PERIOD FEDERAL POLICY
1776: Articles of Confederation, Article IX(4): Power to regulate trade, manage trade, legislative rights to acquire Indian lands; Founders debates.
1787: United States Constitution, Treaty and Commerce clauses; Power to make treaties and reserved rights.
1790-1834: Trade and Intercourse Acts: Regulation of trade and intercourse.
1802-1900: Indian Removal and Consolidation: Abolition or consolidation of tribal governments, and forced removal to reservation.
1886 Tribes forced onto reservations
1870: President Grant’s Peace policy, Civilization, and Religious Education: Federal assignment of agencies to religious denominations for assimilation. ????
1871 Treaty-making period ends – Indian Appropriation Act
1871-1928: Allotments and Assimilation: Dawes and Curtis acts; creation of the BIA and reservation system; creation of Indian training and boarding schools.
1885: Major Crimes Act: Expansion of Federal power over Indians.
1903: Plenary power of Congress: Absolute power over Indian lands and people. Lonewolf v. Hitchcock.
1924 Indian Citizens Act
1928 Allotment Act : deeding land to individuals.
1934 Indian Reorganization Act : restored Tribal sovereignty; ended allotment.
1928-1945: Period of Indian Reorganization: Indian citizenship, reorganization of tribal governments, reforms of John Collier.
1954 Transfer Act (P.L. 83-568): moved IHS to DHEW.
1945-1968: Termination policy: complete integration of Indians into American society.
1970-present: Indian Self-Determination: Renascence of tribal government, Indian political rights, and Federal trusteeship.
1974 American Indian Policy Review Commission: Nixon administration, P.L. 93-580.