Toward a National Health Information Infrastructure: A Key Strategy for Improving Quality in Long-Term Care. APPENDIX H. References Provided by Domain Experts

05/01/2003

Chronic Pain References

Abrahm JL, and Snyder L. Pain assessment and management. Primary Care; Clinics in Office Practice. 2001;28(2):269-297.

Anonymous. Management of Cancer Pain. In: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, eds. Management of Cancer Pain Guideline Panel. Vol Clinical Practice Guideline No. 9. Rockville, MD: US Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1994.

Anonymous. Practice guidelines for chronic pain management. In: A report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists, ed. Anesthesiology, Chronic Pain Section, Vol 86: Task Force on Pain Management, 1997:995-1004.

Anonymous. The management of chronic pain in older persons. AGS Panel on Chronic Pain in Older Persons. American Geriatrics Society. Geriatrics 1998;53 Suppl 3:S8-24.

Anonymous. Chronic Pain Management in the Long-Term care Setting--Clinical Practice Guideline. American Medical Directors Association. 1999.

Anonymous. The management of chronic pain in older persons. AGS Panel on Chronic Pain in Older Persons. American Geriatrics Society. Geriatrics. 2002;50:1-20.

Bernabei R, Gambassi G, Lapane K, et al. Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer. SAGE Study Group. Systematic Assessment of Geriatric Drug Use via Epidemiology. [see comments.] [erratum appears in JAMA 1999 Jan 13;281(2):136.] JAMA 1998;279(23):1877-1882.

Berry, PH, and Dahl JL. The new JCAHO pain standards: implications for pain management nurses. Pain Management Nursing. 2000;1(1):3-12.

Beth. P, K. PR. Management of Chronic Pain in the Elderly: Pharmacology of Opoids and Other Analgesic Drugs. In: BR Ferrell, BA Ferrell, ed. Pain in the Elderly. Vol ASP Press. Seattle: IASP Press; 1996 ASP Press.

Buffum MD, Miaskowski C, Sands L, and Brod M. A pilot study of the relationship between discomfort and agitation in patients with dementia. Geriatric Nursing. 2001;22(2):80-85.

Chodosh J, Ferrell BA, Shekelle PG, and Wenger NS. Quality indicators for pain management in vulnerable elders. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001;135(8 Pt 2):731-735.

Cramer GW, Galer BS, Mendelson MA, and Thompson GD. A drug use evaluation of selected opioid and nonopioid analgesics in the nursing facility setting. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2000;48(4):398-404.

Feldt KS. The checklist of nonverbal pain indicators (CNPI). Pain Management Nursing. 2000;1(1):13-21.

Feldt KS. Improving assessment and treatment of pain in cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Annuals of Long Term Care. 2000;8(9):36-42.

Ferrell BA, Ferrell BR, and Osterweil D. Pain in the nursing home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1990;38(4):409-414.

Ferrell BR, Grant M, Ritchey KJ, Ropchan R, and Rivera LM. The pain resource nurse training program: a unique approach to pain management. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 1993;8(8):549-556.

Ferrell BA. Pain evaluation and management in the nursing home. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995;123(9):681-687.

Ferrell BA, Ferrell BR, and Rivera L. Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 1995;10(8):591-598.

Ferrell BA. Pain management. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 2000;16(4):853-874.

Foley KM. Pain management in the elderly. In: Hazzard WR, Bierman EL, Blass JP, Ettiinger WH, and Halter JB, eds. Principles of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Divisions; 1994:317-331.

Gagliese L., and Melzack R. Age differences in the quality of chronic pain: a preliminary study. Pain Research and Management. 1997;2:157-162.

Gloth FM, 3rd. Pain management in older adults: prevention and treatment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2001;49(2):188-199.

Herr KA, and Mobily PR. Comparison of selected pain assessment tools for use with the elderly. Applied Nursing Research. 1993;6(1):39-46.

