- Expand coverage for families under Section 1931. Section 1931 authorizes states to use financial standards and methodologies for low-income families that are more generous than the standards and methodologies in AFDC state plans in effect on July 16, 1996. Together with the new flexibility to define deprivation (e.g., by substituting another definition of unemployment for the 100-hour rule), states can use Section 1931 to take two significant policy actions. (See pages 6-7 for a detailed discussion of state flexibility.) First, they can equalize their treatment of single- and two-parent families for Medicaid purposes. Second, they can expand coverage of families as far as state budget and policy preferences permit. States can accomplish these policy changes through amendments to their Medicaid state plan; they do not need to obtain Federal waivers.
Recognizing that Section 1931 coverage expansions will require additional state expenditures to draw down Federal matching payments (see under Cover children under CHIP regarding enhanced Federal match for uninsured children in families covered under a Section 1931 expansion), it should be noted that states' expansions of coverage to low-income families under Section 1931 can be as broad or as narrow as state resources and other considerations permit. For example, states can:
¨ Expand Medicaid to cover all families up to a specified income level. By using more generous financial methodologies and standards, states can expand coverage under Section 1931 to reach single- and two-parent families with more income than Medicaid has traditionally covered. Such expansions present an opportunity for states to recast and market Medicaid as a freestanding health insurance program for low-income families, improving the possibility of de-stigmatizing Medicaid and enhancing the potential of the program to reach families who do not come into contact with the TANF system. The law leaves states free to raise their effective income eligibility thresholds for Section 1931 to whatever level they wish.
¨ Phase in expansions. States can expand coverage under Section 1931 more narrowly initially and, based on their evaluation of the expansion and its success in meeting state welfare reform and health coverage objectives, consider broadening those expansions further to include families with more income and/or resources.
¨ Improve the reach of transitional Medicaid. The same flexibility under Section 1931 (e.g., income and asset disregards) that states can use to achieve a broad expansion of coverage can also be used for the narrower purpose of increasing access to transitional Medicaid for families who do not come into contact with the TANF system. States can extend Medicaid to working families temporarily, by using income and asset disregards that permit families to obtain Medicaid eligibility for at least three months, and thus give them access to up to 12 months of transitional Medicaid as well. Such limited changes in Medicaid rules can ensure that families' success in attaining self-sufficiency does not preclude their qualifying for health coverage — a coherent result that supports the twin goals of reducing the numbers of people without insurance and supporting state welfare reform initiatives.
¨ Expand coverage to two-parent families. States can expand Medicaid to cover more two-parent families by replacing the 100-hour rule with a broader definition of unemployment.
- Cover children under CHIP. Under CHIP, enhanced matching funds are available to states to provide coverage for uninsured children who are not otherwise eligible for Medicaid. Coverage can be provided through a Medicaid expansion, a separate CHIP program, or a combination of both. Under Medicaid expansions, the usual Medicaid eligibility rules apply. Under a separate CHIP program, states have flexibility to establish eligibility requirements.
Nearly all states have approved CHIP plans and are implementing their programs. States should consider further expansions of coverage for uninsured children; such expansions promote both health care coverage and welfare reform goals by improving health security and providing needed support to low-income working families.
States implementing CHIP through a Medicaid expansion can claim enhanced Federal matching funds under Title XIX (section 1905(u)(2)(B)) for children who become eligible for coverage as a result of an expansion of family coverage under Section 1931. The enhanced match can be claimed only for uninsured children who would not have qualified for Medicaid coverage under the Medicaid state plan in effect on March 31, 1997. The funds claimed for CHIP-eligible children under Section 1931 would count against the state's CHIP allotment. To claim the enhanced match, states must have a means of identifying children who are uninsured and otherwise qualify for enhanced Federal matching payments for the medical assistance they receive. For children who do not meet the criteria for the enhanced match, the state may continue to claim its regular Medicaid match.
- Cover families under CHIP. CHIP also grants states the authority to obtain a "variance" to purchase family coverage that includes coverage of CHIP children if the state can demonstrate that the cost to the CHIP program of purchasing the family coverage does not exceed the cost of obtaining CHIP coverage for the children alone, and that the family coverage will not otherwise substitute for other health insurance coverage for the children. While these statutory constraints limit use of the family coverage option under CHIP, a few states, including Massachusetts, have utilized this option to extend coverage to poor working families.
It should be noted that a CHIP family coverage program would not extend coverage to the parents of children who are eligible for Medicaid. To avoid an anomalous result in which higher income families are covered under CHIP, but the parents of lower-income children lack coverage, states would also need to implement a Medicaid expansion under Section 1931.
- Presumptive eligibility for children and pregnant women. States have the option to provide presumptive Medicaid eligibility to children and to pregnant women. Under Section 1920A of the Social Security Act, certain entities can determine, based on preliminary information, whether the family income of a child is within the state's income eligibility limits for Medicaid. If it is, the child (or, under Section 1920 the pregnant woman) can be granted temporary eligibility for Medicaid and has until the end of the following month to submit a full Medicaid application. A similar approach may be used under a separate CHIP program. It should be noted that states that use a simplified Medicaid application can also use this form to establish presumptive eligibility, eliminating the need for a two-step application. As always, however, an authorized state employee must make the Medicaid eligibility determination.
Presumptive eligibility provides the opportunity to grant immediate health care coverage without first requiring a full Medicaid eligibility determination. This option also offers the advantage of providing additional "entry points" into the Medicaid system because health care providers and others can grant temporary coverage on the spot when children and pregnant women go to receive health care services and other forms of assistance.
Under the law, the entities that can establish presumptive eligibility for children include: Medicaid providers, entities that determine eligibility for Head Start, WIC, and child care subsidies under the Child Care and Development Block Grant, and other entities designated by the state. Presumptive eligibility for pregnant women can be established by specified entities likely to have contact with pregnant women seeking pregnancy-related services. While TANF offices are not specifically mentioned in the statute, TANF offices can establish presumptive eligibility if they determine eligibility for one of the programs listed.
- Continuous eligibility for children. Under Section 1902(e)(12) of the Social Security Act, states may grant continuous Medicaid eligibility to children under age 19 for up to 12 months, even if there is a change in family income, assets, or composition. Such eligibility must end when the child reaches age 19. By granting children eligibility for up to one year without regard to changes in circumstances, states can minimize the burden on families seeking to maintain coverage for their children. Most importantly, continuous eligibility can minimize coverage losses among children that occur because families are in financial transition and because recertification requirements impose barriers to continued participation.