1. Based on Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) data. Data link administrative records for workers and firms longitudinally. Data covered 9 states and over half of the labor market at time of study. Low wage defined as less than $12,000 annually for two consecutive years. TANF receipt identified in 1999 and unknown thereafter.
2. Wage premiums are above the going wage for a particular skill level. Reasons may include unionization, a preference to retain workers once they are trained, or tough working conditions that make recruitment difficult.