Herr KA, and Mobily PR. Pain management for the elderly in alternative care settings. In: Ferrell BA, Ferrell BR, eds. Pain in the Elderly. Seattle: IASP Press; 1996.

Herr KA, Mobily PR, Kohout FJ, and Wagenaar D. Evaluation of the Faces Pain Scale for use with the elderly. Clinical Journal of Pain. 1998;14(1):29-38.

Herr KA, Garand L. Assessment and measurement of pain in older adults. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 2001;17(3):457-478.

Herr K. Chronic pain in the older patient: management strategies. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2002;28(2):28-34; quiz 54-25.

Horgas AL, and Tsai PF. Analgesic drug prescription and use in cognitively impaired nursing home residents. [see comments.]. Nursing Research. 1998;47(4):235-242.

Huffman JC, and Kunik ME. Assessment and understanding of pain in patients with dementia. Gerontologist. 2000;40(5):574-581.

Hurley AC, Volicer BJ, Hanrahan PA, Houde S, and Volicer L. Assessment of discomfort in advanced Alzheimer patients. Research in Nursing and Health. 1992;15(5):369-377.

Katsma DL, and Souza CH. Elderly pain assessment and pain management knowledge of long-term care nurses. Pain Management Nursing. 2000;1(3):88-95.

Kovach CR, Weissman DE, Griffie J, Matson S, and Muchka S. Assessment and treatment of discomfort for people with late-stage dementia. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 1999;18(6):412-419.

Kovach CR, Griffie J, Muchka S, Noonan PE, and Weissman DE. Nurses' perceptions of pain assessment and treatment in the cognitively impaired elderly. It's not a guessing game. [see comments.]. Clinical Nurse Specialist. 2000;14(5):215-220.

Lanser P, and Gesell S. Pain management: the fifth vital sign. Healthcare Benchmarks. 2001;8(6):68-70.

Loeb J, and Pasero C. JCAHO standards in long-term care. American Journal of Nursing. 2000;100(5):22-23.

Luggen AS. Chronic pain in older adults. A quality of life issue. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1998;24(2):48-54.

Merboth MK, and Barnason S. Managing pain: the fifth vital sign. Nursing Clinics of North America. 2000;35(2):375-383.

Miller J, Neelon V, Dalton J, et al. The assessment of discomfort in elderly confused patients: a preliminary study. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 1996;28(3):175-182.

Morrison RS, and Siu AL. A comparison of pain and its treatment in advanced dementia and cognitively intact patients with hip fracture. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2000;19(4):240-248.

Parmelee PA, Katz IR, and Lawton MP. The relation of pain to depression among institutionalized aged. Journal of Gerontology. 1991;46(1):P15-21.

Parmelee PA, Smith B, and Katz IR. Pain complaints and cognitive status among elderly institution residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1993;41(5):517-522.

Pasero C, McCaffery M, and Gordon DB. Build institutional commitment to improving pain management. Nursing Management (Springhouse). 1999;30(1):27-33; quiz 33-24.

Popp B, and Portenoy RK. Management of Chronic Pain in the Elderly: Pharmacology of Opioids and Other Analgesic Drugs. In: BR Ferrell, BA Ferrell, eds. Pain in the Elderly. Seattle: IASP Press; 1996:21-34.

Ryan M, Ambrosio DA, Gebhard C, and Kowalski J. Pain management: an organizational commitment. Pain Management Nursing. 2000;1(2):34-39.

Sengstaken EA, and King SA. The problems of pain and its detection among geriatric nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1993;41(5):541-544.

Simons W, and Malabar R. Assessing pain in elderly patients who cannot respond verbally. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1995;22(4):663-669.

Weiner D, Pieper C, McConnell E, Martinez S, and Keefe F. Pain measurement in elders with chronic low back pain: traditional and alternative approaches. Pain. 1996;67(2-3):461-467.

Weiner D, Peterson B, and Keefe F. Evaluating persistent pain in long term care residents: what role for pain maps? Pain. 1998;76(1-2):249-257.

