Abt Associates Inc. (2013). Unpublished Analysis of 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Data, Cambridge, MA.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Multiple Chronic Conditions. Available at http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/prevention-chronic-care/decision/mcc/. Accessed 2013.
Ammann L. Combinations without replacement. University of Texas – Dallas. 2011. Available at http://www.utdallas.edu/~ammann/stat5351/node8.html.
Anderson G. Chronic Care: Making the Case for Ongoing Care. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2010. Available at http://www.rwjf.org/en/search-results.html?u=&k=Anderson+G.+Chronic+Care%3A+Making+the+Case+for+Ongoing+Care..
Ashman JJ, and Beresovsky V. Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults Who Visited Physician Offices: Data From the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2009. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E64.
Bae S and Rosenthal MB. Patients with multiple chronic conditions do not receive lower quality of preventive care. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(12):1933–1939.
Ben-Noun L. Characteristics of comorbidity in adult asthma. Public Health Rev. 2011; 29(1)49–61.
Black L, Runken MC, Eaddy M, and Shah M. Chronic disease prevalence and burden in elderly men: An analysis of Medicare claims data. J Health Finance. 2007;33(4):68–78.
Boyd C, Darer J, Boult C, Fried LP, Boult L, and Wu AM . Clinical practice guidelines and quality of care for older patients with multiple comorbid disease: implications for pay for performance. JAMA. 2005;294(6):716–724.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Questionnaire. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS ). Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries, Chartbook. Baltimore, MD. 2011.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS ). Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries, Chartbook. 2012 Edition. Baltimore, MD. 2012.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse: Chronic Conditions Dashboard. 2013.
Chen H-Y, Baumgardner DJ, and Rice JP. Health-related quality of life among adults with multiple chronic conditions in the United States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2007. Prev Chronic Dis. 2011;8(1):A09.
Erdem E, Prada SI, and Haffer SC. Medicare Payments: How Much Do Chronic Conditions Matter? MMRR. 2013;3(2):E1–E15.
Escalante A, Haas RW, and del Rincon I. Paradoxical effect of body mass index on survival in rheumatoid arthritis. Role of comorbidity and system inflammation. Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165:1624–1629.
Ford ES, Croft JB, Posner SF, Goodman RA, and Giles WH. Co-Occurrence of Leading Lifestyle-Related Chronic Conditions Among Adults in the United States, 2002-2009. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E60.
Fortin M, Hudon C, Haggerty G, Akker MV, and Almirall J. Prevalence estimates of multimorbidity: a comparative study of two sources. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10(111):1–6.
Fortin M, Stewart M, Poitras ME, Almirall J, and Maddocks H. A systematic review of prevalence studies on multimorbidity: Toward a more uniform methodology. Ann Fam Med. 2012; 10(2):142–151.
France EF, Wyke S, Gunn JM, Mair FS, McLean G, and Mercer SW. Multimorbidity in primary care: A systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Br J Gen Pract. 2012; 62(597):e297–e307.
Fried VM, Bernstein AM, and Bush MA. Multiple chronic conditions among adults aged 45 and over: Trends over the past 10 years. NCHS data brief, no.100. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2012.
Garcia-Olmos L, Salvador CH, Alberquilla A, Lora D, Carmona M, Garcia-Sagredo P, Pascual M, Munoz A, Monteagudo JL, and Garcia-Lopez F. Comorbidity patterns in patients with chronic disease in general practice. PLoS ONE, 2010;7(2):1–7.
Glynn LG, Valderas JM, Healy P, Burke E, Newell J, Gillespie P, and Murphy AW. The prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care and its effects on health care utilization and cost. Fam Pract. 2011;28(5):516–523.
Goodman RA, Posner SF, Huang ES, Parekh AK, Koh HK. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions: Imperatives for Research, Policy, Program, and Practice. Prev Chronic Dis 2013;10:120239.
Gorinam Y, and Kramarow EA. Identifying chronic conditions in Medicare claims data: valuating the Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse algorithm. Health Serv Res. 2001;46(5):1610–1627.
Grant RW, Ashburner JM, Hong CC, Chang Y, Barry MJ, and Atlas SJ. Defining patient complexity from the primary care physician's perspective: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(12):797–804.
Griggs RC, Batshaw M, Dunkle M, Gopal-Srivastava R, Kaye K, Krischer J, Nguyen T, Paulus K, Merkel PA, and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network. Clinical research for rare disease: opportunities, challenges, and solutions. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;96(1):20–26.
Gulley SP, Rasch EK, and Chan L. The complex web of health: relationships among chronic conditions, disability, and health services. Public Health Rep. 2011;126(4):495–507.
Iezzoni LI. Multiple chronic conditions and disabilities: implications for health services research and data demands. Health Serv Res. 2010; 45(5):1523–1540.
Institute of Medicine (IOM). 2012. Living well with chronic illness: A call for public health action. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Januel JM, Luthi JC, Quan H, Borst F, Taffe P, Ghali WA, and Burnand B. Improved accuracy of co-morbidity coding over time after the introduction of ICD-10 administrative data. Health Serv Res. 2011; 11(194):1–10.
