -0.01 0.004** -0.01 0.237 -0.03 0.000**
# of ADLs with equipment (0-6) 0.03 0.051* 0.02 0.078* 0.04 0.037**
# of ADLs with equipment only (0-6) -0.05 0.000** -0.04 0.001** -0.04 0.002**
Any ADL with help/equipment most of the time 0.06 0.120 0.04 0.186 0.07 0.092*
Any home accommodative features present -0.01 0.838 -0.01 0.702 0.00 0.955
Any home accommodative features desirable 0.10 0.001** 0.10 0.000** 0.05 0.089*
Duration of chronic disability
   1 year to 5 years 0.01 0.909 0.01 0.864 0.00 0.960
   5 years or longer 0.00 0.923 0.00 0.912 -0.01 0.833
Age
   75 - 84 0.01 0.786 0.02 0.465 0.00 0.907
   85 - 94 0.02 0.669 0.02 0.568 0.02 0.613
   95+ 0.03 0.427 -0.01 0.861 0.08 0.108
Female 0.02 0.454 0.02 0.484 -0.01 0.792
Living arrangement
   Lives with spouse 0.02 0.536 0.02 0.425 0.01 0.762
   Lives with others 0.00 0.990 0.04 0.227 -0.02 0.622
Residential type
   Community residential care -0.02 0.633 0.05 0.270 -0.06 0.243
   Other setting for older or disabled persons 0.07 0.118 0.10 0.012** 0.07 0.152
Number of nonresident daughters nearby 0.03 0.068* 0.00 0.942 0.02 0.203
Education
   High school 0.03 0.357 -0.02 0.511 0.02 0.577
   Some college 0.07 0.053* -0.02 0.455 0.04 0.239
Medicaid eligible 0.05 0.244 0.01 0.668 0.05 0.266
Annual Income
   $10,000 - <$20,000 0.00 0.969 0.02 0.547 0.03 0.457
   $20,000 - <$30,000 0.01 0.912 0.03 0.393 0.05 0.266
   $30,000 - <$40,000 0.05 0.344 0.04 0.447 0.06 0.249
   $40,000 or more 0.03 0.532 0.08 0.093* 0.07 0.241
Race/ethnicity
   Black 0.02 0.692 0.01 0.858 -0.02 0.692
   Hispanic 0.09 0.100* 0.09 0.147 0.07 0.358
Health conditions/events
   Disabetes 0.00 0.907 0.01 0.714 0.00 0.907
   Heart attack/other heart problem in the last 12 months   -0.01 0.663 0.03 0.248 -0.04 0.211
   Paralysis/other nervous system disorder 0.02 0.563 -0.01 0.682 0.03 0.411
   Asthma/bronchitis in the last 12 months 0.02 0.499 0.03 0.365 -0.01 0.873
   Pneumonia in the last 12 months -0.02 0.734 -0.06 0.067* 0.04 0.432
   Broken hip or other bone in last 12 months -0.04 0.371 -0.04 0.243 0.00 0.963
   Stroke in the last 12 months 0.00 0.988 -0.07 0.055* 0.04 0.411
Recent utilization events
   Hospitalization in last 6 months 0.02 0.595 -0.02 0.641 0.01 0.779
   Home health use in last 6 months -0.01 0.876 0.02 0.520 0.04 0.320
   SNF use in last 6 months 0.02 0.743 0.00 0.913 0.02 0.782
   Hospice use in last 6 months 0.08 0.242 -0.05 0.495 0.02 0.797
Proxy respondent -0.08 0.005** -0.03 0.219 -0.03 0.397
Survive less than 1 year 0.01 0.874 -0.02 0.451 0.08 0.039**
Region
   Northeast 0.03 0.483 -0.01 0.786 -0.01 0.822
   South 0.04 0.185 -0.01 0.797 0.05 0.135
   West 0.01 0.806 0.00 0.946 -0.02 0.696
NOTE: Unweighted sample size = 1,831. **(*) coefficient is significantly different from zero at the 5%(10%) level in a two-tailed test.