Weiner D, Peterson B, and Keefe F. Chronic pain-associated behaviors in the nursing home: resident versus caregiver perceptions. Pain. 1999;80(3):577-588.

Weissman DE, and Matson S. Pain assessment and management in the long-term care setting. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics. 1999;20(1):31-43.

Wynne CF, Ling SM, and Remsburg R. Comparison of pain assessment instruments in cognitively intact and cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Geriatric Nursing. 2000;21(1):20-23.

Pressure Ulcer References

Agostini JV, Bogardus ST, and Baker DI. Prevention of Pressure Ulcers in Older Patients. In: AHRQ AfHRaQ, ed. Making Health Care Safer: A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety Practices. Vol Publication No. 01-E058: Shojania KG, Duncan BW, McDonald KM, et al., eds; 2001.

AHCPR. Pressure Ulcers in Adults: Prediction and Prevention. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 3. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1992 AHCPR Publication no. 92-0047.

Allman RM. Pressure ulcers: using what we know to improve quality of care. [letter; comment.]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2001;49(7):996-997

Allman RM, Laprade CA, Noel LB, et al. Pressure sores among hospitalized patients. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1986;105(3):337-342.

Allman RM, Walker JM, Hart MK, Laprade CA, Noel LB, and Smith CR. Air-fluidized beds or conventional therapy for pressure sores. A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1987;107(5):641-648.

AMDA. Pressure Ulcers:Clinical Practical Guideline. Columbia, MD: American Medical Directors Association; 1996.

Aronovitch SA. A comparative, randomized, controlled study to determine safety and efficacy of preventive pressure ulcer systems: preliminary analysis. Advances in Wound Care. 1998;11(3 Suppl):15-16.

Bates-Jensen BM. The Pressure Sore Status Tool a few thousand assessments later. Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):65-73.

Bates-Jensen BM. Quality indicators for prevention and management of pressure ulcers in vulnerable elders. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001;135(8 Pt 2):744-751.

Bates-Jensen BM, Vredevoe DL, and Brecht ML. Validity and reliability of the Pressure Sore Status Tool. Decubitus. 1992;5(6):20-28.

Bergquist S. Subscales, subscores, or summative score: evaluating the contribution of Braden Scale items for predicting pressure ulcer risk in older adults receiving home health care. Journal of Wocn. 2001;28(6):279-289.

Bergstrom N, and Braden B. A prospective study of pressure sore risk among institutionalized elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1992;40(8):747-758.

Bergstrom, N, Braden B, Kemp M, Champagne M, and Ruby E. Multi-site study of incidence of pressure ulcers and the relationship between risk level, demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and prescription of preventive interventions. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1996;44(1):22-30.

Bergstrom N, Braden B, Kemp M, Champagne M, and Ruby E. Predicting pressure ulcer risk: a multisite study of the predictive validity of the Braden Scale. [see comments.]. Nursing Research. 1998;47(5):261-269.

Bergstrom N, Braden BJ, Laguzza A, and Holman V. The Braden scale for predicting pressure sore risk. Nursing Research. 1987;36(4):205-210.

Berlowitz DR, Bezerra HQ, Brandeis GH, Kader B, and Anderson JJ. Are we improving the quality of nursing home care: the case of pressure ulcers. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2000;48(1):59-62.

Berlowitz DR, Brandeis GH, Morris JN, et al. Deriving a risk-adjustment model for pressure ulcer development using the Minimum Data Set. [see comments.]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2001;49(7):866-871.

Berlowitz DR, and Wilking SV. Risk factors for pressure sores. A comparison of cross-sectional and cohort-derived data. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1989;37(11):1043-1050.

Berlowitz DR, Young GJ, Brandeis GH, Kader B, and Anderson JJ. Health care reorganization and quality of care: unintended effects on pressure ulcer prevention. Medical Care. 2001;39(2):138-146.

Braden BJ, and Bergstrom N. Predictive validity of the Braden Scale for pressure sore risk in a nursing home population. Research in Nursing and Health. 1994;17(6):459-470.