John R, Kerby D, and Hennessy C. Patterns and impact of comorbidity and multimorbidity among community-resident American Indian elders. Gerontologist. 2003; 43(5):649–660.
Kaiser Family Foundation. Medicaid enrollees and expenditures, FY 2009. 9 May 2012. Available at http://facts.kff.org/chart.aspx?ch=465. Accessed 2013.
Kern FO, Maney M, Miller DR, Tseng CL, Tiwari A, Rajan M, Aron D, and Pogach L. Failure of ICD-9-CM codes to identify patients with comorbid chronic kidney disease in diabetes. Health Serv Res. 2006; 41(2):564-580.
Kronick RG, Bella M, Gilmer TP, and Somers, SA. The Faces of Medicaid II: Recognizing the Care Needs of People with Multiple Chronic Conditions. Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc., October 2007.
Lee TA, Shields AE, Vogeli C, Gibson TB, Woong-Sohn M, Marder WD, Blumenthal D, and Weiss KB. Mortality rate in veterans with multiple chronic conditions. J Gen Intern Med. 2007; 22(Suppl 3):403v7.
Lehnert T, Heider D, Leicht H, Heinrich S, Corrieri S, Luppa M, Riedel-Heller S, and Konig HH. Review: health care utilization and costs of elderly persons with multiple chronic conditions. Med Care Res Rev. 2011; 68(4):387–420.
Li C, Balluz LS, Ford ES, Okoro CA, Zhao G, and Pierannunzi C. A comparison of prevalence estimates for selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the National Health Interview Study, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Prev Med. 2012; 54(6):381–387.
Lochner KA, and Cox CS. Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Medicare Beneficiaries, United States, 2010. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E61.
Machlin SR, and Soni A. Health Care Expenditures for Adults With Multiple Treated Chronic Conditions: Estimates From the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2009. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E63.
Marengoni A, Rizzuto D, Wang HX, Winblad B, and Fratiglioni L. Patterns of chronic multimorbidity in the elderly population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009; 57(2):225–230.
Martin LM, Leff M, Calonge N, Garrett C, and Nelson DE. Validation of self-reported chronic conditions and health services in a managed care population. Am J Prev Med, 2000;18(3):215-8.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, and the PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA Statement. Int J Surg. 2010;8(5):336–41.
Naessens JM, Stroebel RJ, and Finnie DM. Effect of multiple chronic conditions among working-age adults. Am J Manag Care, 2001;17(2):118–122.
National Quality Forum (NQF). MCC Measurement Framework Final Report. May 2012. Accessed 2013. http://www.qualityforum.org/Publications/2012/05/MCC_Measurement_Framework_Final_Report.aspx
Newcomer SR, Steiner JF & Bayliss EA. Identifying Subgroups of Complex Patients with Cluster Analysis. Am J Manag Care, 2011;17(2):118–122.
OECD. Strengthening health information infrastructure for health care quality governance. Good practices, new opportunities and data privacy protection challenges. Preliminary Version. April 2013. Accessed 2013. Available at http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Strengthening-Health-Information-Infrastructure_Preliminary-version_2April2013.pdf.
O’Malley KJ, Cook KF, Price MD, Wildes KR, Hurdle JF, and Ashton CM. Measuring diagnoses: ICD code accuracy. Health Serv Res, 2005;40(5 Pt 2):1620–1639.
Parekh AK, Goodman RA, Gordon C, Koh HK, and the HHS Interagency Workgroup on Multiple Chronic Conditions. Managing multiple chronic conditions: a strategic framework for improving health outcomes and quality of life. Public Health Rep. 2011; 126(4): 460–471.
Prados-Torres A, Poblador-Plou B, Calderon-Larranaga A, Gimeno-Feliu LA, Gonzalez-Rubio F, Poncel-Falco A, Sicras-Mainar A, and Alcala-Nalvaiz JT. Multimorbidity patterns in primary care: interactions among chronic diseases using factor analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32190.
Ragni MV, Moore CG, Bias V, Key NS, Kouides PA, Francis CW, and the Hemostasis Thrombosis Research Society (HTRS). Challenges of rare disease research: limited patients and competing priorities. Haemophilia. 2012;18(3):e192–194.
Research Data Assistance Center (ResDAC). Health and Retirement Survey-Medicare Linked Data. Accessed 2013. Available at http://www.resdac.org/cms-data/files/hrs-medicare.
Rich E, Lipson D, Libersky J, Parchman M. Coordinating Care for Adults with Complex Care Needs in the Patient-Centered Medical Home: Challenges and Solutions. White Paper (Prepared by Mathematica Policy Research under Contract No. HHSA290200900019I/HHSA29032005T). AHRQ Publication No. 12-0010-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. January 2012.
Riley GF. Administrative and claims records as sources of health care cost data. Med Care. 2009; 47(7 Suppl 1):S51–S55.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) & Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Chronic Care: Making the Case for Ongoing Care. 2010. Accessed 2013. http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/reports/2010/rwjf54583.
