Tribal Self-Governance Health Care and Social Services Delivery Effectiveness Evaluation Feasibility Study: Legislative History and Development of Tribal Self-Governance and Contracting. Appendix 2. History – Federal-Indian Policy


PERIOD         FEDERAL POLICY                       

1776:                Articles of Confederation, Article IX(4): Power to regulate trade, manage trade, legislative rights to acquire Indian lands; Founders debates.

1787:                United States Constitution, Treaty and Commerce clauses; Power to make treaties and reserved rights.

1790-1834:        Trade and Intercourse Acts: Regulation of trade and intercourse.

1802-1900:        Indian Removal and Consolidation: Abolition or consolidation of tribal governments, and forced removal to reservation.

1886                 Tribes forced onto reservations

1870:                President Grant’s Peace policy, Civilization, and Religious Education: Federal assignment of agencies to religious denominations for assimilation.  ????

1871                 Treaty-making period ends – Indian Appropriation Act

1871-1928:        Allotments and Assimilation: Dawes and Curtis acts; creation of the BIA and reservation system; creation of Indian training and boarding schools.

1885:                Major Crimes Act: Expansion of Federal power over Indians.

1903:                Plenary power of Congress: Absolute power over Indian lands and people. Lonewolf v.  Hitchcock.

1924                 Indian Citizens Act

1928                 Allotment Act : deeding land to individuals.

1934                 Indian Reorganization Act : restored Tribal sovereignty; ended allotment.

1928-1945:        Period of Indian Reorganization: Indian citizenship, reorganization of tribal governments, reforms of John Collier.

1954                 Transfer Act (P.L. 83-568): moved IHS to DHEW.

1945-1968:        Termination policy: complete integration of Indians into American society.

1970-present:    Indian Self-Determination: Renascence of tribal government, Indian political rights, and Federal trusteeship.

1974                          American Indian Policy Review Commission:  Nixon administration, P.L. 93-580.

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