Understanding Medicaid Home and Community Services: A Primer, 2010 Edition. Endnotes: Citations, Additional Information, and Web Addresses


  1. Olmstead v. L. C., 119 S.Ct. 2176 (1999).

  2. The grants were implemented through several programs, primarily the Systems Change Grants for Community Living program.

  3. The Olmstead decision interpreted Title II of the ADA and its implementing regulations, which oblige states to administer their services, programs, and activities “in the most integrated setting appropriate to the needs of qualified individuals with disabilities” (28 CFR 35.130(d)). Information about the application of the Olmstead decision to the Medicaid program is available from the CMS website in State Medicaid Director Letters. Available at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/SMDL/SMD/list.asp#TopOfPage . Use the word Olmstead to find the relevant letters.

  4. P.L. 89-97, Title XIX of the Social Security Act.

  5. The Federal Government provides matching funds on an open-ended basis for every dollar a state chooses to spend on Medicaid services.

  6. Federal funding through specific programs was sometimes available.

  7. Citation: Eiken, S., Sredl, K., Burwell, B., and Gold, L. (2010). Medicaid Long-Term Care Expenditures in FY 2009. Cambridge, MA: Thomson Reuters. Available at http://www.hcbs.org/moreInfo.php/doc/3326.

  8. U.S. Agency on Aging. Statistics available at http://www.aoa.gov/agingstatsdotnet/Main_Site/Data/2008_ Documents/Population.aspx .

  9. Called Rosa’s Law (Bill S.2781), signed October 5, 2010, by President Barack Obama.

  10. Hubert, J., and Hollins, S. (2002). People with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Elderly Caregivers. Available at http://www.intellectualdisability.info/life-stages/people-with-intellectual-disabilities-and-their-elderly-carers/?searchterm=People%20with%20Intellectual%20Disabilities%20and%20Their%20Elderly%20Caregivers.

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