Brandeis GH, Morris JN, Nash DJ, and Lipsitz LA. The epidemiology and natural history of pressure ulcers in elderly nursing home residents. [see comments.]. JAMA. 1990;264(22):2905-2909.

Brandeis GH, Ooi WL, Hossain M, Morris JN, and Lipsitz LA. A longitudinal study of risk factors associated with the formation of pressure ulcers in nursing homes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1994;42(4):388-393.

Castle NG. Administrator turnover and quality of care in nursing homes. Gerontologist. 2001;41(6):757-767.

Colin D, Kurring PA, and Yvon C. Managing sloughy pressure sores. Journal of Wound Care. 1996;5(10):444-446.

Cullum N, Deeks J, Sheldon TA, Song F, and Fletcher AW. Beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000(2):CD001735.

Dlugacz YD, Stier L, and Greenwood A. Changing the system: a quality management approach to pressure injuries. Journal for Healthcare Quality: Promoting Excellence in Healthcare. 2001;23(5):15-19; quiz 19-20.

Fenner SP. Developing and implementing a wound care program in long-term care. Journal of Wocn. 1999;26(5):254-260.

Ferrell BA. The Sessing Scale for measurement of pressure ulcer healing. Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):78-80.

Ferrell BA, Osterweil D, and Christenson P. A randomized trial of low-air-loss beds for treatment of pressure ulcers. [see comments.] [erratum appears in JAMA 1993 Jun 2;269(21):2739.]. JAMA. 1993;269(4):494-497.

Foresman PA, Payne DS, Becker D, Lewis D, and Rodeheaver GT. A relative toxicity index for wound cleansers. Wounds. 1993;5:226-231.

Goodridge DM, Sloan JA, LeDoyen YM, McKenzie JA, Knight WE, and Gayari M. Risk-assessment scores, prevention strategies, and the incidence of pressure ulcers among the elderly in four Canadian health-care facilities. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research. 1998; 30(2):23-44.

Gorse GJ, and Messner RL. Improved pressure sore healing with hydrocolloid dressings. Archives of Dermatology. 1987;123(6):766-771.

Gunningberg L, Lindholm C, Carlsson M, and Sjoden PO. Reduced incidence of pressure ulcers in patients with hip fractures: a 2-year follow-up of quality indicators. International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 2001;13(5):399-407.

Harrison MB, Wells G, Fisher A, Prince M. Practice guidelines for the prediction and prevention of pressure ulcers: evaluating the evidence. Applied Nursing Research. 1996;9(1):9-17.

Hellewell TB, Major DA, Foresman PA, Rodeheaver GT. A cytotoxicity evaluation of antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial wound cleanser. Wounds. 1997;9:15-20.

Kramer JD, and Kearney M. Patient, wound, and treatment characteristics associated with healing in pressure ulcers. Advances in Skin and Wound Care. 2000;13(1):17-24.

Lazarus GS, Cooper DM, Knighton DR, et al. Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing. Archives of Dermatology. 1994;130(4):489-493.

Lyder CH, Preston J, Grady JN, et al. Quality of care for hospitalized medicare patients at risk for pressure ulcers. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2001;161(12):1549-1554.

Martin SJ, Corrado OJ, and Kay EA. Enzymatic debridement for necrotic wounds. Journal of Wound Care. 1996;5(7):310-311.

McNees P, Braden B, Bergstrom N, and Ovington L. Beyond risk assessment: elements for pressure ulcer prevention. Ostomy Wound Management. 1998;44(3A Suppl):51S-58S.

Mohide EA, Pringle DM, Streiner DL, Gilbert JR, Muir G, and Tew M. A randomized trial of family caregiver support in the home management of dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1990;38(4):446-454.

Mulder GD. Evaluation of three nonwoven sponges in the debridement of chronic wounds. Ostomy Wound Management. 1995;41(3):62-64.

NPUAP. Statement on Pressure Ulcer Prevention. Reston, VA: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel; 1992.

