Although the WtW programs included in the cost analysis were all part of the same federal initiative, the flexible nature of WtW as a funding stream resulted in programs with unique characteristics. Some programs operated in large cities, while others served rural areas. Some were independent, self-standing programs; others were part of larger-scale WtW initiatives. The programs offered and emphasized different combinations of services to their target populations. These diverse characteristics all influenced the programs' costs.
In this chapter, we explore the rich variation in characteristics of WtW programs to glean insights into their cost implications. Section A describes the variation in total costs of WtW programs. Section B discusses important similarities and differences in the allocation of total costs across WtW program components or services. Sections C and D explore variation in average costs per participant and average costs per placement, respectively.