Most Tribal management of non-IHS DHHS social services programs is conducted under contracts that offer less flexibility and independent determination of funding allocations than do self-governance compacts. The exception is multiple programs that can be operated under 477 contracts. P.L. 102-477 gives Tribal governments the option to integrate the employment, training, and related services (e.g. child care services) they operate, even if those services are funded by different federal agencies. 477 contracts allow Tribes to operate multiple programs under a consolidated plan, combining their funds into a single budget, and requiring only one reporting system for all programs. This permits Tribes to have reduced paperwork and also permits re-allocation of program funds to better meet Tribal needs and priorities.(6) In 2001, 43 Tribes and consortia held 477 contracts; of these 12 include Tribal TANF funds and 28 include Native Employment Works funds with those funds from other programs under 477 contracts.
In this section, existing research studies that have examined the impacts and effects of Tribal management of DHHS social services programs are reviewed. No formal evaluation study or research on the impacts of management of these programs within 477 contracts was identified in the literature search.