Pinchcofsky-Devin G.D., and Kaminski M.V. Jr. Correlation of pressure sores and nutritional status. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1986;34:435-440.

Report: N. NPUAP Statement of Reverse Staging of Pressure Ulcers 1995.

Robson MC. Disturbances of wound healing. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1988;17(12):1274-1278.

Smith DM. Pressure ulcers in the nursing home. [see comments.]. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995;123(6):433-442.

Stotts NA, Rodeheaver GT, Thomas DR, et al. An instrument to measure healing in pressure ulcers: development and validation of the pressure ulcer scale for healing (PUSH). Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2001;56(12):M795-799.

Sussman C. Presenting a draft pressure ulcer scale to monitor healing. Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):92.

Taler G. Management of pressure ulcers in long-term care. Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):50-52.

Thomas DR. The role of nutrition in prevention and healing of pressure ulcers. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 1997;13(3):497-511.

Thomas DR. Issues and dilemmas in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: a review. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2001;56(6):M328-340.

Thomas DR, Rodeheaver GT, Bartolucci AA, et al. Pressure ulcer scale for healing: derivation and validation of the PUSH tool. The PUSH Task Force. Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):96-101.

Treatment of Pressure Ulcers Guideline Panel. Treatment of Pressure Ulcers Clinical Practice Guideline, No. 15. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1994 AHCPR Publication no. 95-0652.

van Rijskijk L, and Braden BJ. Pressure ulcer patient and wound assessment: an AHCPR clinical practice guideline update. Ostomy Wound Management. Jan 1999;45(1A Suppl):56S-67S. Review.

Vap PW, and Dunaye T. Pressure ulcer risk assessment in long-term care nursing. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2000;26(6):37-45.

Waldrop JA. Pressure Ulcers. Rehabilitation Mangagement. Oct-Nov 1998;11(6):40-42, 44-45.

Woodbury M.G., Houghton P.E., Campbell D.E., and Keast D.H. Pressure ulcer assessment instruments: a critical appraisal. Ostomy Wound Management. May 1999;45(5):42-45, 48-50- 53-45. Review.

Xakellis GC, Jr. Quality assurance programs for pressure ulcers. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 1997;13(3):599-606.

Xakellis GC, and Chrischilles EA. Hydrocolloid versus saline-gauze dressings in treating pressure ulcers: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1992;73(5):463-469.

Xakellis GC, Jr., and Frantz RA. Pressure ulcer healing: what is it? What influences it? How is it measured? Advances in Wound Care. 1997;10(5):20-26.

Xakellis GC, Frantz RA, Arteaga M, Nguyen M, and Lewis A. A comparison of patient risk for pressure ulcer development with nursing use of preventive interventions. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1992;40(12):1250-1254.

Urinary Incontinence References

Berghmans LC, Frederiks CM, de Bie RA, et al. Efficacy of biofeedback, when included with pelvic floor muscle exercise treatment, for genuine stress incontinence. Neurourology and Urodynamics. 1996;15(1):37-52.

Borrie MJ, and Davidson HA. Incontinence in institutions: costs and contributing factors. CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). 1992;147(3):322-328.

Burgio KL, Robinson JC, Engel BT. The role of biofeedback in Kegel exercise training for stress urinary incontinence. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1986;154(1):58-64.

Burgio KL, Locher JL, Goode PS, et al. Behavioral vs drug treatment for urge urinary incontinence in older women: a randomized controlled trial. [see comments.]. JAMA. 1998;280(23):1995-2000.

Burgio KL, Locher JL, and Goode PS. Combined behavioral and drug therapy for urge incontinence in older women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2000;48(4):370-374.

Burns PA, Pranikoff K, Nochajski TH, Hadley EC, Levy KJ, and Ory MG. A comparison of effectiveness of biofeedback and pelvic muscle exercise treatment of stress incontinence in older community-dwelling women. Journal of Gerontology. 1993;48(4):M167-174.