  TABLE A5. Probit Estimation of the Probability of Unmet Need for Help Among Community-Residing Elders Using Devices Alone for at Least One Activity, 2004  
  Any Unmet Need for Help Unmet Need for ADL Help Unmet Need for IADL Help
  Marginal Effect     P-Value     Marginal Effect     P-Value     Marginal Effect     P-Value  
Physical limitations
   Lower body only 0.07 0.365 -0.02 0.732 0.18 0.051*
   Both upper and lower body 0.17 0.034** 0.07 0.242 0.25 0.005**
Cognitive impaired 0.06 0.201 0.00 0.960 0.13 0.011**
Total # of limitations (0-14) -0.02 0.071 0.01 0.030** -0.04 0.000**
# of ADLs with equipment (0-6) 0.05 0.101 0.05 0.014** -0.01 0.793
# of ADLs with equipment only (0-6) -0.02 0.334 -0.06 0.004** 0.03 0.198
Any ADL with help/equipment most of the time 0.05 0.481 0.04 0.342 0.06 0.346
Any home accommodative features present 0.03 0.483 0.00 0.926 0.01 0.814
Any home accommodative features desirable 0.07 0.070* 0.09 0.002** 0.05 0.225
Duration of chronic disability
   1 year to 5 years -0.02 0.765 -0.01 0.826 0.00 0.985
   5 years or longer -0.02 0.770 -0.02 0.700 0.05 0.418
Age
   75 - 84 -0.07 0.226 -0.03 0.406 -0.08 0.119
   85 - 94 -0.04 0.535 -0.03 0.419 -0.03 0.631
   95+ 0.01 0.890 -0.04 0.302 0.10 0.159
Female 0.08 0.050** 0.03 0.240 0.05 0.260
Living arrangement
   Lives with spouse 0.00 0.958 -0.01 0.831 0.02 0.708
   Lives with others -0.08 0.100* -0.02 0.522 -0.08 0.147
Residential type
   Community residential care -0.01 0.808 0.03 0.516 -0.06 0.326
   Other setting for older or disabled persons -0.01 0.899 0.00 0.945 0.04 0.483
Number of nonresident daughters nearby 0.02 0.396 -0.01 0.595 0.02 0.449
Education
   High school -0.01 0.875 -0.02 0.600 0.03 0.629
   Some college 0.08 0.101 -0.01 0.809 0.06 0.203
Medicaid eligible 0.04 0.529 0.02 0.618 0.06 0.285
Annual Income
   $10,000 - <$20,000 -0.07 0.183 -0.05 0.216 0.00 0.953
   $20,000 - <$30,000 -0.07 0.321 -0.07 0.105 0.04 0.544
   $30,000 - <$40,000 0.06 0.457 0.05 0.471 0.09 0.301
   $40,000 or more -0.07 0.285 0.07 0.241 0.03 0.604
Race/ethnicity
   Black 0.06 0.368 0.00 0.965 -0.01 0.931
   Hispanic 0.11 0.191 0.14 0.058* 0.14 0.108
Health conditions/events
   Disabetes -0.02 0.656 0.02 0.535 -0.03 0.454
   Heart attack/other heart problem in the last 12 months   -0.01 0.768 -0.01 0.765 -0.02 0.613
   Paralysis/other nervous system disorder 0.03 0.602 0.04 0.416 0.02 0.744
   Asthma/bronchitis in the last 12 months 0.05 0.320 0.05 0.171 0.00 0.956
   Pneumonia in the last 12 months -0.05 0.490 -0.07 0.058* -0.02 0.758
   Broken hip or other bone in last 12 months -0.07 0.396 -0.04 0.312 -0.03 0.654
   Stroke in the last 12 months -0.03 0.688 -0.05 0.365 -0.02 0.798
Recent utilization events
   Hospitalization in last 6 months 0.01 0.842 -0.03 0.517 0.05 0.334
   Home health use in last 6 months 0.02 0.670 -0.03 0.432 0.04 0.543
   SNF use in last 6 months 0.03 0.713 0.02 0.781 0.12 0.153
   Hospice use in last 6 months 0.13 0.393 -0.12 0.065* 0.21 0.242
Proxy respondent -0.01 0.732 0.02 0.504 0.00 0.964
Survive less than 1 year 0.06 0.296 -0.02 0.734 0.10 0.127
Region
   Northeast -0.01 0.850 0.00 0.940 -0.09 0.128
   South 0.02 0.694 0.02 0.650 0.01 0.826
   West -0.02 0.725 -0.01 0.864 -0.07 0.137
NOTE: Unweighted sample size = 1,831. **(*) coefficient is significantly different from zero at the 5%(10%) level in a two-tailed test.

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