Understanding the Costs of the DOL Welfare-to-Work Grants Program. MFSP

08/01/2002

Costs for JOBS human capital programs were slightly lower than costs for the Minority Female Single Parent (MFSP) Demonstration program, implemented in the mid-1980s. MFSP provided funding to community-based organizations to operate employment and training programs for low-income, minority single mothers, at costs (including child care costs) ranging from $3,774 to $6,796 at four sites (Handwerger et al. 1988).(3) Many program participants were enrolled in vocational training programs.

Table B.1
Programs Included in Cost Comparison Review
Program Program Components Cost (in Year 2000 Dollars) Source of Cost Data (Lead Author: Page Number)

WIN I: Education, Training, and Work Experience

WIN Georgia Education, institutional training, unpaid work experience (WEX), OJT, followup for men and women, supportive services 2,868 Levitan: 102
WIN California Education, institutional training, unpaid WEX, OJT, followup for men and women, supportive services 3,038 Levitan: 102
WIN New York Education, institutional training, unpaid WEX, OJT, followup for men and women, supportive services 3,522 Levitan: 102
WIN Wisconsin Education, institutional training, unpaid WEX, OJT, followup for men and women, supportive services 4,106 Levitan: 102

WIN II: Placement and Subsidized Work

WIN (National)--Males Job placement, limited support services, some OJT and public service employment 2,014 Pacific Consultants: 164 Table 8.1
WIN (National)--Females Job placement, limited support services, some OJT and public service employment 2,926 Pacific Consultants: 164 Table 8.1

WIN: Job search, Work Experience

WIN Cook County, Illinois Job club, independent job search assistance, unpaid WEX sequence 221 Maxfield: 44 Table 4
WIN Arkansas Job club, independent job search assistance, unpaid WEX sequence 223 Maxfield: 44 Table 4
WIN West Virginia Unlimited length workfare (unpaid WEX) targeted toward men in two-parent AFDC families 240 Maxfield: 44 Table 4
WIN Louisville Job search assistance 530 Maxfield: 44 Table 4
WIN Virginia Job Club, independent job search assistance, unpaid WEX sequence, job training, OJT, and basic education 606 Maxfield: 44 Table 4
WIN San Diego Job club 793 Maxfield: 44 Table 4
WIN San Diego Job club and WEX 902 Maxfield: 44 Table 4

WIN Balanced

Baltimore Options Job search, education, training, OJT and unpaid WEX options 1,350 Maxfield: 44 Table 4
SWIM San Diego Job search, unpaid WEX, education, training sequence 2,177 Maxfield: 44 Table 4
ET Choices (Massachusetts) (Mean cost 1984-1989) 2,223 O'Neil; 88 Table 6.1
Training Opportunities in the Private Sector, Maine Work-readiness training, WEX, emphasized OJT 3,171 Maxfield: 44 Table 4

JOBS Two-Track

JOBS Oklahoma Basic education, vocational training, college, job search 1,930 Storto: 41 Table 3.2
JOBS Portland Job search, life skills training, basic education, vocational training, college, WEX 1,980 Scrivener: 72 Table 4.2
JOBS Detroit Education (basic and postsecondary), training, self-directed job search, OJT or WEX for a few 4,098 Farrell
GAIN Two-Track
GAIN Riverside Two-track job search assistance or basic education, vocational training, OJT or unpaid WEX if no job found $3,278 Riccio: 76 Table 3.2
GAIN San Diego Two-track job search assistance or basic education, vocational training, OJT or unpaid WEX if no job found $3,390 Riccio: 76 Table 3.2
GAIN Tulare Two-track job search assistance or basic education, vocational training, OJT or unpaid WEX if no job found $4,038 Riccio: 76 Table 3.2
GAIN Butte Two-track job search assistance or basic education, vocational training, OJT or unpaid WEX if no job found $4,290 Riccio: 76 Table 3.2
GAIN Los Angeles Two-track job search assistance or basic education, vocational training, OJT or unpaid WEX if no job found $6,550 Riccio: 76 Table 3.2
GAIN Alameda Two-track job search assistance or basic education, vocational training, OJT or unpaid WEX if no job found $6,971 Riccio: 76 Table 3.2

JOBS Labor Force Attachment

JOBS Riverside Job club or supervised job search followed by basic education or WEX if no job obtained $1,302 Hamilton: 170 Table 7.2
JOBS Atlanta Job club or supervised job search followed by basic education or WEX if no job obtained $1,888 Hamilton: 170 Table 7.2
JOBS Grand Rapids Job club or supervised job search followed by basic education or WEX if no job obtained $3,203 Hamilton: 170 Table 7.2

JOBS Human Capital

JOBS Riverside Basic education, vocational training or college, followed by job club or supervised job search if no job obtained $3,196 Hamilton: 191 Table 8.2
JOBS Atlanta Basic education, vocational training or college, followed by job club or supervised job search if no job obtained $3,692 Hamilton: 191 Table 8.2
JOBS Grand Rapids Basic education, vocational training or college, followed by job club or supervised job search if no job obtained $4,914 Hamilton: 191 Table 8.2

MFSP

MFSP D.C. Basic education and vocational training for low-income, minority, single-female parents $3,774 Handwerger: 25, Table 3.3
MFSP San Jose Basic education and vocational training for low-income, minority, single-female parents $5,034 Handwerger: 25, Table 3.3
MFSP Atlanta Basic education and vocational training for low-income, minority, single-female parents $5,376 Handwerger: 25, Table 3.3
MFSP Providence Basic education and vocational training for low-income, minority, single-female parents $6,796 Handwerger: 25, Table 3.3

Supported Work

National Supported Work Demonstration (13 sites) Paid work experience with close supervision at program-operated ventures for long-term AFDC recipients and other disadvantaged groups 11,572 Hollister et al.

Endnotes

1.  Most local community work experience programs before WIN focused on fathers, who in 1961 had become AFDC-eligible under some circumstances and, unlike mothers, were not presumed to be out of the labor market. The program provided little training--instead, participants usually worked off their AFDC benefits in public jobs (O'Neill 1990).

2.  GAIN was California's JOBS program.

3.  Overall, in the MSFP programs, child care and other support services used more resources than the education and training component. We have excluded child care costs from the cost estimates for all JOBS programs discussed here, and from costs for WIN I programs. This is because WtW programs incurred negligible child care costs, and child costs for remaining WIN-era programs were also quite low, given both low take-up rates and low child care expenses among those who did use paid child care.

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