Chang PL, Tsai LH, Huang ST, Wang TM, Hsieh ML, and Tsui KH. The early effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise after transurethral prostatectomy. Journal of Urology. 1998;160(2):402-405.

Colling J, Ouslander J, Hadley BJ, Eisch J, and Campbell E. The effects of patterned urge-response toileting (PURT) on urinary incontinence among nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1992;40(2):135-141.

Couillard DR, Deckard-Janatpour KA, and Stone AR. The vaginal wall sling: a compressive suspension procedure for recurrent incontinence in elderly patients. Urology. 1994;43(2):203-208.

Creason NS, Grybowski JA, Burgener S, Whippo C, Yeo S, and Richardson B. Prompted voiding therapy for urinary incontinence in aged female nursing home residents. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1989;14(2):120-126.

Cummings V, Holt R, van der Sloot C, Moore K, and Griffiths D. Costs and management of urinary incontinence in long-term care. Journal of Wocn. 1995;22(4):193-198.

Diokno AC, Brown MB, Brock BM, Herzog AR, and Normolle DP. Clinical and cystometric characteristics of continent and incontinent noninstitutionalized elderly. Journal of Urology. 1988;140(3):567-571.

Diokno A, and Yuhico M, Jr. Preference, compliance and initial outcome of therapeutic options chosen by female patients with urinary incontinence. Journal of Urology. 1995;154(5):1727-1730; discussion 1731.

Dugan E, Cohen SJ, Bland DR, et al. The association of depressive symptoms and urinary incontinence among older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2000;48(4):413-416.

Eastwood HD, and Warrell R. Urinary incontinence in the elderly female: prediction in diagnosis and outcome of management. Age and Ageing. 1984;13(4):230-234.

Engel BT, Burgio LD, McCormick KA, Hawkins AM, Scheve AA, and Leahy E. Behavioral treatment of incontinence in the long-term care setting. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1990;38(3):361-363.

Fantl JA, Wyman JF, McClish DK, et al. Efficacy of bladder training in older women with urinary incontinence. JAMA. 1991;265(5):609-613.

Fleishman R, Heilbrun G, Mandelson J, and Shirazi V. Improving the quality of institutional care of urinary incontinence among the elder: a challenge for governmental regulation. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance Incorporating Leadership in Health Services. 1999;12(2-3):105-119.

Galloway NT. Surgical treatment of urinary incontinence in geriatric women. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1997; 314(4): 268-272.

Georgiou A, Potter J, Brocklehurst JC, Lowe D, and Pearson M. Measuring the quality of urinary continence in long-term care facilities: an analysis of outcome indicators. Age and Aging. 2001;30(1):63-66.

Heavner K. Urinary incontinence in extended care facilities: a literature review and proposal for continuous quality improvement. Ostomy Wound Management. 1998;44(12):46-48.

Hegland A. Incontinence: targeting treatment approaches. Provider. 1994;20(7):26-30.

Holmes DM, Montz FJ, and Stanton SL. Oxybutinin versus propantheline in the management of detrusor instability. A patient-regulated variable dose trial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1989;96(5):607-612.

Hu TW, Igou JF, Kaltreider DL, et al. A clinical trial of a behavioral therapy to reduce urinary incontinence in nursing homes. Outcome and implications. [see comments.]. JAMA. 1989;261(18):2656-2662.

Igou J. Incontinence in nursing homes. Research and treatment issues from the nursing perspective. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 1986;2(4):873-885.

Iqbal P, and Castleden CM. Management of urinary incontinence in the elderly. Gerontology. 1997;43(3):151-157.

Jensen JK, Nielsen FR, Jr., and Ostergard DR. The role of patient history in the diagnosis of urinary incontinence. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1994;83(5 Pt 2):904-910

Johnson TM, 2nd, and Busby-Whitehead J. Diagnostic assessment of geriatric urinary incontinence. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1997;314(4):250-256.

