Interim data on client service use and outcomes at baseline and after the first 12 months of program participation indicate the following:
- At the time of program entry, CICH clients had been homeless an average of 8 years in their lifetimes, 72 percent had substance abuse problems, 76 percent had mental health problems, and 66 percent reported medical problems. Thirty percent (220) of the sample of 734 evaluation participants were veterans.
- A summary measure of service use (any amount of use of each of the six core services was counted as "yes" versus "no" for nonuse) indicated that the proportion of the six services received by each client rose from 64 percent at baseline to 78-81 percent during the following 12 months suggesting that clients remained engaged in most aspects of the CICH intervention during their first year in the program.
- The average number of days that CICH clients were housed in the previous 90 days increased over time. At baseline, the average was 18 days of the previous 90 days; at the 3 month follow-up, the average was 68 days of the previous 90 days; and at the 12 month follow-up, the average was 83 days of the previous 90 days. Although the CICH clients did not stay the full 90 days (of the previous 90 days) at any of these measurement intervals, this data suggests increasing stability over time.
- The mean monthly public assistance income of the CICH clients increased steadily from $316 at baseline to $478 at 1 year, a 50% increase.
- Although statistically significant, improvements of a modest magnitude of the CICH clients were observed in overall quality of life, mental health functioning, and reduced psychological stress.
- Total quarterly health costs per CICH client declined by 50%, from $6,832 at baseline to $3,376 at 12 months.
- The alcohol and drug problems of CICH clients remained largely unchanged over time.
- Improved coordination of services and positive relationships between CICH clients and their primary mental health/substance abuse practitioners were the strongest predictors of positive client outcomes.
- Comparisons of overall group differences and rates of change between CICH clients and a similar comparison group of homeless clients (N=118) who received some lesser combination of housing and services (i.e., usually available) than the CICH clients provided evidence that the CICH increased access to housing, physical health and mental health care, and community-based case management resulting in a more integrated package of services.