Rosner R, and Powell S. Does ICD-10 overestimate the prevalence of PTSD? Effects of differing diagnostic criteria on estimated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder in ware zone exposed civilians. Trauma & Gewalt. 2009; 3(2):1–8.
Salisbury C, Johnson L, Purdy S, Valderas JM, & Montgomery AA. Epidemiology and impact of multimorbidity in primary care: a retrospective cohort study. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61(582):e12–21.
Salive ME. Multimorbidity in older adults. Epidemiol Rev. 2013; 35(1):75–83.
Safford MM, Allison JJ, and Kiefe CI. Patient Complexity: more than comorbidity. The vector model of complexity. J Gen Intern Med. 2007; 22 (Suppl 3):382–390.
Schafer I, von Leitner E-C, Schon G, et al. Multimorbidity patterns in the elderly: A new approach of disease clustering identifies complex interrelations between chronic conditions. PLoS One. 2010; 5(2):e1594.
Schneider F, Kaplan V, Rodak R, Battegay E, and Holzer B. Prevalence of multimorbidity in medical inpatients. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012;142:1–9.
Schneider KM, O’Donnell BE, and Dean D. Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions in the United States’ Medicare population. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2009;7(82):1–11.
Schoenberg NE, Kim H, Edwards W, and Fleming ST. Burden of common multiple-morbidity constellations on out-of-pocket medical expenditures among older adults. Gerontologist. 2007;47(4):423–437.
Schram MT, Frijters D, van de Lisdonk EH, Ploemacher J, de Craen AJ, de Waal MW, van Rooij FJ, Heeringa J, Hofman A, Deeq DJ, and Schellevis FG. Setting and registry characteristics affect the prevalence and nature of multimorbidity in the elderly. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008; 61(11):1104–1112.
Shelton P, Sager MA, and Schraeder C. The community assessment risk screen (CARS): identifying elderly persons at risk for hospitalization or emergency department visit. Am J Manag Care. 2000;6(8):925–933.
Sorace J, Wong HH, Worrall C, Kelman J, Saneinejad S, and MaCurdy T. The complexity of disease combinations in the Medicare population. Popul Health Manag. 2011;14(4):161–166.
Sorace J, Millman M, Bounds M, et al. Temporal variation in patterns of comorbidities in the Medicare population. Popul Health Manag. 2013;16(2):120–124.
Steiner CA, and Friedman B. Hospital Utilization, Costs, and Mortality for Adults With Multiple Chronic Conditions, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2009. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E62.
Steinman MA, Lee SJ, Boscardin WJ, Miao Y, Fung KZ, Moore KL, and Schwartz JB. Patterns of multimorbidity in elderly veterans. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012; 60(10):1872–1880.
Tinetti ME, Fried TR, and Boyd CM. Designing health care for the most common chronic condition – multimorbidity. JAMA. 2012;307(23):2493–2494.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Multiple Chronic Conditions - A Strategic Framework: Optimum Health and Quality of Life for Individuals with Multiple Chronic Conditions. Washington, D.C. December 2010.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Inventory of Programs, Activities, and Initiatives Focused on Improving the Health of Individuals with Multiple Chronic Conditions (MCC). Complied by the HHS Interagency Workgroup on Multiple Chronic Conditions under the direction of Anand Parkeh, MD, MPH, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health (Science and Medicine), Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health. September 2011.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). HHS Initiative on Multiple Chronic Conditions. Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/ash/initiatives/mcc/#_edn3. Accessed 2013.
Vogeli C, Shields AE, Lee TA, Gibson TB, Marder WD, Weiss KB, and Blumenthal D. Multiple chronic conditions: prevalence, health consequences, and implications for quality, care management, and costs. J Gen Intern Med, 2007;22(Suppl 3):391–395.
van den Akker M, Buntinx F, Metsemakers JF, Roos S, and Knottnerus JA. Multimorbidity in general practice: prevalence, incidence, and determinants of co-occurring chronic and recurrent diseases. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998;51(5):367–375.
Wallace RB, and Salive ME. The Dimensions of Multiple Chronic Conditions: Where Do We Go From Here? A Commentary on the Special Collection of Preventing Chronic Disease. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E59.
Ward BW, and Schiller JS. Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions among US adults: estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E65.
Wolff JL, Starfield B, and Anderson G. Prevalence, expenditures, and complications of multiple chronic conditions in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(20):2269–2276.
Wong A, Boshuizen HC, Schellevis FG, et al. Longitudinal administrative data can be used to examine multimorbidity, provided false discoveries are controlled for. J Clin Epidemiol, 2011; 64(1):1109–1117.
Woo JG, Zeller MH, Wilson K, and Inge T. Obesity identified by discharge ICD-9 codes underestimates the true prevalence of obesity in hospitalized children. J Pediatr. 2009; 154(3):327–331.
Yoon J, Scott JY, Phibbs CS, and Wagner TH. Recent trends in Veterans Affairs chronic condition spending. Popul Health Manag. 2011;14(6):293–298.
Yu W, Ravelo A, Wagner TJ, et al. Prevalence and costs of chronic conditions in the VA health care system. Med Care Res and Rev. 2003;60(3 Suppl):146S–167S.