Johnson TM, Ouslander JG, Uman GC, and Schnelle JF. Urinary incontinence treatment preferences in long-term care. [see comments.]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2001;49(6):710-718.

Laubach J. The problem of urinary incontinence in the elderly. North Carolina Medical Journal. 1999;60(1):42-45.

Leach GE, Dmochowski RR, Appell RA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Clinical Guidelines Panel summary report on surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence. The American Urological Association. [see comments.]. Journal of Urology. 1997;158(3 Pt 1):875-880.

Lekan-Rutledge D. Diffusion of innovation. A model for implementation of prompted voiding in long-term care settings. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2000;26(4):25-33.

Litwiller SE, Nelson RS, Fone PD, Kim KB, and Stone AR. Vaginal wall sling: long-term outcome analysis of factors contributing to patients satisfaction and surgical success. [see comments.]. Journal of Urology. 1997;157(4):1279-1282.

McCormick KA. Research. From clinical trial to health policy--research on urinary incontinence in the adult, Part I. Journal of Professional Nursing. 1991;7(3):147.

Miller JM, Ashton-Miller JA, and DeLancey JO. A pelvic muscle precontraction can reduce cough-related urine loss in selected women with mild SUI. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1998;46(7):870-874.

Morris A, Browne G, and Saltmarche A. Urinary incontinence: correlates among cognitively impaired elderly veterans. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 1992;18(10):33-40.

Murphy KP, Kliever EM, and Moore MJ. The voiding alert system: a new application in the treatment of incontinence. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1994;75(8):924-927.

Ouslander JG, Hepps K, Raz S, and Su HL. Genitourinary dysfunction in a geriatric outpatient population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1986;34(7):507-514.

Ouslander JG, Morishita L, Blaustein J, Orzeck S, Dunn S, and Sayre J. Clinical, functional, and psychosocial characteristics of an incontinent nursing home population. Journal of Gerontology. 1987;42(6):631-637.

Ouslander J, Leach G, Abelson S, Staskin D, Blaustein J, and Raz S. Simple versus multichannel cystometry in the evaluation of bladder function in an incontinent geriatric population. Journal of Urology. 1988;140(6):1482-1486.

Ouslander JG, Blaustein J, Connor A, and Pitt A. Habit training and oxybutynin for incontinence in nursing home patients: a placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1988;36(1):40-46.

Ouslander JG, Blaustein J, Connor A, Orzeck S, and Yong CL. Pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of oxybutynin in geriatric patients. Journal of Urology. 1988;140(1):47-50.

Ouslander J, Leach G, Staskin D, et al. Prospective evaluation of an assessment strategy for geriatric urinary incontinence. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1989;37(8):715-724.

Ouslander JG, Palmer MH, Rovner BW, and German PS. Urinary incontinence in nursing homes: incidence, remission and associated factors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1993;41(10):1083-1089.

Ouslander JG, Schnelle JF, Uman G, et al. Predictors of successful prompted voiding among incontinent nursing home residents. [see comments.]. JAMA. 1995;273(17):1366-1370.

Ouslander JG, Schnelle JF, Uman G, et al. Does oxybutynin add to the effectiveness of prompted voiding for urinary incontinence among nursing home residents? A placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1995;43(6):610-617.

Palmer MH, Bennett RG, Marks J, McCormick KA, and Engel BT. Urinary incontinence: a program that works. Journal of Long Term Care Administration. 1994;22(2):19-25.

Palmer MH. A new framework for urinary continence outcomes in long-term care. Urologic Nursing. 1996;16(4):146-151.

Palmer MH, Czarapata BJ, Wells TJ, and Newman DK. Urinary outcomes in older adults: research and clinical perspectives. Urologic Nursing. 1997;17(1):2-9.

Pannill FC, 3rd, Williams TF, and Davis R. Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence in long term care. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1988;36(10):902-910.

Peet SM, Castleden CM, McGrother CW, and Duffin HM. The management of urinary incontinence in residential and nursing homes for older people. Age and Ageing. 1996;25(2):139-143.

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