Targeted Help for the Hard-to-Employ: Outcomes of Two Philadelphia Welfare-to-Work Programs. Appendix A: Appendix Tables and Figures

09/02/2004

Table A.1
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
Trends in Employment Rates for RSC and TWC Participants
Quarter Relative to Program Entry RSC (Percentages) TWC (Percentages) Significance
-4 37.7 35.2 *
-3 39.4 35.2 ***
-2 43.7 36.2 ***
-1 40.3 33.7 ***
0 47.8 78.8 ***
1 58.6 71.3 ***
2 54.4 55.8  
3 51.3 45.6 ***
4 52.1 44.7 ***
5 50.3 41.6 ***
6 49.4 38.9 ***
7 47.3 NA n.a.
8 45.5 NA n.a.
Sample Size 2,338 2,543  
Source:  State administrative records data.
NA = not available.
n.a. = not applicable.
*/**/*** Difference between RSC and TWC estimates is statistically significant at the .10/.05/.01 level, two-tailed test.

 

Table A.2
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
Average Earnings
Quarter Relative to Program Entry RSC (Dollars) TWC (Dollars) Significance
-4 519.71 8.66 ***
-3 556.52 422.82 ***
-2 620.52 414.54 ***
-1 506.93 294.93 ***
0 455.24 532.50 ***
1 1,001.16 889.67 ***
2 1,132.00 828.67 ***
3 1,136.10 829.12 ***
4 1,231.50 841.28 ***
5 1,236.33 827.81 ***
6 1,274.78 777.74 ***
7   1,264.30   NA n.a.
8 1,235.26 NA n.a.
Sample Size 2,338 2,543  
Source:  State administrative records data.
NA = not available.
n.a. = not applicable.
*/**/*** Difference between RSC and TWC estimates is statistically significant at the .10/.05/.01 level, two-tailed test.

 

Table A.3
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
TANF Participation Rate
Quarter Relative to Program Entry RSC (Percentage) TWC (Percentage) Significance
-4 81.2 88.5 ***
-3 81.5 88.8 ***
-2 82.3 90.1 ***
-1 86.0 93.7 ***
0 94.3 98.2 ***
1 85.6 93.3 ***
2 68.9 84.2 ***
3 60.8 75.9 ***
4 56.1 71.1 ***
5 52.7 66.4 ***
6 49.3 64.0 ***
7 46.9 NA n.a.
8 45.4 NA n.a.
Sample Size 2,338 2,543  
Source: State administrative records data.
NA = not available.
n.a. = not applicable.
*/**/*** Difference between RSC and TWC estimates is statistically significant at the .10/.05/.01 level, two-tailed test.

 

Table A.4
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
Combination of Employment and TANF Receipt
  Employed on TANF Employed, Not on TANF Not Employed, on TANF Not Employed, Not on TANF
Quarter Relative to
Program Entry
RSC (Percentages) TWC (Percentages) Sig. RSC (Percentages) TWC (Percentages) Sig. RSC (Percentages) TWC (Percentages) Sig. RSC (Percentages) TWC (Percentages) Sig.
-4 28.8 29.0   8.9 6.1   52.4 59.5 *** 9.8 5.4 ***
-3 29.7 29.1   9.6 6.1   51.8 59.7 *** 8.9 5.1 ***
-2 34.1 31.0 ** 9.6 5.2 ** 48.2 59.1 *** 8.1 4.7 ***
-1 33.2 30.6   * 7.1 3.1 * 52.8 63.1 *** 7.0 3.2 ***
0 45.9 78.2 *** 1.9 0.6 *** 48.4 20.1 *** 3.8 1.2 ***
1 50.1 67.4 *** 8.5 3.9 *** 35.5 25.9 *** 5.9 2.8 ***
2 33.9 45.8 *** 20.5 10.0 *** 35.0 38.4 ** 10.6 5.8 ***
3 26.4 30.8 *** 25.0 14.8 *** 34.4 45.0 *** 14.2 9.4 ***
4 24.8 27.4 ** 27.3 17.3 ** 31.3 43.7 *** 16.6 11.6 ***
5 20.4 23.4 ** 29.9 18.2 ** 32.2 43.0 *** 17.5 15.4 *
6 18.4 22.7 *** 31.0 17.9 *** 30.9 41.2 *** 19.7 18.1  
7 16.7 NA n.a. 30.6 NA n.a. 30.2 NA n.a. 22.6 NA n.a.
8 15.0 NA n.a. 30.5 NA n.a. 30.4 NA n.a. 24.1 NA n.a.
Sample Size 2,338 2,543   2,338 2,543   2,338 2,543   2,338 2,543  
Source:  State administrative records data.
NA = Not Available.
n.a. = not applicable.
*/**/*** Difference between RSC and TWC estimates is statistically significant at the .10/.05/.01 level, two-tailed test.

 

Table A.5
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
Estimated Difference Between TWC and RSC Outcomes Six Quarters after
Program Entry, Including Program Completion Status as Explanatory Variable
  Employment Earningsa TANF Receipt
Statistical Method Difference in the Percentage Employed (TWC-RSC) Difference in Dollars
(TWC-RSC)
Difference in the Percentage Receiving TANF (TWC-RSC)
OLS Regression      
Without program completion 4.9 367.62*** 10.4***
With program completion 2.4 247.62*** 8.9***
Fixed-Effects Regression      
Without program completion 6.7* 320.31*** 11.7***
With program completion 7.3* 338.66*** 11.8***
Propensity Scoring Model      
Without program completion 3.8 347.93*** 13.8***
With program completion 5.0 308.69*** 10.0***
Source: Baseline information forms of Welfare-to-Work participants, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.; state administrative records data; and RSC and TWC Management Information Systems data.
Note:  All models include demographics, prior work or prior TANF receipt, and unemployment rate as explanatory variables.  Prior work is included in employment and earnings models; prior TANF receipt is included in TANF receipt model.
a The earnings models include participants who were not employed and had zero earnings.
*/**/*** Significantly different from zero at the .05/.01/.001 level, two-tailed test.

 

Table A.6
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
Factors Associated with Placement Success,
Based on OLS Regression Results
Factors Associated with Placement Success TWC RSC
Baseline Characteristics
Age Is Less than 30 .046 .042
Age Is Greater than 30 and Less than 40 .011 .025
Female .405* .007
Hispanic .119* .110*
White .151 .039
Other Race/Ethnicity .097 .152
Married or Cohabiting .049 .029
Number of Children .018* .002
Age of Youngest Child Less than 5 .057 .080*
Has High School Diploma or GED .168*** .057
Own Health Problem Limits Ability to Work .081 .054
Family Members Health Problem Limits Ability to Work .059 .035
Economic Conditions
Unemployment Rate in Quarter 6 After Program Entry .457*** .125
Prior Employment
Never Employed Before Program Entry .064 .146*
Employed in All Four Quarters Before Program Entry .012 .112
Average Earnings in Four Quarters Before Program Entry .143* .086
Prior TANF Receipt
Received TANF in All Four Quarters Before Program Entry .041 .092*
Received TANF Two to Five Years .056 .019
Received TANF Five or More Years .064 .028
Source:  Baseline information forms of Welfare-to-Work participants, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.; state administrative records data; and RSC and TWC Management Information Systems data.
Note:  Missing values for race/ethnicity, health problem, family members health problem, and length of TANF receipt were imputed.  Dummy variables for imputed cases, included in the model, were not significant.
*/**/*** Significant at the .05/.01/.001 level, two-tailed test.

Figure A.1
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
Employment Rates Over Time after Estimated Placement in Unsubsidized Work

Figure A.1 Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study: Employment Rates Over Time after Estimated Placement in Unsubsidized Work.

Source: Administrative Data from State of Pennsylvania

Figure A.2
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
Earnings Over Time after Estimated Placement in Unsubsidized Work

Figure A.2 Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study: Earnings Over Time after Estimated Placement in Unsubsidized Work.

Source: Administrative Data from State of Pennsylvania

Figure A.3
Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study:
Employment Rates of TANF Receipt Over Time after Estimated Placement in Unsubsidized Work

Figure A.3 Philadelphia WTW Outcomes Study: Employment Rates of TANF Receipt Over Time after Estimated Placement in Unsubsidized Work.

Source: Administrative Data from State of Pennsylvania

 

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